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英语专业八级考试模拟题8

2006-01-23 00:00

  PART I LISTENING COMPREHENSION

  In Section A, B and C you will hear everything ONLY ONCE. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct response to each question on the Colored Answer Sheet.

  SECTION A    TALK

  Question 1 to 5 refer to the talk in this section. At the end of the talk you will be given 15 seconds to answer each of the following five questions.

  Now listen to the talk.

  1. The sexual harassment of problem of women in Navy was interfered in by ____ in 1987.

  A) the Pentagon

  B) the White House

  C) the Parliament

  D) the Grand Jury

  2. Two recent reports are about problems ____.

  A) in the Pacific region

  B) in the Atlantic region

  C) in Florida and Maryland

  D) in Boston and Hawaii

  3. About ____ of act-duty Naval personnel are now women.

  A) 5%

  B) 10%

  C) 15%

  D) 20%

  4. What happened in the U.S. Naval Academy?

  A) A female midshipman was raped.

  B) A female midshipman was dismissed.

  C) A female midshipman was given a letter of reprimand.

  D) A female midshipman was taken to a man' bathroom.

  5. Which of the following is not suggested in the talk?

  A) There should be more women in the Navy.

  B) There are some old attitudes towards women.

  C) Some senior officer should be blamed.

  D) The punishment for offenders is not severe enough.

  SECTION B INTERVIEW

  Question 6 to 10 are based on an interview. At the end of the interview you will be given 15 seconds to answer each of the following question.

  Now listen to the interview.

  6. Where does the conversation take place?

  A) In a workshop

  B) In a meeting room

  C) In a friend's house

  D) In a pub

  7. Which of the following is not true about Richard?

  A) He is a driver.

  B) He has two kids.

  C) He is now unemployed.

  D) His wife is a secretary.

  8. How much does the manager get a week?

  A) '100.

  B) '66.50.

  C) '44.

  D) '140.

  9. What's the manager's problem?

  A) Work.

  B) House.

  C) Marriage.

  D) Children.

  10. How much does a person get in unemployment benefits?

  A) About '25 a week.

  B) About '35 a week.

  C) About '20 a week.

  D) About '40 a week.

  SECTION D NOTE-TAKING AND GAP-FILLING

  In this section you will hear a mini-lecture. You will hear the lecture ONLY ONCE. While listening to the lecture, take notes on the important points. Your notes will not be marked, but you will need them to complete a 15-minute gap-filling task on ANSWER SHEET ONE after the mini lecture. Use the blank sheet for note-taking.

  ANSWER SHEET ONE

  Fill in each of the gaps with ONE suitable word. You may refer to your notes. Make sure the word you fill in is both grammatically and semantically acceptable.

  The Impact of Technology on Popular Arts in the U.S.

  "Popular" means "(16)" and desirable to large numbers of people, and "art" mean such things as (17), film, poems, and the like. Only since the early nineteenth century has technology been able to provide two necessary factors for the wide (18) arts. To be popular, products must be produced in virtually, (19) numbers at a low cost. And secondly, products must be transmitted to large number of people (20).

  Before about 1830, most printing was done by hand press. The (21) press was invented in about 1830. This press was attached to a steam engine. It could produce thousands of impressions in an hour. At the same time, (22) making process in the early 19th century were improved. People began to use pulp and (23), so that paper became cheaper. Machines were made to gather, back, (24), and sew books together. Meanwhile, methods were developed of (25) and later color-printing processes. All this had great impact on arts.

  16.

  17.

  18.

  19.

  20.

  21.

  22.

  23.

  24.

  25.

  PART II PROOFREADING & ERROR CORRECTION

  The following passage contains ten errors .Each line contains a maximum of one error. In each case only one word is involved. You should proofread the passage and correct it in the following way:

  For a wrong word, underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank provided at the end of the line.

  For a missing word, mark the position of the missing word with a "^" sign and write the word you believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end    of the line.

  For an unnecessary word, cross the unnecessary word with a slash "/" and put the word in the blank provided at the end of the line.

  EXAMPLE

  When ^ art museum wants a new exhibit,

  (1) an

  it (never/) buys things in finished form and hangs

  (2) never

  them on the wall. When a natural history museum

  wants an exhibition, it must often build it.

  (3)exhibit

  Because the air in the country is really clean, we ought to live

  there much as is possible. Since, however, a great deal of the worlds

  (26)

  work must be done indoor in cities, it is important that we take every

  (27)

  precaution to ventilate our houses properly. Some people have

  thought that night air is injurious. But careful study shows that night

  air is identical with that which we breath during the day. In face the

  (28)

  proper ventilation of a bedroom is one of the first necessity for good

  (29)

  health. Since the exhaled air is usually warmer and lighter than the

  inhaled air, it rises to the top of the room. Therefore it is better to

  open a window both at the top to let the warm up air out and also at

  (30)

  the bottom to admit the fresh air in. Of course, this does not mean

  (31)

  that one should sleep in a strong draft. In many places it is feasible to

  sleep out-of-the-doors on a sleeping porch and so to secure perfect

  (32)

  ventilation.

  In recent years we have seen steady progress made in the development

  of equipments to supply proper conditioned air not only in large

  (33)

  auditoriums, class-rooms, and factories, but also in railroad trains

  and in private homes. This equipment cleans the air off dust, keeps

  (34)

  the temperature comfortable, holds the humidity at the right point,

  and keeps the air in the motion. Such a condition is conductive to

  (35)

  efficiency as well as good health.

  26.

  27.

  28.

  29.

  30.

  31.

  32.

  33.

  34.

  35.

  PART III READING COMPREHENSIONS

  In this section there are four reading passages followed by fifteen multiple-choice questions. Read the passages and then mark your answers on your Answer Sheet.

  TEXT A Where Have the Good Jobs Gone? Last years economy should have won the Oscar for best picture. Growth in gross domestic product was 4.1 percent; profits soared; exports flourished; and inflation stayed around 3 percent for the third year. So why did so many Americans give the picture a lousy B rating? The answer is jobs. The macroeconomic situation was good, but the microeconomic numbers were not. Yes, 3 million new jobs were there, but not enough of them were permanent, good jobs paying enough to support a family. Jobs insecurity was rampant. Even as they announced higher sales and profits, corporations acted as if they were in a tailspin, cutting 516, 069 jobs in 1994 alone, almost as many as in the recession year of 1991. Yes, unemployment went down. But over one million workers were so discouraged they left the labor force. More than 6 million who wanted full-time work were only partially employed; and another large group was either overqualified or sheltered behind the euphemism of self-employment. We lost a million good manufacturing jobs between 1990 and 1995, continuing the trend that has reduced the blue-collar work force from about 30 percent in the 1950s to about halt that today. White-collar workers found out they were no longer immune. For the fist time, they were let go in numbers virtually equal to those for blue-collar workers. Many resorted to temporary work-with lower pay, fewer benefits and less status. All this in a country where people meeting for the first time say, "What do you do?" Then there is the matter of remuneration. Whatever happened to wage gains four years into a recovery. The Labor Department recently reported that real wages fell 2.3 percent in the 12-month period ending this March. Since 1973, wages adjusted for inflation have declined by about a quarter for high school dropouts, by a sixth for high school graduates and by about 7 percent for those with some college education. Only the wages of college graduates are up, by 5 percent, and recently starting salaries, even for this group, have not kept up with inflation. While the top 5 percent of the population was setting new income records almost every year, poverty rates rose from 11 percent to 15 percent. No wonder this is beginning to be called the Silent Depression. What is going on here? In previous business cycles, companies with rising productivity raised wages to keep labor. Is the historical link between productivity improvements and income growth severed? Of all the reasons given for the wage squeeze —— international competition, technology, deregulation, the decline of unions and defense cuts —— technology is probable the most crucial. It has favored the educated and skilled. Just think that in 1976, 78 percent of auto workers and steelworkers in good mass production jobs were high school dropouts. But these jobs are disappearing fast. Education and job training are what count. These days college graduates can expect to earn 1.9 times the likely earnings of high school graduates, up from 1.45 times in the 1970s. The earning squeeze on middle-class and working-class people and the scarcity of "good, high-paying" jobs will be the big political issue of the 1990s. Americans have so far responded to their falling fortunes by working harder. American males now toil about a week and a half longer than they did in 1973, the first time this century working hours have increased over an extended period of time. Women, particularly in poorer families, are working harder, too. Two-worker families rose by more than 20 percent in the 1980s. Seven million workers hold at least two jobs, the highest proportion in half a century. America is simply not growing fast enough to tighten the labor market and push up real wages. The danger of the information age is that while in the short run it may be cheaper to replace workers with technology, in the long run it is potentially self-destructive because there will not be enough purchasing power to grow the economy. To avoid this dismal prospect, we must get on the virtuous cycle of higher growth and avoid the vicious cycle of retrenchment. Otherwise, an angry, disillusioned and frustrated population —— whose rage today is focused on big government, excess taxes, immigration, welfare and affirmative action —— may someday be brought together by its sense of diminished hopes. Then we will all be in for a very difficult time.

  36. How many people were partially employed last year?

  A) 1 million.

  B) 3 million.

  C) 6 million.

  D) 7 million.

  37. What are the reasons for cut for wages?

  A) Deregulation, fierce competition, technology.

  B) International competition, technology, decline of unions, defense cuts, deregulation.

  C) Loss of manufacturing jobs, international competition, productivity improvements, deregulation.

  D) Productivity improvement, rise of poverty rates, international competition, technology.

  38. The scarcity of good jobs in American is because of ____.

  A) the vicious cycle of retrenchment

  B) the failure of the government to tighten the labor market

  C) the threat of information age

  D) All of above

  TEXT B Adam Smith and His "Invisible Hand" Theory   Adam Smith, the Scottish professor of moral philosophy, was thrilled by his recognition of order in the economic system. His book, the Wealth of Nations (1776), is the germinal book in the field of economics which earned him the title "the father of economics".   In Smiths view, a nations wealth was dependent upon production, not agriculture alone. How much it produced, he believed, depended upon how well it combined labor and the other factors of production. The more efficient the combination, the greater the output, and the greater the nations wealth.   The essence of Smiths economic philosophy was his belief that an economy would work best if left to function on its own without government regulation. In those circumstances, self-interest would lead business firms to produce only those products that consumers wanted, and to produce them at the lowest possible cost. They would do this, not as a means of benefiting society, but in an effort to outperform their competitors and gain the greatest profit. But all this self interest would benefit society as a whole by providing it with more and better goods and service, at the lowest prices.   Smith said in his book: "Every individual endeavors to employ his capital so that its produce may be of greatest value. He generally neither intends to promote the public interest, nor knows how much he is promoting it. He intends only his own security, only his gain. And he is in this led by an invisible hand to promote that which was no part of his intention. By pursuing his own interest he frequently promotes that of society more effectually than when he really intends to promote."   The "invisible hand" was Smiths name for the economic forces that we today would call supply and demand, Smith agreed with the physiocrats and their policy of "laissez faire", letting individuals and businesses function without interference from government regulation. In that way the "invisible hand" would be free to guide the economy and maximize production."   Smith was very critical of monopolies which restricted the competition that he saw as vital for economic prosperity. He recognized that the virtues of the market mechanism are fully realized only when the checks and balances of perfect competition are present. Perfect competition refers to a market in which no firm or consumer is large enough to affect the market price. The invisible hand theory is about economies in which all the markets are perfectly competitive. In such circumstances, markets will produce an efficient allocation of resources, so that an economy is on its production-possibility frontier. When all industries are subject to the checks and balances of perfect competition, markets can produce an efficient bundle of products with the most efficient techniques and using the minimum against amount of inputs. But when monopolies become pervasive, the remarkable efficiency properties of the invisible economic philosophy?

  39. What is the pith of Adam Smith's economic philosophy?

  A) Self-interest is the life-line of economic activities.

  B) Government shouldn't intervene in the economy.

  C) Competition will benefit the society for consumers' needs are tended.

  D) Economic forces should be intended to promote public interest.

  40. What does the "invisible hand" refer to?

  A) Supply and demand.

  B) Laissez faire.

  C) Self-interest.

  D) Market mechanism.

  41. In Smith's view, monopolies ____.

  A) will lead the economy to cessation

  B) can hardly realize the checks and balances of competition

  C) may bring about a vicious circle of high production and low demand

  D) both A and B

  42. It can be inferred from the text that ____.

  A) an efficiency allocation of resources can only be achieved in a free market

  B) perfect competition can be realized in a free market

  C) self-interest can help to maximize production and minimize inputs

  D) both A and B

  TEXT C Is Mathematics an Art?   What, can rigid, cold calculating mathematics possibly have in common with subtle, creative, lofty, imaginative art? This question faithfully mirrors the state of mind of most people, even of most educated people, when they regard the numbers and symbols that populate the world of mathematics. But the great leaders of mathematics thought have frequently and repeatedly asserted that the object of their pursuit is just as much an art as it is a science, and perhaps even a fine art.   Maxime Bocher, and eminent mathematician living at the beginning of this century, wrote: "I like to look at mathematics almost more as an art than as a science; for the activity of the mathematician, constantly creating as he is, guided although not controlled by the external world of the senses, bears a resemblance, not fanciful, I believe, but real, to the activities of the artist —— of a painter, let us say. Rigorous deductive reasoning on the part of the mathematician may be likened here to the technical skill in drawing on the part of the painter. Just as one cannot become a painter without a certain amount of skill, so no one can become a mathematician without the power to reason accurately up to a certain point.   "Yet these qualities, fundamental though they are, do not make a painter or a mathematician worthy of the name, nor indeed are they the most important factors in the case. Other qualities of a far more subtle sort, chief among which in both cases is imagination, go into the making of a good artist or a good mathematician."   If mathematics wants to lay claim to being an art, however, it most show that it possesses and makes use of at least some of the elements that go to make up the things of beauty. Is not imagination, creative imagination, the most essential elements of an art? Let us take a geometric object, such as the circle. To the ordinary man, this is the rim of a wheel, perhaps with spokes in it. Elementary geometry has crowded this simple figure with radii, chords, sectors, tangents, diameters, inscribed and circumscribed polygons, and so on.   Here you have already an entire geometrical world created from a very rudimentary beginning. These and other miracles are undeniable proof of the creative power of the mathematician; and, as if this were not enough, the mathematician allows the whole circle to "vanish", declares it to be imaginary, then keeps on toying with his new creation in much the same way and with much the same gusto as he did with the innocent little thing you allowed him to start out with. And all this, remember please, is just elementary plane geometry. Truly, the creative imagination displayed by the mathematician has nowhere been exceeded, not even paralleled, and, I would make bold to say, now even closely approached anywhere else.   In many ways mathematics exhibits the same elements of beauty that are generally acknowledged to be the essence of poetry. First let us consider a minor point: the poet arranges his writings on the page in verses. His poem first appeals to the eye before it reaches the ear or the mind; and similarly, the mathematician lines up his formulas and equations so that their form may make an aesthetic impression. Some mathematicians are given to this love of arranging and exhibiting their equations to a degree that borders on a fault. Trigonometry, a branch of elementary mathematics particularly rich in formulas, offers some curious groups of them, curious in their symmetry and their arrangement:   sin (a+b) = sin a cos b + cos a sin b cos (a+b) = cos a cos b - sin a sin b sin (a-b) = sin a cos b - cos a sin b cos (a-b) = cos a cos b + sin a sin b   The superiority of poetry over other forms of verbal expression lies first in the symbolism used in poetry, and secondly in its extreme condensation and economy of words. Take a poem of universally acknowledged merit, say, Shelleys poem "To Night". Here is the second stanza: Wrap thy form in a mantle gray, star-in wrought! Blind with thine hair the eyes of Day; Kiss her until she be wearied out; Then wander oer city, and sea, and land, Touching all with thine opiate wand —— Come, long-sought!   Taken literally, all this is, of course, sheer nonsense and nothing else. Night has no hair, night does not wear any clothes, and night is not an illicit peddler of narcotics. But is there anybody balmy enough to take the words of the poet literally? The words here are only comparisons, only symbols. For the sake of condensation the poet doesnt bother stating that his symbols mean such and such, but goes on to treat them as if they were realities.   The mathematician does these things precisely as the poet does. Take numbers, for example, the very idea of which is an abstraction, or symbol. When you write the figure 3, you have created a symbol for a symbol, and when you say in algebra that a is a number, you have condensed all the symbols for all the numbers into one all-embracing symbol. These, like other mathematical symbols, and like the poets symbols, are a condensed, concentrated way of stating a long and rather complicated chain of simple geometrical, algebraic, or numerical relations.   Another avenue by which mathematics approaches the arts is the care of exercises in regard to technique of execution. You do not enjoy a poem that is strained on the choice of words, where the rhymes are forced, a poem that bears on its face the marks of labor of the poet. Of course, we all know the stories of poem, with every line of the poem. But the result must be such that those labors are hidden behind an appearance of effortless ease, for it is only then you will grant that the poem is beautiful. The same is true in music, where we are quite apt to enjoy a rather mediocre piece if it presents considerable technical difficulties and the performer can make it look simple. Mathematicians are just as exacting with their technique of execution as any poet or artist; they are constantly preoccupied with the elegance of their proofs or the solutions of their problems. Any mathematician will instantly assign any of his proofs to the scrapheap if he can think of another way to get the same result with less apparent effort, with the accent on "apparent". He does not hesitate to spend a great deal of extra time on the solutions; and when he succeeds, when he has found this simplicity, he has the artistic satisfaction of having brought forth an elegant solution. Nor is this effort limited to the individual; mathematicians as professionals are always at work making the exposition of their science aesthetically more satisfying.   The success they achieve in this labor is often remarkable. Some of the results that the original discovers have obtained in the most laborious way, making use of the most advanced and complicated branches of the science, may become, with a generation or two, very simple, very elegant, and based on almost elementary considerations. The beauty of this new way of execution becomes then the joy and the pride of the profession.   The mathematician —— and especially the expert in geometry —— is an incorrigible daydreamer. The geometrician, like the poet, needs nothing at all for his work —— no laboratory, no brushes and paints, no studio; nothing but a scrap of paper and a pencil to help out his imagination by a rough and fragmentary sketch of the fleeting and complex creations he allows his imagination to play with, you may accuse both of them of absentmindedness if you wish, but either of them would give up his daydreams for anything the world could offer in exchange. These solitary dreams, these soaring flights of the excited imagination, make the geometrician, like the poet, obvious to everything around him, forgetful of his duties, his friends, his own self, but they are to him the most cherished happenings, the most precious moments of life. Are they art?

  43. In the writer's opinion, what is the most fundamental element that makes a good artist or mathematician?

  A) Numerical skills.

  B) Imagination.

  C) Creation.

  D) Sense of beauty.

  44. In what way do mathematicians exhibit the same elements of beauty as poet?

  A) Mathematicians would like to spare no effort to make their proofs elegant.

  B) Mathematicians love to arrange their formulas and equations so that they take a beautiful form.

  C) Mathematicians often arrange their formulas and equations in symmetry.

  D) Both B and C

  45. Poetry is superior to other forms of expression for its ____.

  A) unusual diction

  B) imaginative expression

  C) symbolism, condensation and economy of words

  D) condensation and imaginative diction

  TEXT D Frustration and Displacement   In 1948, Seattle authorities feared that a race riot would break out in a run-down housing area. A thousand families —— 300 of them black —— were jammed into temporary barracks built for war workers. Tension was in the air, rumors rife, a stabbing reported. The University of Washington, called on for advice, rushed 25 trained interviewers to the scene.   The interviewers went from door to door, trying to discover the extent of racial hatred. They were surprised to find very little. Ninety percent of the whites and blacks interviewed said that they felt "about the same" of "more friendly" toward the other group since moving into the area. What, then, was eating them?   These families were angry about the ramshackle buildings, the back-firing kitchen stoves and the terrible roads inside the property. Many were worried about a strike at Boeing Airplane Co. In short, a series of frustrations from other causes had infected the whole community, and could have resulted in a race riot.   Fast work by the authorities staved off this disaster. Once the true causes were discovered, buildings were repaired, new equipment installed, the roads improved. The crisis passed.   This case is a dramatic application of a challenging theory about human behavior exhaustively demonstrated by a group of Yale scientists in an old book, Frustration and Aggression, which has become a classic. Since reading it some years ago, I have met many of my personal problems with better understanding, and gained fresh insight into some big public questions as well.   A common result of being frustrated, the Yale investigator have shown, is an act of aggression, sometimes violent. To be alive is to have a goal and pursue it —— anything from cleaning the house, or planning a vacation, to saving money for retirement. If someone or something blocks goal, we begin to feel pent up and thwarted. Then we get mad. The blocked goal, the sense of frustration, aggression action —— this is the normal human sequence. If we are aware of what is going on inside us, however, we can save ourselves a good deal of needless pain and trouble.   Everyone has encountered frustration on the highways. You are driving along a two-lane road behind a big trailer-truck. Youre in a hurry, while the truck driver seems to be enjoying the scenery. After miles of increasing frustration you grow to hate him. Finally you step on the gas and pass him defiantly, regardless of the chance you may be taking. This kind of frustration must cause thousands of accidents a year. Yet, if you realized what was going on in your nervous system, you could curb such dangerous impulses.   The aggressive act that frustration produces may take a number of forms. It may be turned inward against oneself, with suicide as the extreme example. It my hit back directly at the person or thing causing the frustration. Or it may be transferred to another object —— what psychologists call displacement. Displacement can be directed against the dog, the parlor furniture, the family or even total strangers.   A man rushed out of his front door in Brooklyn one fine spring morning and punched a passerby on the nose. In court he testified that he had had a quarrel with his wife. Instead of punching her he had the bad luck to punch a police detective.   Aggression is not always sudden and violent; it may be devious and calculated. The spreading of rumors, malicious gossip, a deliberate plot to discredit, are some of the roundabout forms. In some cases frustration leads to the opposite of aggression, a complete retreat from life.   The classic pattern of frustration and aggression is nowhere better demonstrated than in military life. GIs studied by the noted American sociologist Samuel A. Stouffer in the last war were found to be full of frustration due to their sudden loss of civilian liberty. They took it our verbally on the brass, often most unjustly. But in combat, soldiers felt far more friendly toward their officers. Why? Because they could "discharge their aggression directly against the enemy".   Dr. Karl Menninger, of the famous Menninger Foundation at Topeka, pointed out that children in all societies are necessarily frustrated, practically from birth, as they are broken into the customs of the tribe. A babys first major decision is "whether to holler or swaller" —— when it discovers that the two acts cannot be done simultaneously. Children have to be taught habits of cleanliness, toilet behavior, regular feeding, punctuality; habits that too often are hammered in.   Grownups with low boiling points, said Dr. Menninger, probably got that way because of excessive frustration in childhood. We can make growing up a less difficult period by giving children more love and understanding. Parents in less "civilized" societies, Menninger observes, often do this. He quote a Mohave Indian, discussing his small son: "Why should I strike him? He is small, I am big. He cannot hurt me."   When we do experience frustration, there are several things we can do to channel off aggression. First, we can try to remove the cause which is blocking our goal. An individual may be able to change his foreman, even his job or his residence, if the frustration is a continuing one.   If this cannot be done, then we can seek harmless displacements. Physical outlets are the most immediately helpful. Go out in the garden and dig like fury. Or take a long walk, punch a bag in the gym, make the pins fly in a bowling alley, cut down a tree. The late Richard C. Tolman, a great physicist, once told me that he continued tennis into his 60s because he followed it so helpful in working off aggressions.   As a writer I receive pan letters as well as fan letters, and some of them leave me baffled and furious. (Some, I must admit, are justified.) Instead of taking it out on the family, I write the critic the nastiest reply I can contrive. That makes me feel a lot better. Next morning I read it over with renewed satisfaction. Then I tear it up and throw it in the wastebasket. Aggression gone, nobody hurt.   But perhaps the best way of all to displace aggressive feelings is by hard, useful work. If both body and mind can be engaged, so much the better.   The world is filled today with a great surplus of anger and conflict. We are far from knowing all about the sources of these destructive feelings, but scientists have learned enough to clear up quite a load of misery. Their findings can help us reduce that load and even utilize its energy, through a better understanding of ourselves and our neighbors.

  46. According to the Yale investigators, if a person feel frustrated, he will ____.

  A) try to remove the obstacle on his way by all means

  B) find an outlet for his rancor

  C) take aggressive or even violent acts

  D) indulge in despair to some extent

  47. The aggressive acts usually take the following forms except ____.

  A) hurting oneself

  B) suicide

  C) hitting back directly

  D) displacement

  48. Why were GIs much more friendly towards their officers in combats according to Stouffer?

  A) Because they were afraid their officers might order them to assume dangerous tasks.

  B) Because they could release their pent up frustration against the enemy.

  C) Because they were more like equals and friends in face of enemy.

  D) All of the above.

  49. Why are some adults easy to lost their temper according to Dr. Menninger?

  A) They probably grow up in grim circumstances.

  B) They are born to have a low boiling point.

  C) They probably grow up from families where love and understanding is lacking.

  D) They may have received undue frustrations in childhood.

  50. What is the best way suggested by the author to discard aggressive feelings?

  A) Be more understanding and considerate.

  B) Care more about others.

  C) Cultivate one's character and widen one's interests.

  D) Engage in hard work to forget one's troubles.

  SECTION B SKIMMING AND SCANNING

  In this section there are seven passage followed by ten multiple-choice questions. Skim or scan them as required and then mark your answers on your Answer Sheet.

  TEXT E First read the question. 51. The main theme of this passage is that ____. A. Asia has come out of the economic slump B. old rivals renew between Singapore and Hong Kong C. Singapore competes against Hong Kong in economy D. Singapore and Hong Kong strive for Asias top business and financial center Now go though Text E quickly to answer question 51. Singapore —— As Asia starts shaking off a two-year economic slump, Singapore and Hong Kong are reviving up their old rivalry to become Asias top business and financial hub.   Many claim Hong Kong has an overwhelming built-in advantage, with an economy twice as big as Singapores and the mammoth Chinese mainland market next door. But others insist that clever micromanagement by Singapores government gives this city the edge.   "I really enjoy the working environment here in Singapore. It is effective," said Tobias Pelzer, Singapore managing director for the German software firm Netlife, which made the city-state its Asian headquarters last year.   "I got off the plane here once as the first or second person. I came to the belt and my suitcase was there. How do they manage that?" Pelzer said.   Singapore leaders say such efficiency come largely from strict regulations. They pervade nearly every aspect of Singapore society.   In Hong Kong it is a different story.   "This is such a cowboy town. I could probably print up business cards labeling myself as a brain surgeon and talk my way into an operating room," said Mike Carlson, managing editor of the Hong Kong lifestyle weekly HK Magazine.   Carlson, who has lived in both cities, said Hong Kongs grimy bustle and cramped living conditions sometime leave him pining for Singapores cleaner air, cheaper rents and elegant street side cafes.   Hong Kong residents tend to shun the red tape and social controls that are a way of life in Singapore.   Thousands of small entrepreneurs find it easier to flourish in hands-off Hong Kong and this draws in banks, telecommunications firms and other big service providers, said Michael Enright, an economist at Hong Kong University.   "Lots of HK firms have no fixed assets other than a cellular phone. You go in the morning and youre registered as a company by afternoon," Enright said. Hong Kongs tax rate is fixed at 16 percent. Singapores is 26 percent. But Singapore selectively huge tax cuts to companies that locate their headquarters on the island.   With the worst of Asias crisis apparently past, both cities are showing signs of reheating their competition.   Singapore is cautiously letting foreign competitors into its banking and telecommunications sectors, and establishing a billion-dollar fund as seed money for high-tech entrepreneurs.   Hong Kong is converting its taxis to burn liquefied petroleum gas to fight worsening pollution, and is holding talks with Walt Disney Co about building a theme park. It also set up its own multimillion-dollar fund for high-tech firms.

  51. The main theme of this passage is that ____.

  A) Asia has come out of the economic slump

  B) old rivals renew between Singapore and Hong Kong

  C) Singapore competes against Hong Kong in economy

  D) Singapore and Hong Kong strive for Asia's top business and financial center

  TEXT F First read the questions. 52. The primary purpose of this passage is ____. A. to trace out the development of universities in United States B. to compare American universities with European universities before the turn of the century C. to criticize the conditions of American universities in the 19th century D. to describe and explain the upheaval in American higher education in the later 1800s 53. Which of the following is NOT a new course opened up according to the passage? A. The history of the fine arts. B. Advanced Spanish. C. Classical Philology. D. Classical Literature. Now go through TEXT F quickly to answer question 52 and 53. To produce the upheaval in the United States that changed and modernized the domain of higher education from the mid-1860s to the mid-1880s, three primary causes interacted. The emergence of a half-dozen leaders in education provided the personal force that was needed. Moreover, an outcry for a fresher, more practical, and more advanced kind of instruction arose among the alumni and friends of nearly all of the old colleges and grew into a movement that overrode all conservative opposition. The aggressive "Young Yale" movement appeared, demanding partial alumni control, a more simultaneously rallied to relieve the colleges poverty and demand new enterprise. Education was pushing toward higher standards in the East by throwing off church leadership everywhere, and in the West by finding a wider range of studies and a new sense of public duty.   The old-style classical education received its most crushing blow in the citadel of Harvard College, where Dr. Charles Eliot, a young captain of thirty-five, son of a former treasure of Harvard, led the progressive forces. Five revolutionary advances were made during the first years of Dr. Eliot administration. They were the elevation and amplification of entrance requirements, the enlargement of the curriculum and the development of the elective system, the recognition of graduate study in the liberal arts, the raising of professional training in law, medicine and engineering to a postgraduate level, and the fostering of greater maturity in student life. Standards of admission were sharply advanced in 1872-1873 and 1876-1877. By the appointment of a dean to take charge of student affairs, and a wise handling of discipline, the undergraduates were led to regard themselves more as young gentlemen and less as young animals. One new course of study after another was opened up —— science, music, the history of the fine arts, advanced Spanish, political economy, physics, classical philology, and international law.

  52. The primary purpose of this passage is ____.

  A) to trace out the development of universities in United States

  B) to compare American universities with European universities before the turn of the century

  C) to criticize the conditions of American universities in the 19th century

  D) to describe and explain the upheaval in American higher education in the later 1800's

  53. Which of the following is NOT a new course opened up according to the passage?

  A) The history of the fine arts.

  B) Advanced Spanish.

  C) Classical Philology.

  D) Classical Literature.

  TEXT G First read the question. 54. The writer of this letter ____. A. makes a complaint and demands the company to finish the work to his satisfaction B. requires the company to compensate for his losses C. attempts to sign a contract with the company for the installation of dry walls D. tries to persuade Mr. Black into reinstalling the walls Now go through TEXT G quickly to answer question 54.   Dear Mr. Blank: Last October I signed a contract with your company for the installation of dry walls and the renovation of a bathroom in my home at the above address. I am now appealing to you to have this work completed in a satisfactory manner.   I have spoken to your Quincy, Mass, store manager on several occasions, to the plumbing department manager, to your maintenance people, and to anyone else who seemed to be in a position to assist in completing the work. I have received considerate responses followed by service people trying to do the necessary work.   Nevertheless, I have had expensive broadloom rugs badly stained; I have had water pour through my kitchen ceiling at least six times after your people left my home with everything supposedly in order; and I now again have leaks, grout falling out, and other defects.   I have experienced nothing but trouble with your workmanship and materials from the outlet. I will illustrate with details —— an incomplete list —— which your records should confirm.   1. An expensive vanity was delivered with doors assembled upside down and doors catches not functioning properly.   2. The dry wall work was left in such rough condition that your installers had to return several times. In some areas sanding was overlooked; in others, dry wall taping was not used, and molding was left incomplete. (The next few paragraphs listed additional defects.)   Mr. Blank, I had your service people come to the house at least six were denials of responsibility. Children were blamed, etc. And in each case, it was finally established that the installation was faulty. At this writing, water is again leaking to the floor below when the shower is used.   Frankly, I believe I have reached the point of no return in dealing with your local staff.   I now want to have my bathroom completed in a workmanlike manner, even if it means removing the entire installation. In the event that any removal is necessary, I will not accept a patched-up finish.   For a job that costs about 2500, your performance has been outrageously bad. I expect the courtesy of a prompt reply from you, and the necessary inspections and corrections from qualified personnel.   Sincerely yours, Howard Gerber

  54. The writer of this letter ____.

  A) makes a complaint and demands the company to finish the work to his satisfaction

  B) requires the company to compensate for his losses

  C) attempts to sign a contract with the company for the installation of dry walls

  D) tries to persuade Mr. Black into reinstalling the walls

  TEXT H First read the questions. 55. What made the mass production of automobiles possible? A. Standardization of parts. B. The idea of assembly line. C. Standardization of parts and assembly line. D. The revolutionary rise of workers wages. 56. Why do some Americans consider the automobiles as a mixed blessing? A. The automobile provides much convenience and people cant live without it. B. Despite its advantages and conveniences, man have to tackle its severe consequences such as traffic accidents, air pollution, etc. C. The automobile is convenient but inconsiderable in peoples lives. D. It is not clearly stated. Now go through TEXT H quickly to answer question 55 and 56.   America on Wheels   Early automobiles were sometimes only "horseless carriages" powered by gasoline or steam engines. Some of them were so noisy that cities often made laws forbidding their use because they frightened horses.   Many countries helped to develop the automobiles. The internal-combustion engine was required in Austria, and France was an early leader in automobile manufacturing. But it was in the United States after 1900 that the automobiles was improved most rapidly. As a large and growing country, the United States needed cars and trucks transportation in places not served by trains.   Two brilliant ideas made possible the mass production of automobiles. An American inventor named Eli Whitney thought of one of them, which is known as "standardization of parts." In an effort to speed up production in his gun factory, Whitney decided that each part of a gun could be made by machines so that it would be exactly like all the others of its kind. For example, each trigger would be exactly like all other triggers. A broken trigger could then be replaced immediately by an identical one. After Whitneys idea was applied to automobile production, each part no longer had to be made by hand. Machines were developed that could produce hundreds, even thousands, of identical parts that would fit into place easily and quickly.   Another American, Henry Ford, developed the idea of the assembly line. Before Ford introduced the assembly line, each car was built by hand. Such a process was, of course, very slow. As a result, automobiles were so expensive that only rich people could afford them. Ford proposed a system in which each worker would have a special job to do. One person for example, would make only a portion of the wheels. Another would place the wheels on the car. And still another would insert the bolts that held the wheels to the car. Each worker needed to learn only one or two routine tasks.   But the really important part of Fords idea was to bring the work to the worker. An automobile frame, which looks like a steel skeleton, was put on a moving platform. As the frame moved past the workers, each worker could attach a single part. When the car reached the end of the line, it was completely assembled. Oil, gasoline, and water were added, and the car was ready to be driven away. With the increased production made possible by the assembly line, automobiles became much cheaper, and more people were able to afford them.   Today it can be said that wheels rum America. The four rubber tires of the automobile move America through work and play. Wheels spin, and people drive off to their jobs. Tires turn, and people shop for the weeks food at the big supermarket down the highway. Hubcaps whirl, and the whole family spends a day at the lake. Each year more wheels crowd the highways as 10 million new cars roll out of the factories. One out of every six American works at assembling cars, driving trucks, building roads, or pumping gas. America without cars? Its unthinkable.   But even though the majority of Americans would find it hard to imagine what life could be like without a car, some have begun to realize that the automobile is a mixed blessing. Traffic accidents are increasing steadily, and large cities are plagued by traffic congestion. Worst of all, perhaps, is the air pollution caused by the internal-combustion engine. Every car engine burns hundreds of gallons of fuel each year and pumps hundreds of pounds of carbon monoxide and other gases into the air. These gases are one source of the smog that hangs over large cities. Some of these gases are poisonous and dangerous to health, especially for someone with a weak heart or a respiratory disease.   One answer to the problem of air pollution is to build a car that does not pollute. Thats what several major automobile manufacturers are trying to do. But building a clean car is easier said than done. So far, progress has been slow. Another solution is to eliminate car fumes altogether by getting rid of the internal-combustion engine. Inventors are now working on turbine-powered cars, as well as on cars powered by steam and electricity. But most of us wont be driving cars run on batteries on boiling water for a while yet. Many auto makers believe that it will take years to develop practical models that are powered by electricity or steam.   To rid the world of pollution —— pollution caused not just by cars, but by all of modern industrial life —— many people believe we must make some fundamental changes in the way many of us live. Americans may, for example, have to cut down on the number of privately owned cars and depend more on public mass transit systems. Certainly the extensive use of new transit systems could cut down on traffic congestion and air pollution. But these changes do not come easily. Sometimes they clash head on with other urgent problems. For example, if a factory closes down because it cannot meet government pollution standards, a large number of workers suddenly find themselves without jobs. Questioning the quality of the air they breathe becomes less important than worrying about the next paycheck.   But drastic action must be taken if we are to reduce traffic accidents, traffic congestion, and air pollution. While wheels have brought better and more convenient transportation, they have also brought new and unforeseen problems. Progress, it turned out, has more than one face.

  55. What made the mass production of automobiles possible?

  A) Standardization of parts.

  B) The idea of assembly line.

  C) Standardization of parts and assembly line.

  D) The revolutionary rise of workers' wages.

  56. Why do some Americans consider the automobiles as a mixed blessing?

  A) The automobile provides much convenience and people can't live without it.

  B) Despite its advantages and conveniences, man have to tackle its severe consequences such as traffic accidents, air pollution, etc.

  C) The automobile is convenient but inconsiderable in people's lives.

  D) It is not clearly stated.

  TEXT I First read the question. 57. The writer gives us suggestions on ____. A. how to relax in a crowd B. how to present oneself before a crowd C. how to tackle touchy problems in stressful situations D. how to establish good relationship with strangers Now go through TEXT I quickly to answer question 57.   Recently I was invited to lecture on anxiety to several hundred mental-health professionals. My talk was scheduled to follow those of a number of prominent psychiatrists. When my turn came, I was especially nervous because the speaker before me had been particularly impressive and charming. As I approached the podium, my heart pounded and my mouth went completely dry. What am I doing here? I asked myself.   Making matters worse, my presentation partly dealt with fear of public speaking. To calm myself, I tried an unconventional tactic. I asked the audience, "How many of you feel nervous when you give a speech?" Nearly every hand went up. "Well, thats exactly how I feel right now!"   The audience responded with laughter. I relaxed and was able to move into my presentation.   At times, we all find ourselves in situations that make us nervous. Perhaps youre afraid of saying foolish things at a cocktail party, stumbling over a presentation at work or having your mind go blank on a test.   For some of us, the anxiety is so severe that it is incapacitating. And nearly everyone has experienced mild forms of social anxiety.   Over the years, my work with hundreds of patients has taught me that anyone can increase his or her social confidence, even in the most stressful situations. Here are a few simple but helpful tips: 1. Take off the false front. When my wife and I moved into a new neighborhood, our daughter began playing with a girl who lived nearby in a mansion. One night, clad in jeans and an old T-shirt, I stopped by to pick up my daughter. Sue, the friends mother, who was dressed like a model out of Vogue, invited me into a large hallway filled with expensive antiques and oil paintings. It was like a museum.   I felt very awkward. Noticing my uneasiness, Sue asked if something was wrong. I had the urge to deny how I felt but instead confessed, "Im not used to being in such a fancy house."   "Why, I didnt think psychiatrists ever felt insecure," she said with a laugh.   I believe my openness made us both feel more comfortable. Denying how I felt would only have added to the tension and made me appear phony. As with the mental-health speech, I was frank about my insecurities. Such frankness is a good way to bring others closer to us.   2. Tackle your fears one step at a time. While affiliated with Pennsylvania State University, psychologist J. Mahoney and gymnastics coach Marshall Avener investigated the impact of anxiety on gymnasts at the 1976 U.S. Olympic Team trials. Who do you think experienced more anxiety before competition —— the athletes who went on to win, or those who ended up losing? The researchers discovered that both groups were equally anxious. What distinguished the winners from the losers was how they coped.   Less successful dwelled on their fears, arousing themselves to state of near panic as they imagined a disastrous performance. The winners typically ignored their anxiety, concentrating instead on what they had to do: Take a deep breath, or now reach up and grip the bar. They controlled their fears by breaking the task down into a series of small steps. This technique will work with virtually anything you have to accomplish.   3. Focus on others. Many of us focused to talk to people in uncomfortable situations. Maybe its your new boss at a company party or your future in-laws. What do you say when your mind does blank?   Make the other person the focus of the conversation. Ask a few questions: "How did you get interested in such-and-such?" or "Will you tell me more about it?"   All most people want is for you to pay attention to them. Psychiatrists and psychologists make handsome livings just by nodding their heads knowingly and asking a few questions. If they can get away with it, so can you.   4. Turn anxiety into energy. Everybody gets nervous before performing in public, whether making a business presentation or acting in a school play. The trick is to let your nerves work for you.   5. Stop comparing yourself. One of our biggest social cripples is the fear of not measuring up. Perhaps you feel you wont impress others because they are more confident , successful, intelligent or attractive than you. Such thinking is wrong-headed. The secret of doing well with others is accepting yourself.

  57. The writer gives us suggestions on ____.

  A) how to relax in a crowd

  B) how to present oneself before a crowd

  C) how to tackle touchy problems in stressful situations

  D) how to establish good relationship with strangers

  TEXT J First read the question.  58. Ghirardelli square is mentioned in the passage to illustrate ____. A. the construction of new buildings to solve the problem of physical decay of old buildings B. the demolition of old buildings to make way for new buildings C. the restoration of old buildings to turn them to commercial purposes D. the tendency to endow old cities new identity and character Now go through TEXT J quickly to answer question 58.   In spite of the wealth of examples of urban architecture in older cities, both in Europe and in the United States, solutions to current problems of the physical decay of cities in the United States have come slowly. The first reaction after the war was to bulldoze and build bright new towers and efficient roadways, but these solutions did not respond to people. By the close of the 1960s it became more common to deal gently with the existing urban fabric and to insert new buildings in such a way as to complement the physical and social environment; in other cases valued buildings have been rehabilitated and returned to economic productivity. A particularly striking example is the rehabilitation of Ghirardelli Square, San Francisco. This hillside mélange of nineteenth-century commercial buildings, clustered around a chocolate plant, was purchased in 1962 by William Roth to forestall wholesale development of the waterfront as a district of high-rent apartment towers. Nearly all of the nineteenth-century buildings were retained and refurbished, and a low arcade was added on the waterside. There are several levels, dotted with kiosks and fountains, which offer varied prospects of San Francisco Bay. Perhaps most telling is the preservation of the huge Ghirardelli sign as an important landmark; it is such improbable, irrational, and cherished idiosyncrasies which give cities identity and character.

  58. Ghirardelli square is mentioned in the passage to illustrate ____.

  A) the construction of new buildings to solve the problem of physical decay of old buildings

  B) the demolition of old buildings to make way for new buildings

  C) the restoration of old buildings to turn them to commercial purposes

  D) the tendency to endow old cities' new identity and character

  TEXT K First read the question.  59. In the writers point of view, man is unique in ____. A. killing members of the same species habitually B. enjoying watching disgusting acts of violence C. gaining pleasure from brutally treating each other D. his savage impulse to torture members of the same species 60. The word "aggression" ____. A. is difficult to define because it covers a great variety of human activities B. is ambiguous because the dividing line between aggression and many other acts is unclear C. is so imprecise that it is pointless to define it D. Both A and B Now go through TEXT K quickly to answer question 59 and 60.   Than man is an aggressive creature will hardly be disputed. With the exception of certain rodents, no other vertebrate habitually destroys members of his own species. No other animal takes positive pleasure in the exercise of cruelty upon another of his own kind. We generally describe the most disgusting examples of mans cruelty as brutal, implying by these adjectives that such behaviors is characteristic of less highly developed animals than ourselves. In truth, however, the extreme of "brutal" behavior are confined to man; and there is no parallel in nature to our savage treatment of each other. The depressing fact is that we are cruelest and most ruthless species that has ever walked the earth; and that, although we may shrink back in horror when we read newspaper or history book of the brutalities committed by man upon man, we know in our hearts that each one of us harbors within himself those same savage impulses which lead to murder, to torture and to war.   To write about human aggression is a difficult task because the term is used so many different senses. Aggression is one of those words which every one knows, but which is nevertheless hard to define. As psychologists use it, it covers a very wide range of human behavior. The red-faced infant squalling for the bottle is being aggressive; and so is the judge who awards a thirty-year sentence for robbery. the guard in a concentration camp who tortures his helpless victim is obviously acting aggressively. Less manifestly, but no less certainly, so is the neglected wife who threatens or attempts suicide in order to regain her husbands affection. When a word becomes so diffusely applied that it is used both of the competitive striving of a footballer and also of the bloody violence of a murderer, it ought either to be dropped or else more closely defined. Aggression is a combine term which is fairly bursting at its junctions. Yet until we can more clearly designate and comprehend the various aspects of human behavior which are subsumed under this head, we cannot discard the concept.   One difficulty is that there is no clear dividing line between those forms of aggression which we all deplore and those which we must not disown if we are to survive. When a child rebels against authority it is being aggressive; but it is also manifesting a drive towards independence which is a necessary and valuable part of growing up. The desire for power has, in extreme form, disastrous aspects which we all acknowledge; but the drive to conquer difficulties, or to gain mastery over the external world underlies the greatest of human achievements. Some writers define aggression as "that response which follows frustration", or as "an act whose goal-response is injury to an organism (or organism surrogate)". In the authors view these definitions impose limits upon the concepts of aggression word is attempting to express. It is worth noticing, for instance, that the words we use to describe intellectual effort are aggressive words. We attack problems, or get our teeth into them. We sharpen our wits, hoping that our mind will develop a keen edge in order that we may better divide a problem into its component parts. Although intellectual tasks are often frustrating, to argue that all intellectual effort is the result of frustration is to impose too negative a coloring upon the positive impulse to comprehend and master the external world.

  59. In the writer's point of view, man is unique in ____.

  A) killing members of the same species habitually

  B) enjoying watching disgusting acts of violence

  C) gaining pleasure from brutally treating each other

  D) his savage impulse to torture members of the same species

  60. The word "aggression" ____.

  A) is difficult to define because it covers a great variety of human activities

  B) is ambiguous because the dividing line between aggression and many other acts is unclear

  C) is so imprecise that it is pointless to define it

  D) Both A and B

  PART IV TRANSLATION

  Translate the following part of the text into English. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.

  可能没有其他地方会比一月份的哈尔滨更寒冷彻骨,但这并不意味着人们会因此只呆在家里不出门。相反,届时会有许多来自世界各地的人们相聚在冰天雪地的哈尔滨,庆祝一年一度的冰雕节。冰雕节与每年的1月5日至2月25日举行,来自世界各地的参赛选手间参加角逐,竞争最佳冰雪艺术奖。入夜,当千万盏闪烁的彩灯照亮冰雕时,五彩缤纷的冰雕显得更加迷人了。

  SECTION B ENGLISH TO CHINESE

  Translate the following underlined part of the text into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.

  Pushed by rural poverty, pulled by the hope of a better life in the cities, tens of millions of country people uproot themselves every year to join the swelling urban slums. The migrants find no houses waiting for them, no water supplies, no sewerage systems, no schools —— and no welcome. They are usually resented by wealthier citizens and ignored, at best, by the authorities. They have to settle on land no one else wants, land that is too wet, too dry, too steep or too polluted for normal habitation. They throw up makeshift hovels, made of whatever they can find —— sticks, fronds, cardboard, tarpaper or petrol tins. If they are lucky, they may use corrugated iron.   Infant morality rates in city slums in Bangladesh are 50 times higher even than in the deprived countryside the migrants left behind; in Manilas slums they are three times higher —— and tuberculosis is nine times more common —— than in the rest of the city. Worldwide, the UN estimates, at least 250 million urban dwellers cannot get safe drinking water and many of those who do, have to rely on standpipes that run for only for a few hours a day. At least 400 million are without latrines for sanitation. By 2000, most children in Third World towns will be born to such desperately poor families. Already more than 100 million homeless children struggle to survive on the streets.

  PART V WRITING

  Directions: For this topic, different people have different ideas. Then whats yours?

  Write an essay of about 300 words within 60 minutes.

  My View on Opportunity In the first paragraph you should present your thesis statement and in the following paragraphs you should support your statement with appropriate details or examples.  Mark will be awarded for content, organization, grammar, and appropriacy. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks.

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