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英语专业八级考试模拟题5

2006-01-23 00:00

  PART I LISTENING COMPREHENSION

  In Section A, B and C you will hear everything ONLY ONCE. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct response to each question on the Colored Answer Sheet.

  SECTION A    TALK

  Question 1 to 5 refer to the talk in this section. At the end of the talk you will be given 15 seconds to answer each of the following five questions.

  Now listen to the talk.

  1. "____ had it not for the courage of a minor chieftain ____" means ____ A) thanks to

  B) in spite of

  C) but for

  D) because of

  2. Shaka was inhuman because ____ A) he made himself King of the Zulus

  B) he gave special privileges to his bodyguard

  C) he set standards he could not keep himself

  D) he had no respect for human life

  3. "All those who had failed to be present at the funeral ____" means ____. A) all who had not come

  B) all who had not been able to come

  C) all who had not brought presents

  D) all who had not announced their arrival

  4. Shaka's orders were "little less than a sentence of national starvation because ____. A) the Zulus were not lazy to cultivate anything but grain

  B) the Zulus were already on a diet

  C) the Zulus' food consisted mainly of grain and milk products.

  D) the Zulus had nothing else to eat

  5. To challenge the King's wishes at such a moment was ____. A) to want to die at once

  B) to beg to be killed at once

  C) to run the risk of being killed on the spot

  D) to ask for a quick and painless death

  SECTION B INTERVIEW

  Question 6 to 10 are based on an interview. At the end of the interview you will be given 15 seconds to answer each of the following question.

  Now listen to the interview.

  6. A particular way to deal with aggressive children is to ____. A) give them severe punishment

  B) tell them to behave themselves

  C) organize them to fight

  D) send some of them to prison

  7. The boxing competition was to ____. A) train them to be professional boxers

  B) teach them to follow rules

  C) give them some physical exercise

  D) cultivate their sense of competition

  8. What did one of the boys do? A) He killed his cat.

  B) He cut off his dog's ears.

  C) He hurt another boy.

  D) He blinded his cat.

  9. Some children are aggressive because ____. A) they are from very poor families

  B) their parents are usually aggressive

  C) they want to show they are strong

  D) they are longing for attention

  10. In this special school, there are usually ____ children in a class. A) 5 or 6

  B) 30 or 40

  C) 7 to 10

  D) 13 to 14

  SECTION D NOTE-TAKING AND GAP-FILLING

  In this section you will hear a mini-lecture. You will hear the lecture ONLY ONCE. While listening to the lecture, take notes on the important points. Your notes will not be marked, but you will need them to complete a 15-minute gap-filling task on ANSWER SHEET ONE after the mini lecture. Use the blank sheet for note-taking.

  ANSWER SHEET ONE

  Fill in each of the gaps with ONE suitable word. You may refer to your notes. Make sure the word you fill in is both grammatically and semantically acceptable.

  Sports In Britain

  There are 3 major (16) sports in Great Britain. They are    football, Cricket, and Rugby. Football, or soccer, is the most popular. Football matches are shown on the BBC on (17) evenings around 10 oclock. Some football grounds will have crowds more than (18).

  Professional teams are organized into four (19) in England    and 2 in Scotland. At the end of the season, some teams are (20), and some are (21) Recently, some clubs are always    in (22) trouble.

  Rugby was first played at a famous public school called (23). Rugby is played all over Britain. It has been described as "a game designed for hooligans but played by gentlemen".

  Cricket seems more peaceful and is played in (24).

  Some of the countries of the (25) send national teams to play each other. This is called A Test Match, which can go on for 5 days.

  16.

  17.

  18.

  19.

  20.

  21.

  22.

  23.

  24.

  25.

  PART II PROOFREADING & ERROR CORRECTION

  The following passage contains ten errors. Each line contains a maximum of one error. In each case only one word is involved. You should proofread the passage and correct it in the following way:

  For a wrong word, underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank provided at the end of the line.

  For a missing word, mark the position of the missing word with a "^" sign    and write the word you believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end    of the line.

  For an unnecessary word,    cross the unnecessary word with a slash "/" and put the word in the blank provided at the end of the line.

  The telephone system is a circuit-switched network.

  For much of the history of the system, when you placed

  (26)

  a call, you were renting a pair of copper wires that ran

  continuously from your telephone to the other partys

  phone. You had excluding use of those wires during the

  (27)

  call; when you hung up, they were rented to someone

  else. Today the transaction is more complicated. (your call

  may well possess a fiber-optic cable or a satellite with

  hundreds of other calls), but more conceptually the system

  (28)

  still works the same way. When you dial the phone, you get

  a private connection of one other party.

  This is an alternative network architecture called

  (29)

  packet switching, in which all stations are always connected

  to the network, but they receive only the messages addressed

  to them. It is as if your telephone was always tuned in to

  (30)

  thousands of conversations going on the wire, but you

  (31)

  heard only the occasional word intended to you. Most

  (32)

  computer networks employ packet switching, because

  it is more efficient than circuit switching when traffic

  is heavy. It seems reasonable the existing packet-switched

  (33)

  network will grow, and new one may be created; they could

  (34)

  well absorb traffic that would otherwise go to the telephone

  system and thereby reduce the need for telephone numbers.

  (35)

  26.

  27.

  28.

  29.

  30.

  31.

  32.

  33.

  34.

  35.

  PART III READING COMPREHENSIONS

  In this section there are four reading passages followed by fifteen multiple-choice questions. Read the passages and then mark your answers on your Answer Sheet.

  TEXT A   The House of Lords has a charm few people seem able to resist. The more cut-off it becomes from everyday life, the greater its attraction for weary businessmen and politicians. On the road outside the word "Peers" is painted across the car-park in large white letters. Inside a tall ex-Guardsman directs you through the vaulted entrance hall, past a long row of elaborate gothic coat-hooks, each one labeled, beginning with the royal dukes —— one of the many features of the building reminiscent of a school.   Upstairs you come to a series of high, dark rooms, with gothic woodwork and carved ceilings. A life-size white marble statue of the young Queen Victoria watches elderly peers sitting at tables writing letters on gothic writing paper. Doors lead off to long dining-rooms, one for guests, another for peers only and to a large bar looking over the river, which serves drinks all day and sells special "House of Lords" cigarettes. Other closed doors are simply marked "Peers" —— an embarrassing ambiguity for lady peers, for "peers" can mean the Lords equivalent of "gentle-men".   There is an atmosphere of contented old age. The rooms are full of half-remembered faces of famous men or politicians one had —— how shall one put it —— forgotten were still around. There is banter between left-wing peers and right-wing peers and a great deal of talk about operations and ailments and nursing homes.   Leading off the man ante-room is the chamber itself —— the fine flower of the Victorian romantic style. It is small, only eighty feet long. Stained glass windows shed a dark red light, and rows of statues look down from the walls. On either side are long red-leather sofas with dark wooden choir stalls at the back. Between the two sides is "the Woolsack", the traditional seat of the Lord Chancellor, stuffed with bits of wool from all over the Commonwealth. At the far end is an immense gold canopy, with twenty-foot high candlesticks in the middle, the throne from which the monarch opens Parliament.   Leaning back, on the sofa, whispering, putting their feet up, listening, fumbling with papers, making notes or simply sleeping, are the peers. On a full day, which is rear, you can see them in their groups: bishops, judges, industrial peers. But usually there is only a handful of peers sitting in the room, though since peers have been paid three guineas for attending, there are often an average of 110 peers in an afternoon.   In the imposing surroundings it is sometimes difficult to remember how unimportant the Lords are. The most that the Lords can do now is delay a bill a year, and any "money bill" they can delay for only a month. Their main impact comes from the few inches of space in next mornings papers. The Prime Minister can create as many peers as he likes and, though to carry out the threat would be embarrassing, the nightmare is real enough to bring the peers to heel.

  36. The author feels that House of Lords is ____

  A) delightful, but out of touch with the modern world.

  B) remote from daily life and rather tired.

  C) a place that businessmen and politicians like resting in.

  D) an excellent resting place for politicians and businessmen.

  37. Many members of the House of Lord are ____

  A) well-known politicians and famous TV personalities.

  B) distinguished and celebrated politicians.

  C) notorious and remarkable men.

  D) men who have dropped out of the world in which they became well-know.

  38. The only real influence the peers have now is ____

  A) to delay money bills for one year if they don't agree with them.

  B) if their speeches affect pubic opinion through the newspapers.

  C) that they can make the Prime Minister nervous if they threaten not to agree to his bills.

  D) they can refuse to accept any government act for one year.

  TEXT B   With its common interest in lawbreaking but its immense range of subject-matter and widely-varying method of treatment, the crime novel could make a legitimate claim to be regarded as a separate branch of the traditional novel.   The detective story is probably the most respectful (at any in the narrow sense of word) of the crime species. Its creation is often the relaxation of University dons, literary economists, scientists or even poets. Fatalities may occur more frequently and mysteriously than might be expected in polite society, is familiar to us, if not from our own experience, at least in the newspaper or the lives of friends. The characters, though normally realized superficially, are as recognizable human and consistent as our less intimate associates. As story set in a more remote environment, African jungle or Australian bush, ancient China or gas-lit London, appeals to our interest in geography or history, and most detective story writers are conscientious in providing a reasonably authentic background. The elaborate, carefully-assemble plot, despised by the modern intellectual critics and creators of significant novels, has found refuge in the murder mystery, with its sprinkling of clues, its spicing with apparent impossibilities, all with appropriate solutions and explanations at the end. With the guilt of escapism from Real Life nagging gently, we secretly revel in the unmasking of evil by a vaguely super-human sleuth, who sees through and dispels the cloud of suspicion which has hovered so unjustly over the innocent.   Though its villain also receives his rightful deserts, the thriller presents a less comfortable and credible world. The sequence of fist fights, revolver duels, car crashes and escaped from gas-filled cellars exhausts the reader far more than than the hero, who, suffering from at least two broken ribs, one black eye, uncountable bruises and a hangover, can still chase and overpower an armed villain with the physique of a wrestler. He moves dangerously through a world of ruthless gangs, brutality, a vicious lust for power and money and, in contrast to the detective tale, with a near-omniscient arch-criminal whose defeat seems almost accidental. Perhaps we miss in the thriller the security of being safely led by our imperturbable investigator past a score of red herrings and blind avenues to a final gathering of suspects when an unchallengeable elucidation of all that has bewildered us is given justice and goodness prevail. All that we vainly hope for from life is granted vicariously.

  39. The crime novel may be regarded as ____

  A) a not quite respectable form of the conventional novel.

  B) not a true novel at all.

  C) related in some ways to the historical novel.

  D) an independent development of the novel.

  40. The passage suggests that intellectuals write detective stories because ____

  A) the stories are often in fact very instructive

  B) they enjoy writing these stories.

  C) the creation of these stories demands considerable intelligence.

  D) detective stories are an accepted branch of literature.

  41. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage as one of the similarities between the detective story and the thriller?

  A) both have involved plots.

  B) both are condemned by modern critics.

  C) both are forms of escapist fiction.

  D) both demonstrate the triumph of right over wrong.

  42. In what way are the detective story and the thriller unlike?

  A) in introducing violence

  B) in providing excitement and suspense

  C) in appealing to the intellectual curiosity of the readers

  D) in ensuring that everything comes tight in the end.

  TEXT C   In most of the human civilization of which we have any proper records, youth has drawn on either art or life for models, planning to emulate the heroes depicted in epics on the shadow —— play screen or the stage, or those known human beings, fathers or grandfathers, chiefs or craftsmen, whose every characteristic can be studied and imitated. As recently as 1910, this was the prevailing condition in the United States. If he came from a non-literate background, the recent immigrant learned to speak, move, and think like an American by using his eyes and ears on the labor line and in the homes of more acculturated cousins, by watching school children, or by absorbing the standards of the teacher, the foreman, the clerk who served him in the store. For the literate and the literate children of the non-literate, there was art —— the story of the frustrated artist in the prairie town of the second generation battling with the limitations of the first. And at a simpler level, there were the Western and Hollywood fairy tales which pointed a moral but did not, as a rule, reach table manners.   With the development of the countermovement against Hollywood, with the efflorescence of photography, with Time-Life-Fortune types of reporting and the dead-pan New York manner of describing the life of an old-clothes dealer in a forgotten street or of presenting the "accurate", "checked" details of the lives of people whose eminence gave at least a sort of license to attack them, with the passion for "human documents" in Depression days —— a necessary substitute for proletarian art among middle-class writers who knew nothing about proletarians, and middle-class readers who needed the shock of verisimilitude —— a new era in American life was ushered in. It was the era in which young people imitated neither life nor art nor fairy tale, but instead were presented with models drawn from life with minimal but crucial distortions. Doctored life histories, posed carelessness, "candid" shots of people in their own homes which took hours to arrange, pictures shot from real life to script written months before supplemented by national polls and surveys which assured the reader that this hobby socks did indeed represent a national norm or a growing trend —— replaced the older models.

  43. This article is based on the idea that ____

  A) people today do not look for models to imitate.

  B) whom we emulate is not important.

  C) people generally pattern their lives after models.

  D) heroes are passed.

  44. Stories of the second generation battling against the limitation of the first were often responsible for ____

  A) inspiring literate immigrants.

  B) frustrating educated immigrants.

  C) preventing the assimilation of immigrants.

  D) instilling into immigrants an antagonistic attitude toward their forebears.

  45. The counter movement against Hollywood was a movement ____

  A) toward fantasy.

  B) against the teachings of morals.

  C) towards realism.

  D) away from realism.

  46. The author attribute the change in attitude since 1920 to ____

  A) a logical evolution of ideas.

  B) widespread of moral decay.

  C) the influence of the press.

  D) a philosophy of plenty.

  TEXT D   During the holiday I received no letter from Myrtle and when I returned to the town she had gone away. I telephoned each day until she came back, and then she said she was going to a party. I put up with her new tactics patiently. The next time we spent an evening together there was no quarrel. To avoid it I took Myrtle to the cinema. We did not mention Haxby. On the other hand it was impossible to pretend that either of us was happy. Myrtles expression of unhappiness was deepening. Day by day I watched her sink into a bout of despair, and I concluded it was my fault —— had I not concluded it was my fault, the looks Myrtle gave me would rapidly have concluded it for me.   The topic of conversation we avoided above all others was the project of going to America. I cursed the tactlessness of Robert and Tom in talking about it in front of her before I had had time to prepare her for it. I felt aggrieved, as one does after doing wrong and being found out. I did not know what to do.   When you go to the theatre you see a number of characters caught in a dramatic situation. What happens next? They then everything is changed. My life is different I never have scenes, and I if I do, they are discouragingly not dramatic. Practically no action arises. And nothing what so ever is changed. My life is not as good as a play. Nothing like it.   All I did with my present situation was try and tide it over. When Myrtle emerged from the deepest blackness of despair —— nobody after all, could remain there definitely —— I tried to comfort her. I gradually unfolded all my plan, including those for her. She could come to America, too. She was a commercial artist. She could get a job and our relationship could continue as it was. And I will not swear that I did not think:" And in America she might even succeed in marrying me." It produced no effect. She began to drink more. She began to go to parties very frequently; it was very soon clear that she had decided to see less of her.   I do not blame Myrtle. Had I been in her place I would have tried to do the same thing. Being in my place I tried to prevent her. I knew what sort of parties she was going to: they were parties at which Haxby was present.   We began to wrangle over going out with each other. She was never free at the times I suggested. Sometimes, usually on a Saturday night, she first arranged to meet me and then changed her mind. I called that rubbing it in a little too far. But her behavior, I repeat, perfectly sensible. By seeing less of me she stood a chance of finding somebody else, or of making me jealous, or of both. Either way she could not lose.

  47. When Myrtle was avoiding the author he ____

  A) saw through her plan and behave calmly.

  B) became angry and could not put her out of his mind.

  C) was worried and uncomprehending.

  D) decided that he could not bear the way she treated him.

  48. The author felt guilty and angry because ____

  A) his friends had discovered that he had not told Myrtle anything.

  B) Tom and Robert had told Myrtle about their plans.

  C) Myrtle had found out their plans when Tom and Robert talked.

  D) he had told Myrtle their plans before Tom and Robert mentioned them.

  49. The author complains that his life was not like a play in which ____

  A) the characters solve their problems by violence.

  B) the violence that follows action solves their problems.

  C) the action that follows quarrels solves their problems.

  D) the characters solved their problems in spite of violence.

  50. The real reason why Myrtle was angry and upset was that ____

  A) she had never wanted to go to America with the author.

  B) the author would not agree to take her as his wife.

  C) she did not want him to go to America with his enemies.

  D) she did not want to be felt behind in America.

  SECTION B SKIMMING AND SCANNING

  In this section there are seven passage followed by ten multiple-choice questions. Skim or scan them as required and then mark your answers on your Answer Sheet.

  TEXT E First read the question. 51. What is the authors main purpose in the passage? A. to point out the importance of recent advances in archaeology. B. to describe an archaeologists education. C. to explain how archaeology is a source of history. D. to encourage more people to become archaeologist. Now go though Text E quickly to answer question 51.   Archaeology is a source of history, not just a humble auxiliary discipline. Archaeological data are historical documents in their own right, not mere illustrations to written texts. Just as much as any other historian, an archaeologist studies and tries to reconstitute the process that has created the human world in which we live —— and us ourselves in so far as we are each creatures of our age and social environment. Archaeological data are all changed in the material world resulting from human action or, more succinctly, the fossilized results of human behavior. The sum total of these constitute what may be called the archaeological record. This record exhibits certain peculiarities and deficiencies the consequences of which produce a rather superficial contrast between archaeological history and the more familiar kind based upon written records.   Not all human behavior fossilizes. The words I utter and you hear as vibrations in the air are certainly human changes in the material world any may be of great historical significance. Yet they leave no sort of trace in the archaeological records unless they are captured by a Dictaphone or written down by a clerk. The movement of troops on the battlefield may "change the course of history", but this is equally ephemeral from the archaeologists standpoint. What is perhaps worse is that most organic materials are perishable. Everything made of wood, hide, wool, linen, grass, hair, and similar materials will decay and vanish in dust in a few years or centuries, save under very exceptional conditions. In a relatively brief period the archaeological record is reduced to mere scraps of stone, bone, glass, metal, and earthenware. Still modern by a few lucky finds from peat bogs, deserts, and frozen soils, is able to fill up a good deal of the gap.

  51. What is the author's main purpose in the passage?

  A) to point out the importance of recent advances in archaeology.

  B) to describe an archaeologist's education.

  C) to explain how archaeology is a source of history.

  D) to encourage more people to become archaeologist.

  TEXT F First read the questions. 52. The main subject of the passage is ____ A. famous mathematicians. B. mathematical education. C. tiling the plane. D. irregular polygons. Now go through TEXT F quickly and answer question 52.   Marjorie Rice was an unlike candidate for the role of mathematical innovator. She had no formal education in mathematics save a single course required for graduation from high school in 1931. Nonetheless, in 1975 she took up a problem that professional mathematicians had twice left for dead, and showed how much life was in it still.   The problem was tessellation, or tiling of the plane, which involves taking a single closed figure —— a triangle, for example, or a rectangle —— and kitting it together with copies of itself so that a plane is covered without any gaps or overlap. A region of this plane would look rather like a jigsaw puzzle whose pieces are all identical. Rice worked primarily with polygons, which consist only of straight lines. More specifically, she worked with convex polygons, in which the line joining any two points on the polygon lies entirely within the polygon itself or on one of its edges. (A five-pointed star, for example, does not qualify as a convex polygon.)   By the time Rice took up tiling, its basic properties had been established. Obviously, any square can tile the plane, as many kitchen floors have demonstrated. Equilateral triangles are also a fairly clear-cut case. There is one other regular polygon (a polygon whose angles, and sides, are equal) that can tile the plane: the hexagon. This fact was building their honeycombs.   And what of irregular polygons? As it turns out, any triangle or quadrilateral, no matter how devoid of regularity, will tile the plane. On the other hand, no convex polygon with more than six sides can do so, and the three classes of convex hexagons that can were uncovered by the end of the First World War. So the only real question lest by the time Marjorie Rice began her work was which convex pentagons tile the plane.

  52. The main subject of the passage is ____

  A) famous mathematicians.

  B) mathematical education.

  C) tiling the plane.

  D) irregular polygons.

  TEXT G First read the following question. 53. What is the passage mainly about? A. faint dwarf stars. B. the evolutionary cycle of the Sun. C. the Suns fuel problem. D. the dangers of invisible radiation. Now go through TEXT G and answer question 53.   When we accept the evidence of our unaided eyes and describe the Sun as a yellow star, we have summed up the most important single fact about it —— at this moment in time. It appears probable, however, that sunlight will be the color we know for only a negligibly small part of the Suns history.   Stars, like individuals, age and change. As we look out into space, we see around us stars at all stages of evolution. There are faint blooded dwarfs so cool that their surface temperature is a mere 4,000 degrees Fahrenheit, there are searing ghosts blazing at 100,000 degrees Fahrenheit and almost too hot to be seen for the great part of their radiation is in the invisible ultraviolet range. Obviously, the "daylight" produced by any star depends on its temperature, today (and for ages to come) our Sun is at about 10,000 degrees Fahrenheit and this means that most of the Suns light is concentrated in the yellow band of the spectrum falling slowly in intensity toward both the longer and shorter light waves.   That yellow "hump" will shift as the Sun evolves and the light of day will change accordingly. It is natural to assume that as the Sun grows older and uses up its hydrogen fuel —— which it is now doing at the sparkling rate of half a billion tons a second —— it will become steadily colder and colder.

  53. What is the passage mainly about?

  A) faint dwarf stars.

  B) the evolutionary cycle of the Sun.

  C) the Sun's fuel problem.

  D) the dangers of invisible radiation.

  TEXT H First read the following question. 54. Which of the following would be the best title for the passage? A. the evolution of dance in the twentieth century. B. artists of last century. C. natural movement in dance. D. a pioneer on modern dance. Now go through TEXT H quickly and answer question 54.   Many artists late in the last century were in search means to express their individuality. Modern dance was one of the ways some of these people sought to free their creative spirit. At the beginning there was no exacting technique, no foundation from which to build. In later years trial, innovators even drew from what they considered the dread ballet, but first they had to discard all that was academic to that the new could be discovered. The beginning of modern dance were happening before Isadora Duncan, but she was the first person to bring the new dance to general audiences and see it accepted and acclaimed.   Her search for natural movement form sent her to nature. She believed movement should be as natural as the swaying of the trees and the rolling of the sea, and should be in harmony with the movements of the Earth. Her great contributions are in three areas.   First, she began the expansion of the kinds of movements that could be used in dance. Before Duncan danced, ballet was the only type of dance performed in concert. In the ballet the feet and legs were emphasized, with virtuosity shown by complicated, codified positions and movements. Duncan performed dance by using all her body in the freest possibly way. Her dance stemmed from her soul and spirit. She was one of the pioneers who broke tradition so others might be able to develop the art.   Her second contribution lies in dance costume. She discarded corset, ballet shoes, and stiff costumes. There were replaced with flowing Grecian tunics, bare feet, and unbound hair. She believed in the natural body being allowed to move freely, and her dress displayed this ideal.   Her third contribution was in the use of music. In her performances she used the symphonies of great masters, including Beethoven and Wagner, which was not the usual custom.   She was as exciting and eccentric in her personal life as in her dance.

  54. Which of the following would be the best title for the passage?

  A) the evolution of dance in the twentieth century.

  B) artists of last century.

  C) natural movement in dance.

  D) a pioneer on modern dance.

  TEXT I First read the following questions. 55. From the passage we know that Washington is ____ A. a place about 50 kilometers east of Manassas. B. a place 48 kilometers west of Manassas. C. the place where the biggest battle reenactment will take place. D. the place where the first major battle of the American Civil War tool place on July 21, 1861. 56. From the passage we know that to commemorate the first major battle of the American Civil War people have been organizing reenactments since ____ A. 1861. B. the 1960s. C. the 1860s. D. 125 years ago. Now go through TEXT I quickly and answer questions 55 and 56.   For four days in hilly fields near this country town, thousands of men will wear brocaded wool uniforms in the summer heat, smoke smelly cheroots by camp fires, pitch canvas tents, eat dried beef —— and wage war.   Some 5,000 weekend warriors plan to reenact the first major battle of the American Civil War not far from where it took place 48 kilometers west of Washington 125 years ago.   The American Civil War Commemorative Committee of Culpeper, Virginia, the events sponsor, bills this as the biggest battle reenactment ever held in the United States.   While the real north-south clash was fought out in one day, on July 21, 1861, the replay will stretch out over four, including preliminary encampment, from July 17 to 20.   Those arranging the return of the first battle of Manassas, as southerners call it —— the Battle of Bull Run to Northerners —— expect over 50,000 Civil War buffs to watch the fighting roll across a 200-hectare tract.   Some 15,000 artillery shells and a half million rounds of small arms ammunition will be fired in the mock battle. A special effects company is arranging to set off explosions across the landscape, Hollywood war-film fashion, in counterpoint to thunderous fire cannons some of which were used in the original battle.   Jack Thompson, a director of the sponsoring committee, says dozens of mock Civil War military units have been created since interest was fanned in the 1960s when reenactments took place on a smaller scale to commemorate the wars centenary.   He said these groups, mostly in the south but with delegations from areas as far off as Scotland, Ireland and West Germany, strive to duplicate the uniforms, weapons and lifestyles of 1860s.   Organizer Nancy Niero says everything has to be original, or reproduced as precisely as possible.   Most authentic Civil War uniforms are too worn, too delicate or too small to fit the modern man, but some of the distinctive originals have been lovingly preserved and now serve as models for exact replicas.   Cheating will be barred. That means a ban on using any any sort of clothing, equipment, food or drink which did not exist during the real Civil War.   Smokers, for instance, must shun cigarettes. Canned beer, soda and pre-packed food are all out, but a spokesman said:" I guess if anyone gets hurt, well use antibiotics. We wont use leeches."

  55. From the passage we know that Washington is ____

  A) a place about 50 kilometers east of Manassas.

  B) a place 48 kilometers west of Manassas.

  C) the place where the biggest battle reenactment will take place.

  D) the place where the first major battle of the American Civil War tool place on July 21, 1861.

  56. From the passage we know that to commemorate the first major battle of the American Civil War people have been organizing reenactments since ____

  A) 1861.

  B) the 1960s.

  C) the 1860s.

  D) 125 years ago.

  TEXT J First read the following questions. 57. Surgeons in the early years of this century, compared with modern ones, ____ A. had less to learn about surgery. B. needed more knowledge. C. could perform every operation known today. D. were more trusted by their patients. 58. Today, compared with 1910 ____ A. five times fewer patients die after being operated on. B. 20% fewer of all operation patients die. C. 20% of all operation patients recover. D. operation death have increased by 20%. Now go through TEXT J quickly and answer questions 57 and 58.   The need for a surgical operation, especially an emergency operation, almost always comes as a severe shock to the patient and his family. Despite modern advances, most people still have an irrational fear of hospitals and anesthetics. Patients do not often believe they really need surgery —— cutting onto a part of the body as opposed to treatment with drugs.   In the early years of this century there was little specialization in surgery. A good surgeon was capable of performing almost every operation that had been devised up to that time. Today the situation is different. Operations are now being carried out that were not even dreamed of fifty years ago. The heart can be safely opened and its valves repaired. Clogged blood vessels can be cleaned out, and broken ones mended or replaced. A lung, the whole stomach, or even part of the brain can be removed and still permit the patient to live a comfortable and satisfactory life. However, not every surgeon wants to, or is qualified to carry our every type of modern operation.   The scope of surgery had increased remarkably in this century. Its safety has increased too. Deaths from most operations are about 20% of what they were in 1910 and surgery has been extended in many directions, for example to certain types of birth defects in newborn babies, and, at the other end of the scale, to life-saving operations for octogenarian. The hospital stay after surgery has been shortened to as little as a week for most major operations. Most patients are out of bed on the day after an operation and may be back at work in two or three weeks.   Many developments in modern surgery are almost incredible. They include the replacement of damaged blood vessels with simulated ones made of plastics; the replacement of heart valves with plastic substitutes; the transplanting of tissues such as the lens of the eye; the invention of artificial kidney to clean the blood of poisons at regular intervals and the development of heart and lung machined to keep patients alive during very long operations. All these things open a hopeful vista for the future of surgery.   One of the most revolutionary areas of modern surgery is that of organ transplants. Until a few years ago, no person, except an identical twin, was able to accept into his body the tissues of another person without reaction against them and eventually killing them. Recently, however, it has been discovered that with the use of x-rays and special drugs, it is possible to graft tissues from one person to another which will survive for periods of a year or more. Kidneys have been successfully transplanted between non-identical twins. Heart and lung transplants have been reasonably successful in animals, though rejection problems in humans have not yet to be solved.   Spare parts surgery, the simple routine replacement of all worn-out organs by new ones, is still a dream of the distant future. As yet, surgery is not ready for such miracles. In the meantime, you can be happy if your doctor says to you, "Yes, I think it is possible to operate on you for this condition."

  57. Surgeons in the early years of this century, compared with modern ones, ____

  A) had less to learn about surgery.

  B) needed more knowledge.

  C) could perform every operation known today.

  D) were more trusted by their patients.

  58. Today, compared with 1910 ____

  A) five times fewer patients die after being operated on.

  B) 20% fewer of all operation patients die.

  C) 20% of all operation patients recover.

  D) operation death have increased by 20%.

  TEXT K First read the following questions. 59. The art of cutting and polishing precious stones remained crude until ____ A. the fourteenth century. B. the fifteenth century. C. the sixteenth century. D. the seventeenth century. 60. Zaire produces ____ A. 70% of all diamonds sold. B. 70% of industrial diamonds sold. C. 70% of all precious stones sold. D. 70% of the worlds blue-white diamonds. Now go though TEXT K quickly and answer questions 59 and 60.   Some of the earliest diamonds known came from India. In the eighteenth century they were found in Brazil, and in 1866 huge deposits were found neat Kimberley in South Africa. Though evidence of extensive diamond deposits has recently been found in Siberia, the continent of Africa still produces nearly all the worlds supply of these stones.   The most valuable diamonds are large individual crystals of of pure crystalline carbon. Less perfect forms, knows as boart and carbonado are clusters of tiny crystals. Until diamonds are cut and polished, they do not sparkle like those you see on a ring —— they just look like small, blue-gray stones.   In a rather crude form, the cutting and polishing of precious stones was an art known to the Ancient Egyptians, and in the Middle Ages it became widespread in north-west Europe. However, a revolutionary change in the methods of cutting and polishing was made in 1476 when Ludwig Van Berquen of Bruges in Belgium invented the use of a swiftly revolving wheel with its edge faced with fine diamond powder. The name boart is given to this fine powder as well as the natural crystalline material already mentioned. It is also given to badly flawed or broken diamond crystals, useless as jewels, that are broken into powder for grinding purposes, the so-called industrial diamonds.   Diamond itself is the only material hard enough to cut and polish diamonds —— though recently, high-intensity light beams called lasers have been developed which can bore holes in them. It may be necessary to split or cleave the large stones before they are cut and polished. Every diamond has a natural line of cleavage, along with it may be split by a sharp blow with a cutting edge.   A fully cut brilliant diamond has 58 facts, or faces, regularly arranged. For cutting or faceting, the stones are fixed onto copper holders and held against a wheel, edged with a mixture of oil and fine diamond dust, which is revolved at about 2,500 revolutions a minute. Amsterdam and and Antwerp, in Holland and Belgium respectively, have been the center of the diamond cutting and polishing industry for over seven centuries.   The jewel value of brilliant diamonds depends greatly on their color, or water as it is called. The usual color of diamonds are white, yellow, brown, green, or blue-white; the blue-white brilliants are the stones of the finest water and so command the highest prices. During their formation some diamonds absorb metallic oxides from the surrounding rocks and take on their color. Thus black, red and even bright pink diamonds have occasionally been found.   The trade in diamonds is not only in the valuable gem stones but also in the industrial diamonds mentioned above. Zaire produces 70% of such stones. They are foxed into the rock drills used in mining and civil engineering, also for edging band saws for cutting stone. Diamond-faced tools are used for cutting and drilling glass and fine porcelain, and for dentists drills. They are used as bearings in watches and other finely balanced instruments. Perhaps you own some diamonds without knowing it —— in your wristwatch.

  59. The art of cutting and polishing precious stones remained crude until ____

  A) the fourteenth century.

  B) the fifteenth century.

  C) the sixteenth century.

  D) the seventeenth century.

  60. Zaire produces ____

  A) 70% of all diamonds sold.

  B) 70% of industrial diamonds sold.

  C) 70% of all precious stones sold.

  D) 70% of the world's blue-white diamonds.

  PART IV TRANSLATION

  Translate the following text into English. Write your translation on Answer Sheet Three.

  奥林匹克运动会可以追溯到古代。古希腊人喜欢各种运动,因为运动能使身体强健。他们每四年举行一次运动会,成千上万的人聚集在辽阔的草原上,欣赏来自希腊各地的成人和儿童的竞技。运动项目有赛跑,摔交,跑马,战车比赛等等。有成人的比赛项目,也有儿童的比赛项目。 在大部分比赛中,成人和儿童都穿得很少或者不穿衣服,却在身上涂油。奖品是用野生橄榄树叶作成的花冠。谁只要能戴上一只花冠,那就是无上的光荣。

  SECTION B ENGLISH TO CHINESE

  Translate the following underlined part of the text into Chinese. Write your translation on Answer Sheet Three.

  Three years ago, a group of plant scientists led by Ilya Raskin, at Du Ponts agricultural laboratory in Delaware, discovered a surge of salicylic and in the voodoo lily the day before flowering. Using a sensitive analytical technique, they discovered that the level of salicylic acid in the plant leapt almost 100 times and triggered the explosion of respiration.   This established salicylic acid as a powerful chemical signal, albeit in a rather quirky plant. But what role might salicylic acid have in less exotic plants?   Plants have a kind of "immune system" with which they fight diseases. When fungi, bacteria or viruses infect a plant, they often trigger a signal which travels to uninfected leaves where it stimulates the production of disease-fighting protein. This mechanism of disease resistance, and the signal which prepares the plants defenses, had been a mystery to biologists.   A promising clue came to light, however, in 1979. Raymond White at Britains Rothamsted research station was able to prevent tobacco mosaic viruses from multiplying by injecting the infected plants with aspirin. The aspirin appeared to trigger the production of a group of diseases-fighting proteins.   Building on this and his own discovery with the voodoo lily, Raskin continued the work with graduate student Jocelyn Malamy and her colleagues at Rutgers University, New Jersey. They measured the levels of salicylic acid in tobacco plants that were infected with mosaic virus. Before any signs of infection or resistance were detected, salicylic acid levels surged almost five-fold throughout the plants. This surge then set off the manufacture of the disease-fighting protein.

  PART V WRITING

  Direction: Small kindness is always neglected in our society. Some people prefer to do big kindness. What is your idea on this topic?

  On small kindness Write an essay of about 300 words on the above topic within 60 minutes. In the first part you should present the definition of small kindness. In the following parts you should state your opinion and support it with appropriate examples. In the last part you draw a conclusion.   Mark will be awarded for content, organization, grammar, and appropriacy. Failure to follow the above instruction may result in a loss of marks.

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