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MBA英语专业述语汇总IJK

2006-1-25 15:11  

  I

  Import quota进口限额

  A limit on the quantity of a good that can be produced abroad and sold domestically

  Imports进口

  Goods and services that are produced abroad and sold domestically

  In-kind transfers实物转移支付

  Transfers to the poor given in the form of goods and services rather than cash

  Income effect收入效应

  The change in consumption that results when a price change moves the consumer to a higher or lower indifference curve

  Income elasticity of demand需求收入弹性

  A measure of how much the quantity demanded of a good responds to a change in consumers income, computed as the percentage change in quantity demanded divided by the percentage change in income

  Indexation指数化

  The automatic correction of a dollar figure for the effects of inflation by law or contract

  Indifference curves无差异曲线

  Curves that show consumption bundles that give the consumer the same level of satisfaction A good for which an increase in income reduces the quantity demanded

  Inferior good低档商品

  A good for which, other things being equal, an increase in income leads to a decrease in quantity demanded

  Inflation通货膨胀

  An increase in the overall level of prices in the economy

  Inflation rate通货膨胀率

  The percentage change in the price index from the preceding period

  Internalizing an externality外部性的内在化

  Altering incentives so that people take account of the external effects of their actions

  Investment投资

  Spending on capital equipment, inventories, and structures, including household purchases of new housing

  imperfect competition不完全竞争

  any market structure in which there is some competition but firms face downward-sloping demand curves

  implicit contract隐含合同

  an unwritten understanding between two groups involved in an exchange, such as an understanding between employer and employees that employees will receive a stable wage throughout fluctuating economic conditions

  import function进口函数

  the relationship between imports and national income

  incomplete markets不完全市场

  situations in which no market may exist for some good or for some risk, or in which some individuals cannot borrow for some purposes

  increasing, constant or diminishing returns to scale规模收益递增/不变/递减

  when all inputs are increased by a certain proportion, output increases by a greater proportion (also known as economies of scale)

  indexing指数化

  the formal linking of any payment to a price index

  individual income tax个人所得税

  a tax based on the income received by any individual or household

  infant industry argument for protection幼稚工业保护论

  the argument that industries must be protected from foreign competition while they are young, until they have a chance to acquire the skills to enable them to compete on equal terms

  infinite elasticity of demand无限需求弹性

  the situation that exists when any amount will be demanded at a particular price, but nothing will be demanded if the price rises even a small amount

  infinite elasticity of supply无限供给弹性

  situation that exists when any amount will be supplied at a particular price, but nothing will be supplied if the price falls even a small amount

  inflation tax通货膨胀税

  the decrease in buying power (wealth) that inflation imposes on those who hold currency (and other assets, like bonds, the payments for which are fixed in terms of dollars)

  inflationary spiral通货膨胀螺旋

  a self-perpetuating system in which price increases lead to higher wages, which lead to further price increases

  infrastructure基础设施

  the roads, ports, bridges, and legal system that provide the necessary basis for a working economy

  insider-outsider theory局内人—局外人理论

  the theory that firms are reluctant to pay new workers (outsiders) a lower wage than current workers (insiders), because current workers will fear beingreplaced by the new log-wage workers and will not participate in cooperating with and training them

  interest利息

  the return a saver receives in addition to the original amount she deposited, and the amount that a borrower must pay in addition to the original amount she deposited

  interest rate effect利率效应

  the situation that exists when lower interest rates (resulting from an increase in the money supply, or a fall in the price level) induce firms to invest more

  investment schedule投资曲线

  the relationship between the level of investment and the (real) rate of interest

  investment tax credit (ITC)投资税减免

  a provision of the tax code in which the government reduces a companys tax bill by an amount equal to a percentage of its spending on investment

  involuntary unemployment非自愿失业

  the situation that occurs when the supply of those willing to work at the going market wage exceeds the demand for labor

  J

  Job search寻找工作

  The process by which workers find appropriate jobs given their tastes and skills

  K

  Keynesian monetary theory凯恩斯货币理论

  Keynesian unemployment凯恩斯失业

  unemployment that occurs as a result of insufficient aggregate demand; it arises in the demand-constrained equilibrium (where aggregate demand is less than aggregate supply), so that rightward shifts in aggregate demand reduce the level of unemployment

  kinked demand curve有折点的需求曲线

  the demand curve perceived by an oligopolist who believes that rivals will match any price cuts but will not match price increases

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