PART II CLOZE
Decide which of the choices given below would correctly complete the passage if inserted in the corresponding blanks. Select the correct choice for each blank.
Normative (规范的，标准的) ethics is concerned with criteria of what is morally right and wrong. It includes the (26)_____ of moral rules that have direct implications for what human actions, (27)_____, and ways of life should be like. The central question of normative ethics is determining how basic moral standards are arrived at and (28)_____. The answers to this question (29)_____ two broad categories —— deontological (义务论的) and teleological (目的论的). The principal difference between them is that deontological theories do not appeal to value considerations in establishing ethical standards, (30)_____ teleological theories do. Deontological theories use the concept of their inherent rightness in establishing such standards, while teleological theories consider the goodness or value (31)_____ by actions as the principal criterion of their ethical value. In other words, a deontological approach (32)_____ doing certain things on principle or because they are (33)_____ right, whereas a teleological approach (34)_____ that certain kinds of actions are right because of the goodness of their consequences. Deontological theories thus stress the concepts of obligation, ought, duty, and right and wrong, while teleological theories (35)_____ the good, the valuable, and the desirable. Deontological theories (36)_____ formal or relational criteria such as equality or (37)_____; teleological theories, (38)_____, provide material or substantive criteria, as, for example, happiness or pleasure. The application of normative theories and standards (39)_____ practical moral problems is the concern of (40)_____ ethics. This subdiscipline of ethics deals with many major issues of the contemporary scene, including human rights, social equality, and the moral implications of scientific research, particularly in the area of genetic engineering.
26. A) form B) formality C) formula D) formulation
27. A) constitutions B) institutions C) consultations D) instructions
28. A) justified B) justifying C) justifiable D) justificatory
29. A) fall out B) fall upon C) fall into D) fall for
30. A) as B) when C) while D) since
31. A) brought into being B) being brought into being C) bring into being D) having brought into being
32. A) calls on B) calls for C) calls at D) calls up
33. A) coherently B) coherent C) inherently D) inherent
34. A) praises B) favors C) agrees D) advocates
35. A) lay stress on B) lay down to C) lay claim to D) lay eyes on
36. A) set forth B) set apart C) set at D) set down
37. A) immensity B) immunity C) immortality D) impartiality
38. A) in comparison B) by far C) in exchange D) by contrast
39. A) for B) to C) with D) on
40. A) applicable B) applicative C) applied D) applicant
PART III GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY
There are twenty-five sentences in this section. Beneath each sentence there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose one word or phrase that correctly completes the sentence.
41. I can't give you that for nothing. What do you take me _____?
42. When Tom insulted the referee, he _____ by ordering him off the field.
43. Helen Keller's _____ over deafness, blindness, and muteness was a miracle.
44. International _____ should be reduced when this agreement is signed.
45. In spite of the heavy snow and hard rain, the buses still ran on _____.
46. Only a few people have _____ to the full facts of the case.
47. Let me _____ the broken glass before someone walks on it.
A) cover up
B) clear up
C) wash up
D) spring up
48. It is _____ of him to put everything in disorder in the room. He is so peculiar.
49. John was young, _____, he was equal to this important task.
50. Air is composed of _____ gases including hydrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide.
51. You can't let the situation get worse. You must take _____.
52. It's difficult to _____ with the knowledge that he is a failure.
D) get on
53. Millions of workers were on the streets in the greatest _____ of working class solidarity this country has ever seen.
54. My sister's professor had her _____ her paper many times before allowing her to present it to the committee.
B) to rewrite
55. Scarcely had her husband arrived home _____ his wife started complaining.
56. Only ______ you have obtained sufficient data can you come to a sound conclusion.
57. I told him how to get there, but perhaps I _____ him a map.
A) should have given
B) ought to give
C) had to give
D) must have given
58. A body weighs _____ from the surface of the Earth.
A) less the farther it gets
B) the farther it gets, the less
C) less than it gets farther
D) less than it, the farther it gets
59. You never told us why you were late for the last meeting, _____?
A) weren't you
B) didn't you
C) had you
D) did you
60. _____ it is you've found, you must give it back to the person it belongs to.
61. _____ for you help, we'd never have been able to get over the difficulties.
A) Had it not been
B) If it were not
C) Had it not
D) if we had not been
62. _____ neglecting our education, my father sent my brother and me to a summer school.
A) Accused of
B) Accusing of
C) That he was accused of
D) To be accused of
63. The prisoner stood there _____.
A) with his hands cuffed
B) with his hands cuffing
C) with his cuffed hands
D) with his cuffing hands
64. The leaders insisted on their _____ as ordinary people.
B) be treated
C) being treated
D) having treated
65. _____, I must do another experiment.
A) Be it ever so late
B) It is ever so late
C) It be ever so late
D) So late it be ever
PART IV READING COMPREHENSION
In this section there are five passages followed by fifteen questions or unfinished statements, each with four suggested answer marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that you think is the correct answer.
TEXT A Steve Courtney wrote historical novels. Not, he was quick to explain, over colorful love stories of the kind that made so much money for so many women writer, but novels set, and correctly set, in historical periods. Whatever difference he saw in his own books, his readers did not seem to notice it, and his readers were nearly all women. He had studied at university, but he had not been a particularly good student, and he had never afterwards let any academic knowledge he had gained interfere with his writing. Helen, his wife, who did not have a very high opinion of her husbands ability as a novelist, had been careful to say when she married him that she was not historically minded. Above all, Helen was doubtful whether her relationship with Steve would work at all in the village of Stretton, to which they had just moved. It was Steve who had wanted to move to the country, and she had been glad of the change, in principle, whatever doubts she was now having about Stretton as a choice. But she wondered whether Steve would not, before very long, want to live in London again, and what she would do if he did. The Stretton house was not a weekend cottage. They had moved into it and given up the London flat altogether, partly at least, she suspected, because that she Steves idea of what a successful author ought to do. However, she thought he was not going to feel like a successful author half as much in Stretton as he had in London. On the other had, she supposed he might just start dashing up to London for the day to see his agent or have lunch with his publisher, leaving her behind in Stretton, and she thought on the whole she would like that.
66. Which of the following is true about Steve's attitude towards women who wrote love stories?
A) He had a low opinion of the kind of books they wrote.
B) He was afraid of being compared unfavorably with them.
C) He would have liked to earn as much money as they did.
D) He did not think he could write about the same subjects.
67. Helen thought Steve might not be content in Stretton because _____.
A) his relationship with Helen was changing
B) he would not feel so important in Stretton
C) he would not be able to write so well there
D) he would not be lonely without all his friends
68. We learn from the passage that Steve's novels were _____.
A) popular but unimportant
B) serious works of literature
C) admired for their historical truth
D) written with women readers in mind
TEXT B When Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected President of the United States in 1932, not only the United States but also the rest of the world was in the throes of an economic depression. Following the termination of World War I, Britain and the United States at first experienced a boom in industry. Called the Roaring Twenties, the 1920s ushered in a number of things —— prosperity, greater equality for women in the work world, rising consumption, and easy credit. The outlook for American business was rosy. October 1929 was a month that had catastrophic economic reverberations worldwide. The American stock market witnessed the "Great Crash," as it is called, and the temporary boom in the American economy came to a standstill. Stock prices sank, and panic spread. The ensuing unemployment figure soared to 12 million by 1932. Germany in the postwar years suffered from burdensome compensation it was obliged to pay to the Allies. The countrys industrial capacity had been greatly diminished by the war. Inflation, political instability, and high unemployment were factors helpful to the growth of the initial Nazi party. Germans had lost confidence in their old leaders and heralded the arrival of a messiah-like figure who would lead them out of their economic wilderness. Hitler promised jobs and, once elected, kept his promise by providing employment in the party, in the newly expanded army, and in munitions factories. Roosevelt was elected because he promised a "New Deal" to lift the United States out of the doldrums of the depression. Following the principles advocated by Keynes, a British economist, Roosevelt collected the spending capacities of the federal government to provide welfare, work, and agricultural aid to the millions of down-and-out Americans. Elected President for four terms because of his innovative policies, Roosevelt succeeded in dragging the nation out of the depression before the outbreak of World War II.
69. Which of the following was NOT true at the time Roosevelt was elected?
A) Stock prices were recovering slowly.
B) The nation was in a deep depression.
C) There were 12 million unemployed workers.
D) The nation needed help from the federal government.
70. The "Great Crash" in the passage refers to _____.
A) the end of World War I
B) the Great Depression
C) high unemployment figures
D) a slump in the stock market
71. We can infer that the author of this passage _____.
A) disapproves of Roosevelt's "New Deal"
B) thinks the Depression could have been avoided
C) blames the Depression on the "Great Crash"
D) feels there was some similarity between Roosevelt and Hitler
72. The best title for the passage is _____.
A) The Twenties
B) The Great Crash
C) The Depression
D) The End of World War I
TEXT C The three biggest lies in America are: (1) "The check is in the mail." (2) "Of course Ill respect you in the morning." (3) "It was a computer error." Of these three little white lies, the worst of the lot by far is the third. Its the only one that can never be true. Today, if a bank statement cheats you out of 900 that way, you know what the clerk is sure to say: "It was a computer error." Nonsense. The computer is reporting nothing more than what the clerk typed into it. The most irritating case of all is when the computerized cash register in the grocery store shows that an item costs more than it actually does. If the innocent buyer points out the mistake, the checker, bagger, and manager all come together and offer the familiar explanation: "It was a computer error." It wasnt, of course. That high-tech cash register is really nothing more than an electric eye. The eye reads the Universal Product Code —— that ribbon of black and white lines in a comer of the package —— and then checks the code against a price list stored in memory. If the price list is right, youll be charged accurately. Grocery stores update the price list each day —— that is, somebody sits at a keyboard and types in the prices. If the price they type in is too high, there are only two explanations: carelessness or dishonesty. But somehow "a computer error" is supposed to excuse everything. One reason we let people hide behind a computer is the common misperception that huge, modern computers are "electric brains" with "artificial intelligence." At some point there might be a machine with intelligence, but none exists today. The smartest computer on earth right now is no more "intelligent" than your average screwdriver. At this point in the development of computers, the only thing any machine can do is what a human has instructed it to do.
73. We are told that a high-tech cash register is really just _____.
A) an electric instrument of sight
B) a simple adding machine
C) a way to keep employees honest
D) an expensive piece of window dressing
74. Grocery store price lists are updated by _____.
A) a scanner
B) a telephone hookup
C) an adding machine
D) an employee
75. Which of the following describes the main idea of the passage?
A) Computers are stupid and inefficient.
B) Computer errors are basically human errors.
C) Computers can help department stores update the price list.
D) Supermarket price errors are often made through dishonesty.
TEXT D All R&D executives have two major responsibilities: (1) they must ensure that the company is supplied with technically successful projects, and (2) they must select the most promising schemes and ideas for the expenditure of R&D resources. This work is complicated by numerous uncertainties, inasmuch as commercial research and development must be based on market forecasts. If R&D management can provide a regular flow of new and updated products, the company will benefit in a number of ways. First of all, it will be able to make full use of expensive departmental resources, development engineering and available marketing capacity. In addition to that, a flow of new market winners will provide the business with steady growth income and profits. This can also be important psychologically, for it is often on this basis that those outside the company assess the quality of its management. The R&D departments job is made more difficult because of the length of time required to complete its research. In the chemical and pharmaceutical industries, for example, it may take five to ten years before a product is a technical success and a further six to eight years before it reaches full commercial potential. To achieve results, R&D must define both the areas that should be investigated and the objectives that should be achieved in each area. For this reason, the R&D department must take an interest in all aspects of design, application, efficiency, and use of appropriate materials. There is a difference, however, between the development of new consumer products and the development of new industrial ones. In specific need, and development is tailored to meet it. In many industrial markets, product development is the result of work down in the research laboratory. This work is often aimed at a general need, such as a new kind of medicine or higher operating speeds for machines. When the new industrial project has been developed, its performance can be analyzed in terms of customer needs.
76. How long does it take in some industries before a product achieves full commercial potential?
A) From five to ten years.
B) From six to eight years.
C) From seven to eleven years.
D) From eleven to eighteen years.
77. From the passage, we are told that consumer products are developed to _____.
A) make use of appropriate materials
B) assess the management of a company
C) meet a specific need
D) meet a general need
TEXT E BL has dismissed eight works firemen alleged to have been asleep at its LandRover works at Solihull when two two works inspectors paid an unexpected visit to the duty fireroom shortly before dawn on Monday. All firemen on the night shift, including the officer in charge, are said to have been sleeping in chairs or stretched out on the floor. This is the second time in recent years that a group of BL employees at Solihull has been dismissed for sleeping on duty. Two and a half years ago, 13 night shift workers there were found asleep. They had brought sleeping bags, blankets, and built makeshift bunks. But it is understood that no such preparations had been made by the firemen. The eight were brought before a disciplinary hearing on Tuesday and charged with conduct in breach of their duty. They were summarily dismissed. All eight have given voice of their intention of appeal under the companys disputes procedure. The hearing is expected to take place next week with officials of the Transport and General Workers Union representing them.
78. According to the passage, inspectors paid an unexpected visit to the duty fireroom just _____.
A) before the moon rose
B) after the moon set
C) after the sun set
D) before the sun rose
79. How could the previous breach of duty at BL be best described?
A) 13 night shift workers were found playing cards 30 months ago
B) 13 night shift workers were found sleeping soundly 30 months ago
C) 8 night shift workers were found drinking alcohol three years ago
D) 8 night shift workers were found asleep two a half years ago
80. We learn that as a result of this latest case _____.
A) eight firemen were sacked
B) thirteen firemen were dismissed
C) eight firemen were promoted
D) thirteen firemen were fired
SECTION B SKIMMING AND SCANNING
In this section there are six passages with a total of ten multiple-choice questions. Skim or scan them as required and then select your answers to the questions.
TEXT F First read the following questions. 81."Madly extravagant" in this advertisement means _____. A. very cheap B. fairly cheap C. very expensive D. fairly expensive 82.The advertisement appeals to the readers need for _____. A. quiet pleasure B. delicious food C. relaxation D. all of the above Now read Text F quickly and select your answers. JAMAICA Theres no place like home Heres you, at home in Jamaica in your own villa, all pastels and privacy. With Evangeline to spoil you: shes going shopping soon, to surprise you with a lobster for dinner. Madly extravagant? Not at all. There are hundreds of villas for rent, all over Jamaica. Bring your family, or share one with your best friends, and the cost becomes increasingly attractive. And what a nicer way to experience the bountiful wonders of Jamaica than to have your own special place to return to each evening, where you can sit back with a rum punch, talk about tomorrow, and say to yourself, "Theres no place like home."
81. "Madly extravagant" in this advertisement means _____.
A) very cheap
B) fairly cheap
C) very expensive
D) fairly expensive
82. The advertisement appeals to the reader's need for _____.
A) quiet pleasure
B) delicious food
D) all of the above
TEXT G First read the following questions. 83.This passage is mainly about _____. A. the survival of the dinosaur B. how the crocodile has survived C. animals that live to be very old D. animals that have existed for a long time 84.According to the passage, the crocodile A. survived an attack by dinosaurs B. first appeared 100,000 years ago C. has increased in size over time D. has existed for millions of years Now read Text G quickly and select your answers. Some kinds of animals that are still around today were in existence millions of years ago during the time of the dinosaur. One of these survivors is the crocodile, which has been around for about 100 million years. Todays crocodiles can grow to a length of 20 feet and weigh about a ton. Their prehistoric ancestors were about two-and-a-half times the size of todays animals. Another survivor from the past is the Galapagos tortoise, whose history goes back around 200 million years. The tortoise of today has not evolved much over last 200 million years; it looks about the same now as it did way back then. The oldest survivor from prehistoric times is, can you believe it, the cockroach. Cockroaches have been able to stick around for more than 250 million years. The main reason for their incredible endurance is their ability to live in all kinds of conditions and survive on all kinds of food.
83. This passage is mainly about _____.
A) the survival of the dinosaur
B) how the crocodile has survived
C) animals that live to be very old
D) animals that have existed for a long time
84. According to the passage, the crocodile
A) survived an attack by dinosaurs
B) first appeared 100,000 years ago
C) has increased in size over time
D) has existed for millions of years
TEXT H First read the following questions. 85.What is the authors main purpose in the passage? A. To explain a chemical reaction. B. To recommend a cure for arthritis. C. To introduce a new product. D. To compare central heating with the body warmer. 86.In the second paragraph, the word "it" in "To get it going" refers to _____. A. arthritis B. muscle sprains C. the body warmer D. moisturized wood powder Now read Text H quickly and select your answers. Even if the saying "cold hands, warm heart" were really true, the warmhearted probably would prefer to give up frozen fingers during the winter. In Japan, where central heating is still something a luxury, Aoi Co., Ltd. has been distributing a small, disposable hand-and-body warmer that makes use of a harmless chemical reaction in order to generate heat. This winter the Poco body warmer is making its debut in Canada, the United States and parts of Europe. In addition to chasing away winter chills, the body warmer can be used to help relieve pain that results from muscle sprains and arthritis. The Poco body warmer measures about three by five inches and is one-quarter inch thick. It consists of a cloth bag containing a mixture of iron powder, moisturized wood powder, activated carbon and salt. To get it going, the user simply opens the outer vinyl bag in which the unit is vacuum-packed and shakes the cloth bag. The unit then absorbs oxygen from the air, which in conjunction with the moisture from the wood powder oxidizes the iron, giving off heat. The packet maintains an average temperature of 140 degrees Fahrenheit for 24 hours, according to the manufacturer. Aoi Co. officials say that the product contains no toxic chemicals. The only precaution users need to follow is to avoid direct contact between the skin and the body warmer because burns can occur. The unit sells for about 1.
85. What is the author's main purpose in the passage?
A) To explain a chemical reaction.
B) To recommend a cure for arthritis.
C) To introduce a new product.
D) To compare central heating with the body warmer.
86. In the second paragraph, the word "it" in "To get it going" refers to _____.
B) muscle sprains
C) the body warmer
D) moisturized wood powder
TEXT I First read the following questions. 87.How many presidents of the United States died as victims of assassination? A. 8 B. 4 C. 2 D. 6 88.Ronald Reagan was attacked _____. A. at the door of his car B. whilst entering the hotel C. in the conference room D. before the Capitol Now read Text I quickly and select your answers. HINCKLEY, John W., Jr. (1955-): Accused Assailant of Ronald Reagan On March 30, 1981 Ronald Reagan became the eighth sitting president of the United States to be subjected to an assassination attempt and the fourth —— after Andrew Jackson, Harry Truman and Gerald Ford —— to survive. Reagan was shot by a 25-year-old drifter, John W. Hinckley of Evergreen, Colo., as he left the Washington Hilton Hotel, where he had addressed a labor audience. The assailant was seized immediately after having fired four to six shots from a 22-caliber revolver, a type entered under the left armpit, pierced the chest, bounced off the seventh rib and plowed into the left lower lobe of the lung. Reagan froze for a moment at the door of his limousine and then was brusquely pushed inside the car by a Secret Service agent. Remarkably, the President did not realize he had been shot but thought he had simply been injured when shoved into the car. Only upon arrival at the hospital was it determined that he had been shot. Also wounded were three others: the Presidents press secretary, James S. Brady; a Secret Service agent, Timothy J. McCarthy; and a District of Columbia police officer in Dallas and moved with his family to Colorado in 1974. He had attended Texas Tech University but never graduated. At times he had traveled across the country, and in 1978 he had enrolled himself in the National Socialist Party of America, generally known as the Nazi Party of America. A spokesman for that organization said the group had not renewed Hinckleys membership the following year because of his "violent nature".
87. How many presidents of the United States died as victims of assassination?
88. Ronald Reagan was attacked _____.
A) at the door of his car
B) whilst entering the hotel
C) in the conference room
D) before the Capitol
TEXT J First read the following questions. 89.The Factory Spring Art Walk offers all of the following EXCEPT _____. A. art exhibits B. walks through historic buildings C. sculpture classes D. lectures on photography Now read Text J quickly and select your answers. Meet more than 100 artists and see the work of painters, sculptors, photographers, and designers at the Factory Spring Art Walk this Saturday and Sunday. The historic twelve-building complex, formerly the Cold Springs Textile Factory, is now home to hundreds of artists who will open their studios to the public. Noted local photographer Tomoko Hashimoto gives talks at 1 p.m. both days. Tours of the buildings start at noon on Saturday only. Factory Spring Art Walk, Saturday, 10 a.m. to 7 p.m. and Sunday, 11 a.m. to 6 p.m. Main Street at Route 40 near downtown. No admission fee. Art and refreshments for sale. Parking 2 (415)555-4397.
89. The Factory Spring Art Walk offers all of the following EXCEPT _____.
A) art exhibits
B) walks through historic buildings
C) sculpture classes
D) lectures on photography
TEXT K First read the following questions. 90.Which of the following is NOT provided by the hotel? A. A desk. B. A fax machine. C. A coffeemaker. D. A laptop computer. Now read Text K quickly and select your answers. Regent Hotels and Resorts Are A Step Away From The Office For the business traveler whose needs reach far beyond the in-room coffeemaker (which is still the finest), we introduce the Regent Corporate Club Room, a work space cleverly disguised as sleeping quarters. With a swivel desk chair, a fax/printer/copier, and a desk lamp with outlets for your laptop, youll be able to carry out the corporate mission in total comfort. And because we offer long-distance service, you can use your Telephone Calling Card to keep in touch with your family and children back home. To request a Regent Corporate Club Room for your next stay, call your travel planner or 1-800-555-3586. For online reservations visit us at http://www.regent.com.
90. Which of the following is NOT provided by the hotel?
A) A desk.
B) A fax machine.
C) A coffeemaker.
D) A laptop computer.
PART V DICTION
Listen to the following passage. Altogether the passage will be read to you four times. During the first reading, which will be read at normal speed, listen and try to understand the meaning. For the second and third readings, the passage will be read sentence by sentence, or phrase by phrase, with intervals of 15 seconds. The last reading will be read at normal speed again and during this time you should check your work. You will then be given 2 minutes to check through your work once more.
PART VI WRITING
Write a composition of about 150 words on the following topic:
MY VIEW ON COLLEGE STUDENTS PAYING THE TUITION FEE You are to write in three parts. In the first part, state clearly your viewpoint on this issue. In the second part, give one or two reasons to support your point of view. In the last part, bring what you have written to a natural conclusion. Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriacy. Failure to follow these instructions may result in the loss of marks.
SECTION B NOTE-WRITING [10 MIN.] Write a note of about 50-60 words based on the following situation: Its Sunday afternoon. Your hostess is out. And you decide to go to a nearby town. You will miss your evening meal. Write a note to the hostess explaining this and anything else which is important. Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriacy.