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MBA英语专业述语汇总AB

2006-1-25 15:11  

  A

  Ability-to-pay principle能力纳税原则

  The idea that taxes should be levied on a person according to how well that person can shoulder the burden

  Absolute advantage绝对优势

  The comparison among producers of a good according to their productivity

  Aggregate-demand curve总需求曲线

  A curve that shows the quantity of goods and services that households, firms, and the government want to buy at any price level

  Aggregate-supply curve总供给曲线

  A curve that shows the quantity of goods and services that firms choose to produce and sell at any level

  Appreciation升值

  An increase in the value of a currency as measured by the amount of foreign currency it can buy

  Automatic stabilizers自动稳定器

  Changes in fiscal policy that stimulate aggregate demand when the economy goes into a recession without policymakers having to take any deliberate action

  Average fixed cost平均固定成本

  Fixed costs divided by the quantity of output

  Average revenue平均收益

  Total revenue divided by the quantity sold

  Average tax rate平均税率

  Total taxes paid divided by total income

  Average total cost平均总成本

  Total cost divided by the quantity of output

  Average variable cost平均可变成本

  Variables costs divided by the quantity of output

  Accelerator加速数

  the effect on GDP of the increase in investment that results from an increase in output. For instance, the greater output leads a firm to believe that the demand for its products will rise in the future; the resulting increase in investment leads to growth in output and still further increases in investment, accelerating the expansion of the economy

  Acquired endowments后天禀赋

  resources a country builds for itself, like a network of roads or an educated population

  Adaptive expectations适应性预期

  expectations based on the extrapolation of events in the recent past into the future

  aggregate expenditures schedule总支出曲线

  a curve that traces out the relationship between expenditures——the sum of consumption, investment, government expenditures, and net exports——and the national income, at a fixed price level

  antitrust laws反托拉斯法

  laws that discourage monopoly and restrictive practices and encourage greater competition

  arbitrage套利

  the process by which assets with comparable risk, liquidity, and tax treatment are priced to yield comparable expected returns

  adverse selection逆向选择

  principle that says that those who most want to buy insurance tend to be those most at risk, but charging a high price for insurance (to cover the high risk)will discourage those at less risk from buying insurance at all

  asset资产

  any item that is long-lived, purchased for the service it renders over its life and for what one will receive when one sells it

  assistance in kind实物援助

  public assistance that provides particular goods and services, like food or medical care, rather than cash

  asymmetric information信息不对称

  a situation in which the parties to a transaction have different information, as when the seller or a used car has more information about its quality then the buyer

  autonomous consumption自主消费

  that part of consumption that does not depend on income

  average costs平均成本

  the total costs divided by the total output

  average productivity平均产量

  total quantity divided by the total quantity of input

  B

  Benefits principle 受益原则

  The idea that people should pay taxes based on the benefits they receive from government services

  Bond 债券

  A certificate of indebtedness

  Budget constraint 预算约束

  The limit on the consumption bundles that a consumer can afford

  Budget deficit 预算赤字

  An excess of government spending over government receipts

  Budget surplus 预算盈余

  An excess of government receipts over government spendin

  barriers to entry 进入障碍

  factors that prevent firms from entering a market, such as government rules or patents

  basic competitive model 基本竞争模型

  the model of the economy that pulls together the assumptions of self-interested consumers, profit maximizing firms, and perfectly competitive markets

  bequest savings motive 储蓄的遗产动机

  people save so that they can leave an inheritance to their children

  Bertrand competition 伯特兰竞争

  an oligopoly in which each firm believes that its rivals are committed to keeping their prices fixed and that customers can be lured away by offering lower prices

  bilateral trade 双边贸易

  trade between two parties

  boom 繁荣

  a period of time when resources are being fully used and GDP is growing steadily

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