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GRE试题5

2006-01-19 00:00

  Time-30 minutes

  38 Questions

  1. Although sales have continued to increase since last

  April, unfortunately the rate of increase has ——.

  (A) resurged

  (B) capitulated

  (C) retaliated

  (D) persevered

  (E) decelerated

  2. Although the mental process that creates a fresh and

  original poem or drama is doubtless —— that which

  originates and elaborates scientific discoveries, there

  is clearly a discernible difference between the crea-

  tors

  (A) peripheral to

  (B) contiguous with

  (C) opposed to

  (D) analogous to

  (E) inconsistent with

  3. It is disappointing to note that the latest edition of

  the bibliography belies its long-standing reputation

  for —— by —— some significant references to

  recent publications.

  (A) imprecision…… appropriating

  (B) relevance…… adding

  (C) timeliness…… updating

  (D) meticulousness…… revising

  (E) exhaustiveness…… omitting

  4. Although Simpson was ingenious at —— to appear

  innovative and spontaneous, beneath the ruse he

  remained uninspired and rigid in his approach to

  problem-solving.

  (A) intending

  (B) contriving

  (C) forbearing

  (D) declining

  (E) deserving

  5. She was criticized by her fellow lawyers not because

  she was not ——, but because she so —— pre-

  pared her cases that she failed to bring the expected

  number to trial.

  (A) well versed…… knowledgeably

  (B) well trained…… enthusiastically

  (C) congenial…… rapidly

  (D) hardworking…… minutely

  (E) astute…… efficiently

  6. Schlesinger has recently assumed a conciliatory atti-

  tude that is not —— by his colleagues, who con-

  tinue to —— compromise.

  (A) eschewed…… dread

  (B) shared…… defend

  (C) questioned…… reject

  (D) understood…… advocate

  (E) commended…… disparage

  7. The National Archives contain information so ——

  that researchers have been known never to publish

  because they cannot bear to bring their studies to an

  end.

  (A) divisive

  (B) seductive

  (C) selective

  (D) repetitive

  (E) resourceful

  8. HILL: MOUNTAIN::

  (A) grass: rocks

  (B) autumn: winter

  (C) creek: river

  (D) star: sun

  (E) cliff: slope

  9. AERATE: OXYGEN::

  (A) eclipse: light

  (B) desiccate: moisture

  (C) precipitate: additive

  (D) hydrate: water

  (E) striate: texture

  10. ORCHESTRA: MUSICIAN:

  (A) cube: side

  (B) kilometer: meter

  (C) sonnet: poem

  (D) biped: foot

  (E) pack: wolf

  11. EQUIVOCATION: MISLEADING::

  (A) mitigation: severe

  (B) advice: peremptory

  (C) bromide: hackneyed

  (D) precept: obedient

  (E) explanation: unintelligible

  12. CENSORSHIP: COMMUNICATION::

  (A) propaganda: ideology

  (B) preservative: decay

  (C) revision: accuracy

  (D) rest: atrophy

  (E) exercise: fitness

  13. BUS: PASSENGERS:

  (A) flock: birds

  (B) tanker: liquid

  (C) envelope: letter

  (D) bin: coal

  (E) automobile: gasoline

  14. BALLAD: STANZA::

  (A) novel: chapter

  (B) poem: meter

  (C) play: dialogue

  (D) movie: script

  (E) photograph: caption

  15. DISABUSE: FALLACY::

  (A) cure: disease

  (B) persevere: dereliction

  (C) belittle: imperfection

  (D) discredit: reputation

  (E) discern: discrimination

  16. BLANDISHMENT: CAJOLE::

  (A) prediction: convince

  (B) obstacle: impede

  (C) embellishment: praise

  (D) deficiency: compensate

  (E) compliment: exaggerate

  Although the hormone adrenaline is known to regulate

  memory storage, it does not pass from the blood into brain

  cells. We are faced with an apparent paradox: how can a

  hormone that does not act directly on the brain have such a

  (5)large effect on brain function?

  Recently, we tested the possibility that one of the

  hormone's actions outside the brain might be responsible.

  Since one consequence of adrenaline release in an animal

  is an increase in blood glucose levels, we examined the

  (10)effects of glucose on memory in rats. We found that glu-

  cose injected immediately after training enhances memory

  tested the next day. Additional evidence was provided by

  negative findings: drugs called adrenergic antagonists,

  which block peripheral adrenaline receptors, disrupted

  (15)adrenaline's ability to regulate memory but did not affect

  memory enhancements produced by glucose that was not

  stimulated by adrenaline. These results are as they should

  be if adrenaline affects memory modulation by increasing

  blood glucose levels.

  17.The primary purpose of the passage is to

  (A) reconcile two opposing theories

  (B) compare two different explanations for a phe-

  nomenon

  (C) describe experimental research that appears to

  support an unpopular theory

  (D) present evidence that may help to resolve an

  apparent contradiction

  (E) describe a hypothesis that has cause a con-

  troversy

  18.It can be inferred from the passage that the author

  would most likely describe the "additional evidence"

  (line 12) provided by experiments with adrenergic

  antagonists as

  (A) revolutionary

  (B) disappointing

  (C) incomplete

  (D) unexpected

  (E) corroborative

  19.The passage provides information about which of the

  following topics?

  (A) The mechanism by which glucose affects memory

  storage

  (B) The evidence that prompted scientist to test the

  effects of adrenaline on memory regulation

  (C) The reason that the effects of glucose on memory

  were tested

  (D) The ways that memory storage modifies the struc-

  ture of the brain

  (E) The kinds of training used to test memory enhance-

  ment in rats

  20.The author refers to the results of the experiment using

  adrenergic antagonists as "negative findings" (line 13)

  most likely because the adrenergic antagonists

  (A) failed to disrupt adrenaline's effect on memory

  (B) did not affect glucose's ability to enhance memory.

  (C) did not block adrenaline's ability to increase blood

  glucose levels

  (D) only partially affected adrenaline's ability to

  enhance memory

  (E) disrupted both adrenaline's and glucose's effect

  on memory

  The age at which young children begin to make moral

  discriminations about harmful actions committed against

  themselves or others has been the focus of recent research

  into the moral development of children. Until recently,

  (5)child psychologists supported pioneer developmentalist Jean.

  Piaget in his hypothesis that because of their immaturity,

  children under age seven do not take into account the inten-

  tions of a person committing accidental or deliberate harm,

  but rather simply assign punishment for transgressions on

  (10)the basis of the magnitude of the negative consequences

  caused. According to Piaget, children under age seven

  occupy the first stage of moral development, which is char-

  acterized by moral absolutism (rules made by authorities

  must be obeyed) and imminent justice (if rules are broken,

  (15)punishment will be meted out). Until young children mature,

  their moral judgments are based entirely on the effect

  rather than the cause of a transgression. However, in recent

  research, Keasey found that six- year-old children not only

  distinguish between accidental and intentional harm, but

  (20)also judge intentional harm as naughtier, regardless of the

  amount of damage produced. Both of these findings seem

  to indicate that children, at an earlier age than Piaget

  claimed, advance into the second stage of moral develop-

  ment, moral autonomy, in which they accept social rules

  (25)but view them as more arbitrary than do children in the

  first stage.

  Keasey's research raises two key questions for develop-

  mental psychologists about children under age seven: do

  they recognize justifications for harmful actions, and do

  (30)they make distinctions between harmful acts that are pre-

  ventable and those acts that have unforeseen harmful con-

  sequences? Studies indicate that justifications excusing

  harmful actions might include public duty,self-defense, and

  provocation. For example, Nesdale and Rule concluded that

  (35)children were capable of considering whether or not an

  aggressor's action was justified by public duty: five year

  olds reacted very differently to "Bonnie wrecks Ann's

  pretend house" depending on whether Bonnie did it "so

  somebody won't fall over it" or because Bonnie wanted "to

  (40)make Ann feel bad."Thus, a child of five begins to under-

  stand that certain harmful actions, though intentional, can

  be justified; the constraints of moral absolutism no longer

  solely guide their judgments.

  Psychologists have determined that during kindergarten

  (45)children learn to make subtle distinctions involving harm.

  Darley observed that among acts involving unintentional

  harm, six-year-old children just entering kindergarten could

  not differentiate between foreseeable, and thus preventable,

  harm and unforeseeable harm for which the perpetrator

  (50)cannot be blamed. Seven months later, however, Darley

  found that these same children could make both distinc-

  tions, thus demonstrating that they had become morally

  autonomous.

  21.Which of the following best describes the passage as

  a whole?

  (A) An outline for future research

  (B) An expanded definition of commonly misunder-

  stood terms

  (C) An analysis of a dispute between two theorists

  (D) A discussion of research findings in an ongoing

  inquiry

  (E) A confirmation of an established authority's theory

  22.According to the passage, Darley found that after seven

  months of kindergarten six year olds acquired which of

  the following abilities?

  (A) Differentiating between foreseeable and unforesee-

  able harm

  (B) Identifying with the perpetrator of a harmful action

  (C) Justifying harmful actions that result from provo-

  cation

  (D) Evaluating the magnitude of negative consequences

  resulting from the breaking of rules

  (E) Recognizing the difference between moral absolu-

  tism and moral autonomy

  23.According to the passage, Piaget and Keasey would not

  have agreed on which of the following points?

  (A) The kinds of excuses children give for harmful

  acts they commit

  (B) The age at which children begin to discriminate

  between intentional and unintentional harm

  (C) The intentions children have in perpetrating harm

  (D) The circumstances under which children punish

  harmful acts

  (E) The justifications children recognize for mitigating

  punishment for harmful acts

  24.It can be inferred that the term "public duty" (line 33)

  in the context of the passage, means which of the fol-

  lowing?

  (A) The necessity to apprehend perpetrators.

  (B) The responsibility to punish transgressors

  (C) An obligation to prevent harm to another

  (D) The assignment of punishment for harmful action

  (E) A justification for punishing transgressions

  25.According to the passage, Keasey's findings support

  which of the following conclusions about six-year-old

  children?

  (A)They have the ability to make autonomous moral

  judgments.

  (B)They regard moral absolutism as a threat to their

  moral autonomy.

  (C)They do not understand the concept of public duty.

  (D)They accept moral judgment made by their peers

  more easily than do older children.

  (E)They make arbitrary moral judgments.

  26.It can be inferred form the passage that Piaget would

  be likely to agree with which of the following state-

  ments about the punishment that children under seven

  assign to wrongdoing?

  (A) The severity of the assigned punishment is deter-

  mined by the perceived magnitude of negative

  consequences more than by any other factor.

  (B) The punishment is to be administered immediately

  following the transgression.

  (C) The children assign punishment less arbitrarily

  than they do when they reach the age of moral

  autonomy.

  (D) The punishment for acts of unintentional harm is

  less severe than it is for acts involving accidental

  harm.

  (E) The more developmentally immature a child, the

  more severe the punishment that the child will

  assign.

  27.According to the passage, the research of Nesdale and

  Rule suggests which of the following about five-year-

  old children?

  (A) Their reactions to intentional and accidental harm

  determine the severity of the punishments they assign.

  (B) They, as perpetrators of harmful acts, disregard

  the feelings of the children they harm.

  (C) They take into account the motivations of actions

  when judging the behavior of other children.

  (D) They view public duty as a justification for acci-

  dental, but not intentional, harm.

  (E) They justify any action that protects them from

  harm.

  28. DEBUT:

  (A) collaboration

  (B) monologue

  (C) farewell performance

  (D) repertoire standard

  (E) starring role

  29. WITHER:

  (A) disagree

  (B) shine

  (C) plant

  (D) adhere

  (E) revive

  30. BUCK:

  (A) cover over

  (B) assent to

  (C) brag about

  (D) improve

  (E) repair

  31. MEAN:

  (A) trusting

  (B) ardent

  (C) clever

  (D) incautious

  (E) noble

  32. ADJUNCT:

  (A) expert appraisal

  (B) generous donation

  (C) essential element

  (D) mild reproof

  (E) impartial judgment

  33. CANONICAL:

  (A) imprecise

  (B) ubiquitous

  (C) superfluous

  (D) nontraditional

  (E) divisive

  34. TICKLISH:

  (A) heavy-handed

  (B) significant

  (C) tolerant

  (D) impartial

  (E) imperturbable

  35. PREVALENT:

  (A) invasive

  (B) inconsistent

  (C) indistinct

  (D) unpalatable

  (E) unusual

  36. PENURY:

  (A) approbation

  (B) affluence

  (C) objectivity

  (D) compensation

  (E) grandiosity

  37. MINATORY:

  (A) convenient

  (B) nonthreatening

  (C) straightforward

  (D) fastidious

  (E) rational

  38. CALUMNIOUS:

  (A) adept

  (B) aloof

  (C) quaint

  (D) decorous

  (E) flattering

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