PART I LISTENING COMPREHENSION
Directions: In Sections A, B and C you will hear everything once only. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct response for each question on your Colored Answer Sheet.
SECTION A TALK
Question 1 to 5 refer to the talk in this section. At the end of the talk you will be given 15 seconds to answer each of the following five questions.
Now listen to the talk.
1. The speaker thinks that ____.
A) car causes pollution only in some cities.
B) 60% of the cities are affected by car pollution.
C) 90% of the city residents suffer from car pollution.
D) car is the main contributing factor in polluting air.
2. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a cause of car pollution?
A) Car tyres.
B) Car engines.
C) Car horns.
D) Car brakes.
3. Which of the following is NOT cited as a means to reduce the number of cars?
A) To pass laws to control the use of cars.
B) To improve public transport systems.
C) To increase car tax and car price.
D) To construct effective subway systems.
4. One of the mechanical solutions to car pollution is ____.
A) to change the chemical structure of fuel.
B) to improve on the exhaust pipe.
C) to experiment with new engines.
D) to monitor the amount of chemicals.
5. According to the speaker, a sensible way to solve car pollution is that we should ____.
A) focus on one method only.
B) explore some other alternatives.
C) improve one of the four methods.
D) integrate all of the four methods.
SECTION B INTERVIEW
Question 6 to 10 are based on an interview. At the end of the interview you will be given 15 seconds to answer each of the following question.
Now listen to the interview.
6. The interviewee's first job was with ____.
A) a newspaper.
B) the government.
C) a construction firm.
D) a private company.
7. The interviewee is not self-employed mainly because ____.
A) his wife likes him to work for a firm.
B) he prefers working for the government.
C) self-employed work is very demanding.
D) self-employed work is sometimes insecure.
8. To study architecture in a university one must ____.
A) be interested in arts.
B) study pure science first.
C) get good exam results.
D) be good at drawing.
9. On the subject of drawing the interviewee says that ____.
A) technically speaking artists draw very well.
B) an artist's drawing differs little from an architect's.
C) precision is a vital skill for the architect.
D) architects must be natural artists.
10. The interviewee says that the job of an architect is ____.
A) more theoretical than practical.
B) to produce sturdy, well-designed buildings.
C) more practical than theoretical.
D) to produce attractive, interesting buildings.
SECTION D NOTE-TAKING AND GAP-FILLING
Directions: In this section you will hear a mini-lecture. You will hear the lecture ONLY ONCE. While listening to the lecture, take notes on the important points. Your notes will not be marked, but you will need them to complete a 15-minute gap-filling task on ANSWER SHEET ONE after the mini lecture. Use the blank sheet for note-taking.
ANSWER SHEET ONE
Fill in each of the gaps with ONE suitable word. You may refer to your notes. Make sure the word you fill in is both grammatically and semantically acceptable.
A problem related to the competition for land use is whether crops should be used to produce food or fuel.  areas will be examined in this respect.
Firstly, the problem should be viewed in its  perspective. When oil prices rose sharply in the 1970s, countries had to look for alternatives to solve the resulting crisis.
In developing countries, one of the possible answers to it is to produce alcohol from  material.
This has led to a lot of research in this area particularly in the use of . The use of this material resulted from two economic reasons: a  in its price and low costs.
There are other starchy plants that can be used to produce alcohol, like the sweet  or the cassava plant in tropical regions, and  and sugar beet in non-tropical regions. The problem with these plants is that they are also the peoples staple food in many poor countries.
Therefore, farmers there are faced with a choice: crops for food or for fuel. And farmers naturally go for what is more . As a result, the problems involved are economic in nature, rather than technological. This is my second area under consideration.
Finally, there have already been practical applications of using alcohol for fuel. Basically, they come in two forms of use: pure alcohol as is the case in , and a combination of alcohol and gasoline known as gasohol in Germany.
PART II PROOFREADING & ERROR CORRECTION
Directions: The following passage contains ten errors .Each line contains a maximum of one error. In each case only one word is involved. You should proofread the passage and correct it in the following way:
For a wrong word, underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank provided at the end of the line.
For a missing word, mark the position of the missing word with a "^" sign and write the word you believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end of the line.
For an unnecessary word, cross the unnecessary word with a slash "/" and put the word in the blank provided at the end of the line.
When ^ art museum wants a new exhibit,
it (never/) buys things in finished form and hangs
them on the wall. When a natural history museum
wants an exhibition, it must often build it.
The second most important constituent of the
biosphere is liquid water. This can only exist
in a very narrow range of temperatures, since
water freezes at 0℃ and boils at 100℃. This
is only a tiny range compared with the low temperatures
of some other planets and the hot interior of
the earth, let the temperature of the sun.
As we know, life would only be possible on the face
of a planet had temperatures somewhere within this
The earths supply of water probably remains quite fairly
constant in quantity. A certain number of hydrogen atoms,
which are one of the main constituents of water,
are lost by escaping from the atmosphere to
out space, but they are probably just about replaced by new
water rising away from the depths of the earth during
volcanic action. The total quantity of water is not known,
and it is about enough to cover the surface of the globe
to a depth of about two and three-quarter kms.
Most of it —— 97% —— is in the form of the salt waters of the
oceans. The rest is fresh, but three quarter of this is
in the form of ice at the Poles and on mountains,
and cannot be used by living systems when melted. Of the
remaining fraction, which is somewhat fewer than 1% of the
whole, there is 10-20 times as much stored as underground
water as is actually on the surface. There is also a minor,
but extremely important, fraction of the water supply
which is present as water vapor in the atmosphere.
PART III READING COMPREHENSIONS
Directions: In this section there are four reading passages followed by fifteen multiple-choice questions. Read the passages and then mark your answers on your Answer Sheet.
TEXT A STAYING HEALTHY ON HOLIDAY Do people who choose to go on exotic, far-flung holidays deserve free health advice before they travel? And even if they pay, who ensures that they get good, up-to-date information? Who, for that matter, should collect that information in the first place? For a variety of reasons, travel medicine in Britain is a responsibility nobody wants. As a result, many travelers go abroad ill prepared to avoid serious disease. Why is travel medicine so unloved? Partly theres an identity problem. Because it takes an interest in anything that impinges on the health of travelers, this emerging medical specialism invariably cuts across the traditional disciplines. It delves into everything from seasickness, jet lag and the hazards of camels to malaria and plague. But travel medicine has a more serious obstacle to overcome. Travel clinics are meant to tell people how to avoid ending up dead or in a tropical diseases hospital when they come home. But it is notoriously difficult to get anybody to pay out money for keeping people healthy. Travel medicine has also been colonized by commercial interests —— the vast majority of travel clinics in Britain are run by airlines or travel companies. And while travel concerns are happy to sell profitable injections, they may be less keen to spread bad news about travelers diarrhea in Turkey, or to take the time to spell out preventive measures travelers could take. "The NHS finds it difficult to define travelers health," says Ron Behrens, the only NHS consultant in travel and tropical medicine and director of the travel clinic of the Hospital for Tropical Diseases in London. "Should it come within the NHS or should it be paid for? Its a gray area, and opinion is split. No one seems to have any responsibility for defining its role," he says. To compound its low status in the medical hierarchy, travel medicine has to rely on statistics that are patchy at best. In most cases we just dont know how many Britons contract diseases when abroad. And even if a disease is linked to travel there is rarely any information about where those afflicted went, what they ate, how they behaved, or which vaccinations they had. This shortage of hard facts and figures makes it difficult to give detailed advice to people, information that might even save their lives. A recent leader in the British Medical Journal argued: "Travel medicine will emerge as a credible discipline only if the risks encountered by travelers and the relative benefits of public health interventions are well defined in terms of their relative occurrence, distribution and control." Exactly how much money is wasted by poor travel advice? The real figure is anybodys guess, but it could easily run into millions. Behrens gives one example. Britain spends more than ￡1 million each year just on cholera vaccines that often dont work and so give people a false sense of security: "Information on the prevention and treatment of all forms of diarrhea would be a better priority," he says.
36. Travel medicine in Britain is ____.
A) not something anyone wants to run.
B) the responsibility of the government.
C) administered by private doctors.
D) handled adequately by travel agents.
37. The main interest of travel companies dealing with travel medicine is to ____.
A) prevent people from falling ill.
B) make money out of it.
C) give advice on specific countries.
D) get the government to pay for it.
38. In Behren's opinion the question of who should run travel medicine ____.
A) is for the government to decide.
B) should be left to specialist hospitals.
C) can be left to travel companies.
D) has no clear and simple answer.
39. People will only think better of travel medicine if ____.
A) it is given more resources by the government.
B) more accurate information on its value is available.
C) the government takes over responsibility from the NHS.
D) travelers pay more attention to the advice they get.
TEXT B THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY While the roots of social psychology lie in the intellectual soil of the whole western tradition, its present flowering is recognized to be characteristically an American phenomenon. One reason for the striking upsurge of social psychology in the United States lies in the pragmatic tradition of this country. National emergencies and conditions of social disruption provide special incentive to invent new techniques, and to strike out boldly for solutions to practical social problems. Social psychology began to flourish soon after the First World War. This event, followed by the great depression of the 1930s, by the rise of Hitler, the genocide of Jews, race riots, the Second World War and the atomic threat, stimulated all branches of social science. A special challenge fell to social psychology. The question was asked: How is it possible to preserve the values of freedom and individual rights under condition of mounting social strain and regimentation? Can science help provide an answer? This challenging question led to a burst of creative effort that added much to our understanding of the phenomena of leadership, public opinion, rumor, propaganda, prejudice, attitude change, morale, communication, decision-making, race relations, and conflicts of war. Reviewing the decade that followed World War II, Cartwright  speaks of the "excitement and optimism" of American social psychologists, and notes "the tremendous increase in the total number of people calling themselves social psychologists." Most of these, we may add, show little awareness of the history of their field. Practical and humanitarian motives have always played an important part in the development of social psychology, not only in America but in other lands as well. Yet there have been discordant and dissenting voices. In the opinion of Herbert Spencer in England, of Ludwig Gumplowicz in Austria, and of William Graham Sumner in the United States, it is both futile and dangerous for man to attempt to steer or to speed social change. Social evolution, they argue, requires time and obeys laws beyond the control of man. The only practical service of social science is to warn man not to interfere with the course of nature [or society]. But these authors are in a minority. Most social psychologists share with Comte an optimistic view of mans chances to better his way of life. Has he not already improved his health via biological sciences? Why should he not better his social relationships via social sciences? For the past century this optimistic outlook has persisted in the face of slender accomplishment to date. Human relations seem stubbornly set. Wars have not been abolished, labor troubles have not abated, and racial tensions are still with us. Give us time and give us money for research, the optimists say.
40. Social psychology developed in the USA ____.
A) because its roots are intellectually western in origin.
B) as a direct response to the great depression.
C) to meet the threat of Adolf Hitler and his policy of mass genocide.
D) because of its pragmatic traditions for dealing with social problems.
41. According to the author, social psychology should help man to ____.
A) preserve individual rights.
B) become healthier.
C) be aware of history.
D) improve material welfare.
42. Who believed that man can influence social change for the good of society?
TEXT C GOD AND MY FATHER I thought of God as a strangely emotional being. He was powerful; He was forgiving yet obdurate, full of warmth and affection. Both His wrath and affection were fitful, they came and they went, and I couldnt count on either to continue: although they both always did. In short God was much such a being as my father himself. What was the relation between them, I wondered —— these two puzzling deities? My fathers ideas of religion seemed straightforward and simple. He had noticed when he was a boy that there were buildings called churches; he had accepted them as a natural part of the surroundings in which he had been born. He would never have invented such things himself. Nevertheless they were here. As he grew up he regarded them as unquestioningly as he did banks. They were substantial old structures, they were respectable, decent, and venerable. They were frequented by the right sort of people. Well, that was enough. On the other hand he never allowed churches —— or banks —— to dictate to him. He gave each the respect that was due to it from his point of view; but he also expected from each of them the respect he felt due to him. As to creeds, he knew nothing about them, and cared nothing either; yet he seemed to know which sect he belonged with. It had to be a sect with the minimum of nonsense about it; no total immersion, no exhorters, no holy confession. He would have been a Unitarian, naturally, if hed lived in Boston. Since he was a respectable New Yorker, he belonged in the Episcopal Church. As to living a spiritual life, he never tackled that problem. Some men who accept spiritual beliefs try to live up to them daily; other men who reject such beliefs, try sometimes to smash them. My father would have disagreed with both kinds entirely. He took a more distant attitude. It disgusted him where atheists attacked religion: he thought they were vulgar. But he also objected to having religion make demands upon him —— he felt that religion was too vulgar, when it tried to stir up mens feelings. It had its own proper field of activity, and it was all right there, of course; but there was one place religion should leave alone, and that was a mans soul. He especially loathed any talk of walking hand in hand with his Savior. And if he had ever found the Holy Ghost trying to soften his heart, he would have regarded its behavior as distinctly uncalled for; even ungentlemanly.
43. The writer says his father's idea of religion seemed straightforward and simple because his father ____.
A) had been born in natural surroundings with banks and churches.
B) never really thought of God as having a real existence.
C) regarded religion as acceptable as long as it did not interfere.
D) regarded religion as a way that he could live a spiritual life.
44. The writer's father would probably agree with the statement that ____.
A) both spiritualists and atheists are vulgar.
B) being aware of different creeds is important.
C) religion should expect heart and soul devotion.
D) churches like banks are not to be trusted.
TEXT D ETIQUETTE In sixteenth-century Italy and eighteenth-century France, waning prosperity and increasing social unrest led the ruling families to try to preserve their superiority by withdrawing from the lower and middle classes behind barriers of etiquette. In a prosperous community, on the other hand, polite society soon absorbs the newly rich, and in England there has never been any shortage of books on etiquette for teaching them the manners appropriate to their new way of life. Every code of etiquette has contained three elements; basic moral duties; practical rules which promote efficiency; and artificial, optional graces such as formal compliments to, say, women on their beauty or superiors on their generosity and importance. In the first category are considerations for the weak and respect for age. Among the ancient Egyptians the young always stood in the presence of older people. Among the Mponguwe of Tanzania, the young men bow as they pass the huts of the elders. In England, until about a century ago, young children did not sit in their parents presence without asking permission. Practical rules are helpful in such ordinary occurrences of social life as making proper introductions at parties or other functions so that people can be brought to know each other. Before the invention of the fork, etiquette directed that the fingers should be kept as clean as possible; before the handkerchief came into common use, etiquette suggested that after spitting, a person should rub the spit inconspicuously underfoot. Extremely refined behavior, however, cultivated as an art of gracious living, has been characteristic only of societies with wealth and leisure, which admitted women as the social equals of men. After the fall of Rome, the first European society to regulate behavior in private life in accordance with a complicated code of etiquette was twelfth-century Provence, in France. Provence had become wealthy. The lords had returned to their castle from the crusades, and there the ideals of chivalry grew up, which emphasized the virtue and gentleness of women and demanded that a knight should profess a pure and dedicated love to a lady who would be his inspiration, and to whom he would dedicate his valiant deeds, though he would never come physically close to her. This was the introduction of the concept of romantic love, which was to influence literature for many hundreds of years and which still lives on in a debased form in simple popular songs and cheap novels today. In Renaissance Italy too, in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, a wealthy and leisured society developed an extremely complex code of manners, but the rules of behavior of fashionable society had little influence on the daily life of the lower classes. Indeed many of the rules, such as how to enter a banquet room, or how to use a sword or handkerchief for ceremonial purposes, were irrelevant to the way of life of the average working man, who spent most of his life outdoors or in his own poor hut and most probably did not have a handkerchief, certainly not a sword, to his name. Yet the essential basis of all good manners does not vary. Consideration for the old and weak and the avoidance of harming or giving unnecessary offence to others is a feature of all societies everywhere and at all levels from the highest to the lowest.
45. One characteristic of the rich classes of a declining society is their tendency to ____.
A) take in the recently wealthy.
B) retreat within themselves.
C) produce publications on manners.
D) change the laws of etiquette.
46. Which of the following is NOT an element of the code of etiquette?
A) Respect for age.
B) Formal compliments.
C) Proper introductions at social functions.
D) Eating with a fork rather than fingers.
47. According to the writer which of the following is part of chivalry? A knight should ____.
A) inspire his lady to perform valiant deeds.
B) perform deeds which would inspire romantic songs.
C) express his love for his lady from a distance.
D) regard his lady as strong and independent.
48. Etiquette as an art of gracious living is quoted as a feature of which country?
B) 18th century France.
C) Renaissance Italy.
TEXT E CONFLICT AND COMPETITION The question of whether war is inevitable is one which has concerned many of the worlds great writers. Before considering the question, it will be useful to introduce some related concepts. Conflict, defined as opposition among social entities directed against one another, is distinguished from competition, defined as opposition among social entities independently striving for something which is in inadequate supply. Competitors may not be aware of one another, while the parties to a conflict are. Conflict and competition are both categories of opposition, which has been defined as a process by which social entities function in the disservice of one another. Opposition is thus contrasted with cooperation, the process by which social entities function in the service of one another. These definitions are necessary because it is important to emphasize that competition between individuals or groups is inevitable in a world of limited resources, but conflict is not. Conflict, nevertheless, is very likely to occur, and is probably an essential and desirable element of human societies. Many authors have argued for the inevitability of war from the premise that in the struggle for existence among animal species, only the fittest survive. In general, however, this struggle in nature is competition, not conflict. Social animals, such as monkeys and cattle, fight to win or maintain leadership of the group. The struggle for existence occurs not in fights, but in the competition for limited feeding areas and for the occupancy of areas free from meat-eating animals. Those who fail in this competition starve to death or become victims to other species. The struggle for existence does not resemble human war, but rather the competition of individuals for jobs, markets, and materials. The essence of the struggle is the competition for the necessities of life that are insufficient to satisfy all. Among nations there is competition in developing resources, trades, skills, and a satisfactory way of life. The successful nations grow and prosper; the unsuccessful decline. While it is true that this competition may induce efforts to expand territory at the expense of others, and thus lead to conflict, it cannot be said that war-like conflict among other nations is inevitable, although competition is.
49. According to the author which of the following is inevitable?
50. In the animal kingdom the struggle for existence ____.
A) is evidence of the inevitability of conflict among the fittest.
B) arises from a need to live in groups.
C) is evidence of the need to compete for scarce resources
D) arises from a natural desire to fight.
SECTION B SKIMMING AND SCANNING
In this section there are seven passage followed by ten multiple-choice questions. Skim or scan them as required and then mark your answers on your Answer Sheet.
TEXT F ANGRY RESIDENTS First read the questions. 51. The writer believes the problems of chaos and noise will most probably only be solved by ____. A. the students themselves. B. the students parents. C. the college authorities. D. the newspaper. Now go through TEXT F quickly to answer the question. 12 Gradge Crescent Rudwick Sir, On two occasions since Rudwick College opened you have given front page reports on the chaotic conditions prevailing there …… But whilst chaos and upheaval reigns in the college, what of the chaos and noise that local residents are subjected to? Cars are parked on the pavement, and, still worse, on the pavements at street corners. The noise from motor cycles is such that at times conversation is impossible. To add to this, our streets are littered with paper, Coca Cola tins and empty milk bottles. Huge transistor radios are carried by students at all times of the day, blasting out music so loudly that babies wake and old people are unable to take their afternoon naps. All in all, we have found students behavior to be quite intolerable. We appeal to students [whom we support financially via our local authority rates] to have some consideration for other people. And if the young people themselves wont listen to what we say, and we suspect they wont, then perhaps their parents should knock some sense into their heads. Yours faithfully, John Smith
51. The writer believes the problems of chaos and noise will most probably only be solved by ____.
A) the students themselves.
B) the students' parents.
C) the college authorities.
D) the newspaper.
TEXT G RACE First read the question. 52. In the passage the writers tone is ____. A. critical. B. apathetic. C. sympathetic. D. neutral. Now go through TEXT G quickly to answer the question. About one-fifth of the high school students here are boycotting classes to protest the reinstatement of a principal who threatened to ban interracial couples from the prom. The boycott began on Monday as classes resumed after spring break for the 680 students at Randolph County High School. It was also the first day back for the principal, Hulond Humphries, a white man who was reinstated by a 4-to-2 vote of the school board after being suspended on March 14. Mr. Humphries, 55, who has been principal for 25 years, declined to comment on the boycott. The boycott was organized by the school boards only black member, Charlotte Clark-Freison. Parents who attended a meeting on Monday night decided to keep their children out of school today, said Ms. Clark-Freison. A group of parents traveled today to Montgomery, about 90 miles to the southwest, to meet with state education officials and ask about setting up an alternative school during the boycott, Ms. Clark-Freison said. School Superintendent Dale McKay said he did not know how many students were absent from class either on Monday or today. Tawanna Mize, a white senior, said school attendance sheets showed 157 absent students, 115 of them black. Ms. Clark-Freison said about 200 black students boycotted today. She did not know how many white students stayed away. Many black students gathered on Monday and today at two churches to discuss multicultural issues and non-violent protests. Many of the boycotting students wore black-and-white ribbons. The boycotters included ReVonda Bowen, who filed a civil rights lawsuit against Mr. Humphries for saying at a school assembly on Feb. 24 that she was "a mistake" because her father is white and her mother is black. At the same assembly, Mr. Humphries announced that mixed-race couples would not be allowed at the prom and that the dance would be cancelled if they showed up. The next day, Mr. Humphries withdrew the threat to close the prom if mixed-race couples showed up, and he said his comments had been misunderstood.
52. In the passage the writer's tone is ____.
TEXT H USA/IRAN First read the questions. 53. The writer advises that the problems between Iran and the USA might be best dealt with in the UN by getting the support of ____. A. Americas NATO allies in the West. B. Islamic Third World countries. C. Russia. D. Britain. Now go through TEXT H quickly to answer the question. Sir, The present quarrel between the US and Iran seems to be drifting dangerously near to a confrontation between the West and the Third World. It is understandable that the US should seek support from her allies within NATO but the result of this could be seen as an attempt by a group of powerful industrial countries to bully the people of a Third World country which, in recent years, had no cause to be grateful for the policies of the US. Surely the appropriate forum in which to search out a settlement to this extremely dangerous quarrel is the UN and the West should do its utmost, within that forum, to gather the greatest possible support from Third World, and particularly Islamic countries. I am well aware that the matter has been considered by the Security Council and the General Assembly and that the International Court of Justice has also pronounced in favor of the American case. I myself in no way support the behavior of the Iranians on this issue, which I believe to be dangerous and provocative. Nevertheless, it is my view that it would be wise for the Western powers to continue to use the quiet diplomacy of the UN and also, if this should prove practicable, the good offices of Islamic countries who have no desire to be caught up in a middle Eastern conflict arising from the present tension between Iran and the US. In addition to exploiting still further the use of the machinery of the UN, I also consider that European leaders ought to suggest that it would be helpful if a summit meeting could take place between the American and Russian leaders to exchange views about the whole situation in the Middle East. Such an exchange of views would be unlikely to produce instant solutions, but it might help the Russian and American governments to read each others minds and seek methods of backing away from the perilous trial of strength in that part of the world. Yours sincerely Frank Hooley, MP House of Commons, London SW1
53. The writer advises that the problems between Iran and the USA might be best dealt with in the UN by getting the support of ____.
A) America's NATO allies in the West.
B) Islamic Third World countries.
TEXT I GOLD! GOLD! GOLD! First read the question. 54. The purpose of the passage is to ____. A. describe the mining of gold. B. describe mans pursuit of gold. C. determine the importance of gold. D. discuss the role of gold. Now go through TEXT I quickly to answer the question. Gold has enthralled man since the dawn of civilization. For centuries he braved arctic cold, tropic heat and inhuman privations to wrest gold from the earth. He used it for religious objects, sculpture, jewellery and as a symbol of wealth. Paradoxically, he often buried it —— for use in the afterlife, as the pharaohs did, or for safekeeping against the uncertainties of this life. Golds luster and rarity, which implied its owner possessed great power, gave it a musical quality from the start. Gold was considered divine in ancient Greece and was used to adorn temples and as an offering to the gods. Despite their reverence, the ancients were quick to recognize golds practical qualities, particularly its malleability, which made it ideal for jewellery. Even Cleopatra used gold ornaments to enhance her charm. However, it has been as a symbol of wealth —— of nations as well as individuals —— that gold has played its most dramatic role. The quest for gold changed the course of history —— shifting nations borders and opening wildernesses. The cry "Gold!" probably launched more ships than a hundred Helens of Troy. History books tell us Columbus expedition was inspired by his scientific curiosity. But it was also backed by Queen Isabella, who may have been motivated to donate her jewels by more than just sympathy for his cause or desire for a trade route to the East. Whatever the original motive might have been, certainly her royal spouse was moved by more than scientific triumph in 1511 when he wrote to his men in South America: "Get gold," he commanded, "humanely if possible, but at all hazards get gold." The intrinsic value of gold, perhaps enhanced by its mystique, made it a medium of exchange in many parts of the world. Payments were made in gold hundreds of years before 550 B.C., when the first known gold coins were cast. King Croesus of Lydia [western Turkey], whose legendary wealth inspired the phrase "rich as Croesus", is generally credited with that minting. However, gold played a relatively minor monetary role until the great 19th century gold rushes in California, Alaska, Canada and South Africa produced sufficient quantities to make wide-scale monetary use practical. The artistic, industrial and ornamental uses of gold have changed little since ancient times, but its monetary use has been transformed. Gold ducats, double eagles and sovereigns cant meet industrial societies need for convenient and efficient money. Modern nations use paper currency, base-metal coins, and checkbook balances to meet the needs of their fast-paced economies. As a rule, nations now keep gold for payments to each other. The "coin" used in these payments is a gold bar, often about the size and shape of a common building brick, weighing about 400 troy ounces [about 27 avoirdupois pounds] and valued at about 17,000 at todays official U.S. Government price. In the "free" market, where the forces of supply and demand constantly determine golds value, this same bar was worth about thirteen times as much in early 1981. When nations trade gold, it is done at the market price rather than at the official price. TEXT I GOLD! GOLD! GOLD! First read the question. 54. The purpose of the passage is to ____. A. describe the mining of gold. B. describe mans pursuit of gold. C. determine the importance of gold. D. discuss the role of gold. Now go through TEXT I quickly to answer the question. Gold has enthralled man since the dawn of civilization. For centuries he braved arctic cold, tropic heat and inhuman privations to wrest gold from the earth. He used it for religious objects, sculpture, jewellery and as a symbol of wealth. Paradoxically, he often buried it —— for use in the afterlife, as the pharaohs did, or for safekeeping against the uncertainties of this life. Golds luster and rarity, which implied its owner possessed great power, gave it a musical quality from the start. Gold was considered divine in ancient Greece and was used to adorn temples and as an offering to the gods. Despite their reverence, the ancients were quick to recognize golds practical qualities, particularly its malleability, which made it ideal for jewellery. Even Cleopatra used gold ornaments to enhance her charm. However, it has been as a symbol of wealth —— of nations as well as individuals —— that gold has played its most dramatic role. The quest for gold changed the course of history —— shifting nations borders and opening wildernesses. The cry "Gold!" probably launched more ships than a hundred Helens of Troy. History books tell us Columbus expedition was inspired by his scientific curiosity. But it was also backed by Queen Isabella, who may have been motivated to donate her jewels by more than just sympathy for his cause or desire for a trade route to the East. Whatever the original motive might have been, certainly her royal spouse was moved by more than scientific triumph in 1511 when he wrote to his men in South America: "Get gold," he commanded, "humanely if possible, but at all hazards get gold." The intrinsic value of gold, perhaps enhanced by its mystique, made it a medium of exchange in many parts of the world. Payments were made in gold hundreds of years before 550 B.C., when the first known gold coins were cast. King Croesus of Lydia [western Turkey], whose legendary wealth inspired the phrase "rich as Croesus", is generally credited with that minting. However, gold played a relatively minor monetary role until the great 19th century gold rushes in California, Alaska, Canada and South Africa produced sufficient quantities to make wide-scale monetary use practical. The artistic, industrial and ornamental uses of gold have changed little since ancient times, but its monetary use has been transformed. Gold ducats, double eagles and sovereigns cant meet industrial societies need for convenient and efficient money. Modern nations use paper currency, base-metal coins, and checkbook balances to meet the needs of their fast-paced economies. As a rule, nations now keep gold for payments to each other. The "coin" used in these payments is a gold bar, often about the size and shape of a common building brick, weighing about 400 troy ounces [about 27 avoirdupois pounds] and valued at about 17,000 at todays official U.S. Government price. In the "free" market, where the forces of supply and demand constantly determine golds value, this same bar was worth about thirteen times as much in early 1981. When nations trade gold, it is done at the market price rather than at the official price.
54. The purpose of the passage is to ____.
A) describe the mining of gold.
B) describe man's pursuit of gold.
C) determine the importance of gold.
D) discuss the role of gold.
TEXT J WEATHER First read the question. 55. According to the passage, London recorded its coldest day in _____ years when the temperature dropped to -90℃. A. 40 B. 41 C. 42 D. 43 56. How many people died in Poland because of the weather in the first half of January 1987? A. 77. B. 29. C. 48. D. 27. Now go through TEXT J quickly to answer the question. Severe winter weather during the first three weeks of January caused hundreds of deaths in Europe. A massive dome of cold air became entrenched over northern Scandinavia and northern USSR in mid-December of 1986. It migrated westward and southward so that by January 12 much of the continent was under its influence. On that day, central England had its coldest day since 1945, with London recording 160F [-90℃]. In Leningrad, USSR, temperatures dipped to -490℉ [-450℃], reportedly the coldest in 250 years. Coastal and river ice brought a halt to shipping in northern Europe. The cold was also accompanied by a major snowstorm that snarled rail and road transport in Western Europe on January 11 to 13. Snow fell as far south as the French Riviera. On January 14, East Berlin recorded an all-time record low of -130℉ [-110℃], while Paris measured a snowfall of 5.5 inches [14 centimeters] —— the fourth heaviest on record. During the first two weeks of the month, the cold was blamed for 77 deaths in the USSR, including 48 from heating accidents and 29 from avalanches. In Poland, home fires claimed 27 lives. By the time the cold began easing around January 19, the total reported deaths from snow and cold across Europe and the USSR neared 350. The interior of North America was experiencing record mildness. Parts of Alberta, Canada, enjoyed the warmest January ever, with temperatures averaging up to 18℉ [10℃] above normal. The January warmth turned out to be part of a remarkably persistent weather anomaly. From December 1986 through 1987, monthly average temperatures across a large area of Canada remained above normal. From December through April, readings averaged 110℉[60℃] above normal in an area extending from eastern Alberta to western Ontario. In Ontario, August was the first month with below-normal temperatures after eight consecutive months above normal. Localized areas had even more persistent warmth. At Vancouver International Airport, November was the 16th consecutive month with above-normal temperatures. the relative warmth across the continent is a feature often associated with warm ocean waters in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean.
55. According to the passage, London recorded its coldest day in _____ years when the temperature dropped to -90℃.
56. How many people died in Poland because of the weather in the first half of January 1987?
TEXT K WHOS WHO First read the question. 57. Which person won the Lenin Peace Prize? A. McGuigan. B. Mach. C. Machado. D. Machel. 58. Which person carried out research in the Amazon region? A. McGuigan. B. Mach. C. Machado. D. Machel. Now go through TEXT K quickly to answer the question. McGUIGAN, Hon. Thomas Malcolm; New Zealand, parliamentarian and business consultant; b 20 Feb 1921, Christchurch; m Ruth Deacon 1946; two s. one d.; ed. Christchurch Boys High School, Christchurch Tech. Evening School; served in Navy 1941-45; secretarial and accountancy posts in commerce 1946-54; House Man. Christchurch Hosp. 1955-57; Sr. Admin Officer, Princess Margaret Hosp., Christchurch 1958-69; M.P. 1969-75; Minister of Railways, Electricity and Civil Defence 1972-74, of Health and Public Trust Office 1974-75; J.P. 1953-; Pres. New Zealand Football Asscn. 1974-75. Leisure interests: golf, cricket, fishing, football, reading, music. Address: 71 Main Road, Christchurch 8, New Zealand. MACH, Stanislaw, M.ECON., C.SC; Polish politician; b 22 April 1938, Przychody, near Olkusz; economic studies; Chief Mechanic, Cart Factory, Sianow 1960-61, Voivodship Amalgamation of Establishments for Mechanization of Agric., Koszalin 1961-63; Branch Sec. Main Tech Org. [NOT], Koszalin 1963-68; Deputy Chair Voivodship Council of Trade unions, Koszalin 1968-71; mem. Polish United Workers Party [PZPR] 1961-; First Sec. PZPR District Cttee. Kolobrzeg 1971-72; Chair Presidium, Voivodship Nat. Council [WRN], Koszalin 1972-73, Voivode, Koszalin 1973-75; First sec. PZPR Voivodship Cttee., Slupsk 1975-77; Chair Presidium, WRN Slupsk 197577; Deputy mem. PZPR Cen. Cttee. 1975-; deputy to Seym [Parl.] 1976-80; Minister of Light Industry 1977-80; Deputy Chair. Council of Ministers Oct. 1980-; decorations include Knights Cross of Order Polonia Restituta. Address: Urzad Rady Ministrow, Al. Ujazdowskie 1/3, 00-583, Warsaw, Poland. MACHADO, Paulo de Almeida; Brazilian medical doctor; b. Minas Gerais; active in planning public health and sanitary services; Dir. Nat. Inst. for Research in the Amazon Region until 1974; Minister of Health 1974-78. Address: c/o Ministerio da Saude, Esplanada dos Ministerios, Bloco 11, Brasilia, D.F. Brazil. MACHEL, Samora Moises; Mozambique nationalist leader and politician; b. Oct. 1933, Lourenco Marques [now Maputo]; m. Grace Simbine 1975; trained as a male nurse; sent to Algeria for mil. training 1963; organized training camp programme in Tanzania; C.-in-C. army of Frente de Libertacao de Mocambique [FRELIMO] in guerilla war against Portugues 1966-74; Sec. of Defence, FRELIMO 1966-74, Pres. May 1970-; Pres. of Mozambique June 1975-; Joliot-Curie Gold Medal 1977, Lenin Peace Prize 1977, Order of Suhbuator [Mongolia] 1978, Order of Friendship 1980. Address: Officio do Presidento, Maputo, Mozambique. McHENRY, Donald F., M.Sc.; American diplomatist; b. 13 Oct 1936, St. Louis, Mo.; m Mary Williamson [divorced]; one s. two d.; ed Illinois State Univ., Southern Illinois and Georgetown Univs; taught Howard Univ., Washington 1959-62; active in civil rights movt., during 1960s; joined dept of State 1963.
57. Which person won the Lenin Peace Prize?
58. Which person carried out research in the Amazon region?
TEXT L MILESTONES First read the following two questions. 59. Who among the following is a biographer? A. Tapie. B. El-Shinawwy. C. Haslip. D. Nazir-Ali. 60. Who among the following owns a soccer team? A. Tapie. B. Helu. C. Haslip. D. Nazir-Ali. Now, go through the text quickly in order to answer the questions. APPOINTED. MICHAEL NAZIR-ALI, 44, an assistant bishop in central London; as Bishop of Rochester, the first non-white diocesan bishop of the Church of England; in Kent. The general secretary of the Church Missionary Society, Nazir-Ali, who was ordained in Karachi in 1976 and holds dual Pakistani and British citizenship, has written several books on Islamic-Christian relations. Of his appointment he said "I think it reflects the way in which this country has changed." RANSOMED. ALFREDO HARP HELU, 50, billionaire president and co-owner of one of Latin Americas largest financial firms, Banamex-Accival; for about 30 million, paid by his family, after he was held 106 days by his kidnappers; in Mexico city. The release followed a dramatic TV appearance in which Harps son, accompanied by a family lawyer and a priest, accepted the kidnappers terms unconditionally. At the familys request, the police did not intervene, giving rise to fears that the huge ransom will encourage more kidnappings and adding to concerns about Mexicos stability. ARRESTED. BERNARD TAPIE, 51, flamboyant entrepreneur and one of Frances fastest rising political stars; only 12 hours after being stripped of his parliamentary immunity; on fraud and tax-evasion charges involving the use of his yacht, Phocea; in Paris. The Marseilles Deputy and former Urban Affairs Minister was already under investigation in four other cases, which involved defamation, embezzlement, fraud and a bribery scandal connected to his Olympique de Marseilles soccer team. If convicted on the latest charges, Tapie risks heavy fines and up to five years in prison —— yet his political support remains strong. DIED. MAMOUN EL-SHINNAWY, 80, master of the modern Arabic lyrical poetry who also wrote the words to more than 1,000 popular Egyptian songs; in Cairo. Originally a journalist noted for his lancing wit, El-Shinnawy co-founded a political-humor magazine in 1950 called Word and a Half, which was closed down during the 1952 revolution that brought Gamal Abdel Nasser to power. In the 60s El-Shinnawy penned the romantic verse that would bring him renown throughout the Arab world. DIED. JOAN HASLIP, 82, popular biographer of such historical figures as Frances Marie Antoinette and Emperor Maximilian of Mexico; in Bellosguardo, Italy. The British-born Haslip, who spent much of her life in Italy, made a precocious entrance into the world of letters, publishing two novels by the time she was 20. But after being called a "pretty, witty spendthrift writer" by V. S. Pritchett she turned to biography because she was "determined to be taken seriously". Critical and commercial success greeted her 1971 book on Maximilian, Imperial Adventurer, which became a best seller. Marie Antoinette, her 1987 portrait of the guillotined queen, was translated into 10 languages.
59. Who among the following is a biographer?
60. Who among the following owns a soccer team?
PART IV TRANSLATION
SECTION A: CHINESE TO ENGLISH (30 MIN.)
Translate the following part of the text into English. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE
近读报纸，对国内名片和请柬的议论颇多，于是想起客居巴黎时经常见到的法国人手中的名片和请柬，随笔记下来，似乎不无借鉴之处。 在巴黎，名目繁多的酒会，冷餐会是广交朋友的好机会。在这种场合陌生人相识，如果是亚洲人，他们往往开口之前先毕恭毕敬地用双手把自己的名片呈递给对方，这好象是不可缺少的礼节。然而，法国人一般却都不大主动递送名片，双方见面寒喧几句甚至海阔天空地聊一番也就各自走开，只有当双方谈话投机，希望继续交往时，才会主动掏出名片。二话不说先递名片反倒有些勉强。 法国人的名片讲究朴素大方，印制精美，但很少有镶金边儿的，闪光多色的或带香味儿的，名片上的字体纤细秀丽，本人的名字也不过分突出，整张纸片上空白很大，豪无拥挤不堪的感觉。
SECTION B ENGLISH TO CHINESE
Translate the following underlined part of the text into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.
Four months before election day, five men gathered in a small conference room at the Reagan-Bush headquarters and reviewed an oversize calendar that marked the remaining days of the 1984 presidential campaign. It was the last Saturday in June and at ten oclock in the morning the rest of the office was practically deserted. Even so, the men kept the door shut and the drapes carefully drawn. The three principals and their two deputies had come from around the country for a critical meeting. Their aim was to devise a strategy that would guarantee Ronald Reagans resounding reelection to a second term in the White House. It should have been easy. These were battle-tested veterans with long ties to Reagan and even longer ones to the Republican party, men who understood presidential politics as well as any in the country. The backdrop of the campaign was hospitable, with lots of good news to work with: America was at peace, and the nations economy, a key factor in any election, was rebounding vigorously after recession. Furthermore, the campaign itself was lavishly financed, with plenty of money for a top-flight staff, travel, and television commercials. And, most important, their candidate was Ronald Reagan, a president of tremendous personal popularity and dazzling communication skills. Reagan has succeeded more than any president since John. F. Kennedy in projecting a broad vision of America —— a nation of renewed military strength, individual initiative, and smaller federal government.
PART V WRITING
Directions: On a Chinese college campus, usually several college students share a dormitory. Unfortunately some college students do not pay enough attention to living in a shared environment. For instance, they may ignore the sanitation of their dormitory or they may suddenly start to play music while others are sound asleep. Hence the idea of making dormitory policies to curb these indecencies has become popular on campus.
You are in favor of this idea and have therefore decided to write to your university campus radio a passage entitled:
IN SUPPORT OF DORMITORY POLICIES
Requirements: Write an essay of about 300 words within 60 minutes. After presenting the two different ideas about advertisements you should state your own opinion about this topic and give the reason why.
Mark will be awarded for content, organization, grammar, and appropriacy. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks.