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正宗西方饮食-Muffin

2006-02-14 00:00连庆编译自Wikipedia

Muffin

Muffin

The name muffin is given to two types of breadstuffs, one a yeast-leavened item, and the other a "quick" bread raised with baking powder or baking soda.

Muffin(又译松饼,玛芬面包或英式小松糕)主要指两种以面包为原料的食品,一种用酵母发酵而成;另一种更为“快速”的方法是用烘烤粉或者烘烤苏打对面包进行处理而制成。

In the United Kingdom, "muffin" refers to what is known in much of the English-speaking world as an English muffin. This yeast-raised muffin is the older of the two, appearing as a word in Britain around the 11th century A.D. Moufflet in Old French meant "soft" in reference to bread.

在英国,"Muffin"一词通常含有 "English muffin"之意(英式Muffin)。这是两种Muffine中出现较早的一种,大约出现在公元11世纪时的英国。Moufflet在旧式法语中用来形容面包的“柔软”感觉。

The "quick" muffin is an American development from the 19th century, made possible by the invention of baking powder. This muffin is a thick, flat bun typically about 8 cm in diameter. In modern practice, it almost always has a "topping" baked in, such as blueberries or chocolate chips. It usually split into two, toasted and buttered, and bears a vague resemblance to a crumpet or pikelet.

而“快速”Muffin则是美国人在19世纪通过烘烤粉的发明而发展出来的。这种Muffin很厚,平平的底部直径通常达8厘米(我相信现在的星巴克绝对不会让其超过5厘米)。现代的制作手法中,烘烤的时候总要在“糕顶”放些东西,比如打碎的蓝莓或巧克力。吃muffin的时候一般要用刀将其切为两半,烤热并涂上黄油,这与吃一块crumpet(又译作“松圆饼”,笔者很喜欢)或pikelet(又译作厚松饼,现在的pikelet并不厚,有一面会有一层薄薄的奶油,嗯!好吃!)很类似。

Fannie Merritt Farmer in her Boston Cooking-School Cook Book of 1896 gave recipes for both types of muffins, distinguishing one as "raised" and adding instructions for a version that is nearly identical to today's "English muffin". Here the raised-muffin mixture was cooked in muffin rings on a griddle, and flipped to brown both sides, producing a grilled muffin. Farmer indicated this was a useful method when baking in an oven was not practical.

Fannie Merritt Farmer在她所著的《1896年波士顿烹饪学校烹饪书》中给出了这两种muffin的食谱,其中一种需要“烘制”的烹饪方法与今日的 "English muffin" 如出一辙。书中讲述做这种muffin要将muffin的模子放在架子上,然后轻轻拍打两面直到变棕,从而制作出一种烤出来的muffin。Farmer声明这是在没有烤箱的情况下很有用的一种烹饪muffin的方法。

The "quick" muffins may have started out as a form of small cake, or possibly an adaptation of cornbread. Early versions of these muffins tend to be less sweet and much less varied in ingredients than their contemporary forms. Made quickly and easily, they were useful as a breakfast food. They also rapidly grew stale, which prevented them from being a marketable baked good, and they were not seen much outside home kitchens until the mid-20th century. Recipes tended to be limited to different grains (corn, wheat bran, or oatmeal) and a few readily available additives (raisins, apples in some form, or nuts). Farmer listed 15 recipes of this type in 1896, of which there were two each of "one-egg", "berry", oat, graham flour, and rye; one with cornmeal, one with cooked rice, and the remaining three slightly enriched versions of the plain "one-egg" muffin.

“快速”muffin产生的早期时候类似小蛋糕,也可能是一种玉米面包的改良食品。早期的这些muffin与现在的muffin比,往往不是那么甜,原料也不是很多。由于做起来又快又容易,它们往往被当作早饭来吃。同时因为它们的放置时间稍长就会变得不新鲜走味儿,这也妨碍了它们作为一种市场上的烘制食品来销售,所以在20世纪中期以前没有人会在家里厨房以外的地方看到它们。当时的muffin的原料只限于几种不同的谷物(玉米、麦麸或是麦片)和少量直接能食用的添加成份(如葡萄干、苹果或坚果等)。Farmer在1896年的时候列出了制作“快速”muffin的15种食谱和原料:其中2种方法各需一个鸡蛋、“浆果”、麦片、全麦面粉和黑麦;一种方法需要玉米粉,一种方法需要煮好的米饭,余下的三种方法是简单的“一个鸡蛋”式muffin的改良版本。

Farmer used the term gem for her corn recipe, which was a muffin baked in a pan of lozenge shapes rather than circular cups. With the invention of muffin paper cups, hard-to-clean iron gem pans lost popularity, and are rarely used today, although corn muffins baked in the form of ears of corn remain a tradition. The development of non-stick pans has allowed the production of very elaborate muffin shapes (animals, holiday motifs, etc.), but the circular muffin remains the norm.

Farmer在她的用玉米作muffin的食谱中使用了一个词“珍宝”,这种方法要将muffin在一个菱形而非圆杯形的盘(珍宝锅)里烘烤。随着muffin纸模子的发明,难以清洁的铁“珍宝”盘不再流行,直到今日也难觅芳踪了。不沾锅的发明使得制作各种精细形状的muffin(动物、节日吉祥物等)成为了可能,但圆形的muffin仍是制作的标准。

In the 1950s, packaged muffin mixes were introduced by several American companies. By the 1960s, attempts were being made to treat the muffin like the doughnut as a franchise food business opportunity. Coffee shop-style restaurant chains appeared, featuring a wide variety of muffins. These tended to be regional, such as The Pewter Pot in southern New England. No such business has emerged nationally in the US (although doughnut chains have edged into the business), but Australia's Muffin Break has spread to New Zealand and the UK, featuring the American-style muffin.

1950年代,在美国有几家公司推出了包装好的muffin产品。进入1960年代后,有人将muffin看作像甜纳圈那样的饮食业商机而尝试连锁经营。咖啡店式的饭馆连锁业的出现产生了大量不同品种的muffin。结果在美国形成了地区性的食品连锁,如座落在美国南新英格兰的The Pewter Pot,但是没有一家店能够覆盖全美;而在大洋另一边,提供美式muffin的澳大利亚Muffin Break连锁店则将商业扩展到了纽西兰和英国。

A somewhat odd combination of circumstances in the 1970s and 1980s led to significant changes in what had been a rather simple, if not prosaic, food. The decline in home-baking, the health food movement, the rise of the specialty food shop, and the gourmet coffee trend (exemplified by Starbucks) all contributed to the creation of what is now the standard contemporary muffin.

由于1970和1980年代期间某些客观条件的综合影响,muffin发生了重大的变化,从而不再是原来那种如果说不是松散,也至少是简单的食物。其中的因素包括了家庭烘烤数量的下降、健康食物运动的影响、专业食品店的出现和咖啡美食店的风潮(星巴克为例),都对当代的muffin的制作标准起到了作用。

Preservatives in muffin mixes led to the expectation that muffins did not have to go stale within hours of baking, but the resulting muffins were not a taste improvement over homemade. On the other hand, the baked muffin, even if from a mix, seemed almost good for one compared to the fat-laden alternatives of doughnuts and Danish pastry. "Healthful" muffin recipes using whole grains and such "natural" things as yoghurt and various vegetables evolved rapidly. But for "healthy" muffins to have any shelf-life without artificial preservatives, the sugar and fat content needed to be increased. The rising market for gourmet snacks to accompany gourmet coffees resulted in fancier concoctions in greater bulk than the original modestly-sized corn muffin. Today it is not unusual to find a muffin along the lines of "coconut-almond-cherry-chocolate" the size of a small baby's head.

防腐剂在muffin中的加入使得muffin在烘烤好的几个小时内不会变味儿,但是最终出来的muffin不会比家里做的好吃。不过从另一方面讲,烘烤出来的muffin哪怕是加了防腐剂的,也似乎要比那些引起发胖的甜纳圈和丹麦糕饼好。而“健康型”muffin的烹饪则采用了全麦和“天然”的成份,如酸乳酪和各种蔬菜等。但是为了让不含任何人工添加剂成份的“健康型”muffin能够在食品架上多摆一会儿,不得不添加更多的糖和脂肪成份。伴随快餐业和快餐咖啡业的兴起,现在的muffin要比原来的玉米muffin的成分更加混合化。今天你很难看到一个写着“椰子-杏仁-樱桃-巧克力”的、有一个小婴儿头那么大的muffin了。

The marketing trend toward larger muffins also resulted in new muffin pan types for home-baking, not only for increased size. Since the area ratio of muffin top to muffin bottom changed considerably when the traditional small round exploded into a giant mushroom, consumers became more aware of the difference between the soft texture of tops, allowed to rise unfettered, and rougher, tougher bottoms, restricted by the pans. There was a brief foray into pans which could produce "all-top" muffins, i.e., extremely shallow, large-diameter cups. However, the reality of muffin physics prevented the fad from getting very far.

对于需要制作更大muffin、且不光是尺寸增加的市场潮流,导致了新型家用muffin烘烤盘的出现。由于muffin顶部到底部区域比例的相当大的变化——原先传统意义上的小圆顶变成了今日的大蘑菇头(不信见图:),顾客们意识到要做出不同松软质感的顶部、烘出不松垮的、粗些而坚实的底部的muffin,很大程度上受限于烘烤盘样式的使用。

相关热词:cuisine dessert food muffin
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