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MBA英语专业述语汇总FGH

2006-1-25 15:11  

  F

  Factors of production生产要素

  The inputs used to produce goods and services

  Federal Reserve (Fed)联邦储备

  The central bank of the United States

  Fiat money法定货币

  Money without intrinsic value that is used as money because of government decree

  Financial intermediaries金融中介机构

  Financial institutions through which savers can indirectly provide funds to borrowers

  Financial markets金融市场

  Financial institutions through which savers can directly provide funds to borrowers

  Financial system金融体系

  The group of institutions in the economy that help to match one persons saving with another persons investment

  Fisher effect费雪效应

  The one-for-one adjustment of the nominal interest rate to the inflation rate

  Fixed cost固定成本

  Costs that do not vary with the quantity of output produced

  Fractional-reserve banking部分准备金银行体系

  A banking system in which banks hold only a fraction of deposits as reserves

  Free rider搭便车者

  A person who receives the benefit of a good but avoids paying for it

  factor demand要素需求

  the amount of an input demanded by a firm, given the price of the input and the quantity of output being produced; an input will be demanded up to the point where the value of the inputs marginal product equals the price of theinput

  federal government structure联邦政府结构

  a system in which government activity takes place at several levels——national, state, county, city, and others

  firm wealth effect厂商的财富效应

  lower prices or lower demand cause firms profits and net worth to fall, and this makes them less willing to undertake the risks involved with investment

  fiscal policies财政政策

  policies that affect the level of government expenditures and taxes

  fixed exchange rate system固定汇率体系

  an exchange rate system in which the value of each currency is fixed in relationship to other currencies

  flexible exchange rate system浮动汇率体系

  a system in which exchange rates are determined by market forces, the law of supply and demand, without government interference

  fixed or overhead inputs不变投入或分摊投入

  inputs that do not change depending on the quantity of output, at least over the short term

  flow statistics流量统计

  measurements of a certain rate of quantity per period of time, such as GDP, which measures output per year

  full-employment deficit充分就业赤字

  the budget deficit that would have prevailed if the economy were at full employment, thus with higher tax revenues and lower public assistance expenditures

  full-employment output/ potential output充分就业产出或潜在产出

  the level of output that would prevail if labor were fully employed (output may exceed that level if workers work more than the normal level of overtime)

  G

  GDP deflator平减指数

  A measure of the price level calculated as the ratio of nominal GDP to real GDP times 100

  Game theory博弈理论

  The study of how people behave in strategic situations

  Giffen good吉芬物品

  A good for which an increase in the price raises the quantity demanded

  Gross domestic product (GDP)国内生产总值

  The market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period of time

  Gross national product (GNP)国名生产总值

  The market value of all final goods and services produced by permanent residents of a nation within a given period of time

  gains from trade交易所得

  the benefits that each side enjoys from a trade

  GDP per capita人均国内生产总值

  the value of all goods and services produced in the economy divided by population

  general equilibrium analysis一般均衡分析

  a simultaneous analysis of all capital, product, and labor markets throughout the economy

  Gini coefficient基尼系数

  a measure of inequality (equal to twice the area between the 45 degree line and the Lorenz curve)

  green revolution绿色革命

  the invention and dissemination of new seeds and agricultural practices that led to vast increases in agricultural output in LDCs during the 1960s and 1970s

  H

  Horizontal equity横向公平

  The idea that taxpayers with similar abilities to pay taxes should pay the same amount

  Human capital人力资本

  The knowledge and skills that workers acquire through education, training, and experience;The accumulation of investments in people, such as education and on-the-job training

  horizontal integration横向一体化

  the integration of a firm with other firms producing the same product (at the same level of production)

  horizontal merger横向兼并

  a merger between two firms that produce the same goods

  horizontal restrictions横向约束

  restrictions (such as an agreement not to compete in price or to enter each others markets) by competing firms (at the same level of production, for instance, among producers, or among wholesalers, or among retailers)

  hostile takeover恶意收购

  when one management team (one firm) takes over the control of another, against the will of the second firm

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