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美国达特茅斯学院

2006-02-23 00:00wikipedia

达特茅斯学院是位于美国东北部新罕布什尔州汉诺佛市的一所著名私立大学。该校建于1769年,是美国第九所最早的大学,为著名的常春藤联盟成员之一。达特茅斯学院除拥有文学艺术类的本科课程外,还拥有医学院,工程学院,商学院以及18个自然科学和人文社科方面的研究生项目,基于此,按照美国的通行标准,达特茅斯学院被称之为“大学”似乎更为合适。然而鉴于传统的影响,并为了突出该校对于本科教育的极度重视,达特茅斯一直以“学院”名世。5,700名学生的总招生规模使达特茅斯成为常春藤联盟中规模最小的学校。

因其在经历生死存亡的危机时所展现出来的优异表现,达特茅斯学院在2005年被Booz Allen Hamilton选为“世界上最具坚韧不拔精神的十所大学”之一。达特茅斯学院的无线网络遍布校园各个角落,是全美去有线化做得最好的高校之一。

Dartmouth College is a private academic institution in Hanover, New Hampshire, in the United States. It is a member of the Ivy League and is one of the nine colonial colleges founded before the American Revolution. Founded in 1769 by Eleazar Wheelock, with funds partially raised by the efforts of a Native American preacher named Samson Occom, it is the ninth-oldest college in the United States. In addition to its liberal arts undergraduate program, Dartmouth has medical, engineering, and business schools, as well as 18 graduate programs in the arts and sciences; hence it would tend to be called a university in standard American usage. For the sake of tradition- in part stemming from the legacy of the landmark Dartmouth College case- and in order to emphasize the central importance it gives to undergraduate education, however, it refers to itself as a college. With a total enrollment of 5,744, Dartmouth is the smallest school in the Ivy League.

In 2005 Booz Allen Hamilton selected Dartmouth College as one of the "World's Ten Most Enduring Institutions," recognizing its ability to overcome crises that threatened its survival (most famously Trustees of Dartmouth College v. Woodward).[1] Dartmouth alumni are famously involved in their college, from Daniel Webster to the many donors in the 19th and 20th centuries. Over many generations, Dartmouth has had one of the highest alumni donor participation rates.

HistoryBaker Memorial Library at Dartmouth College

Dartmouth was made the ninth and final colonial college when it was given a royal charter by King George III in 1769, mostly as a result of the efforts of Eleazar Wheelock, a Puritan minister, and his patron, Royal Governor John Wentworth.

Dartmouth's original purpose was to provide for the Christianization, instruction, and education of "Youth of the Indian Tribes in this Land...and also of English Youth and any others." Ministers Nathaniel Whittaker and Samson Occom (an early Native American clergyman) raised funds for the college in England through an English trust among whose benefactors and trustees were prominent English statemen, including King George III's Secretary of State for the Colonies in North America, William Legge, 2nd Earl of Dartmouth, for whom Dartmouth College is named. The fundraising was meant to support Wheelock's ongoing Connecticut institution of the 1740s, Moor's Indian Charity School (chartered 1754), but Wheelock instead applied the funds to the establishment of Dartmouth College, the ninth and last colonial college. Classes began in 1770 and the College granted its first degrees in 1771. Dejected and betrayed, Samson Occom went on to form his own community of New England Indians called Brothertown in Oneida country in upstate New York.

In 1819, Dartmouth College was the subject of the historic Dartmouth College case, in which the State of New Hampshire attempted to amend the College's royal charter to make the school a public university. An institution called Dartmouth University occupied the college buildings and began operating in Hanover, though the College continued teaching classes in rented rooms nearby. Daniel Webster, an alumnus of the class of 1801, presented the College's case to the United States Supreme Court, which found the amendment of Dartmouth's charter to be an illegal impairment of a contract by the state and prevented New Hampshire from taking over the college. Webster concluded his peroration with the words,
It is, Sir, as I have said, a small college. And yet there are those who love it.

Dartmouth was a men's college until 1972, when women were first admitted as full-time students and undergraduate degree candidates. At about the same time, Dartmouth adopted its unique "D-Plan", a schedule of year-round operation that allowed an increase in the enrollment (with the addition of females) without enlarging campus accommodations. The year is divided into four terms corresponding with the seasons; students are required to be in residence during the summer after their sophomore year. One wag described it as a way to put 4,000 students into 3,000 beds. Although new dormitories have been built since, the number of students has also increased and the D-Plan remains in effect.

Dartmouth's motto is Vox Clamantis in Deserto, "The voice of one crying out in the wilderness" (a reference to John the Baptist as well as to the college's location on what was once the frontier of European settlement). Richard Hovey's Men of Dartmouth was elected as the best of all the songs of the College in 1896, and today it serves as the school's alma mater, although the lyrics and title have since been changed to be gender-neutral.

The screenplay for the film Animal House was cowritten by Chris Miller (B.A. 1963) and is based loosely on a series of fictional stories he wrote in 1974 about his fraternity days at Dartmouth, including "The Night of the Seven Fires." In a CNN interview, John Landis said the movie was "based on Chris Miller's real fraternity at Dartmouth," Alpha Delta Phi. In an interview with The Dartmouth, Miller said that at least one incident in the film—one in which a Delta Tau Chi brother skis down the stairs as the band plays "Shout"—occurred at an Alpha Delt party at Dartmouth. The names "Otter" and "Pinto" may be found in the Alpha Delta Phi section of the yearbooks of the period, such as the 1963 Aegis. The movie was filmed at the University of Oregon.

In January, 2001, two Dartmouth professors, Half Zantop (b. January 24, 1938) and Suzanne Zantop (b. August 12, 1945), were found stabbed to death in their Etna, New Hampshire home. After an intense nationwide manhunt, two teenagers from Chelsea, Vermont, Robert Tulloch and James Parker, were arrested in New Castle, Indiana and extradited back to New Hampshire. Both defendants eventually pled guilty to murder charges and were sentenced to life imprisonment.

Presidents of Dartmouth College (the Wheelock Succession)

• Rev. Eleazar Wheelock (1769–1779)
• John Wheelock, 1771 (1779–1815)
• Rev. Francis Brown, 1805 (1815–1820)
• Rev. Daniel Dana, 1788 (1820–1850)
• Rev. Bennett Tyler (1822–1828)
• Rev. Nathan Lord (1828–1863)
• Rev. Asa Dodge Smith, 1830 (1863–1877)
• Rev. Samuel Colcord Bartlett, 1836 (1877–1892)
• Rev. William Jewett Tucker, 1861 (1893–1909)
• Ernest Fox Nichols (1909–1916)
• Ernest Martin Hopkins, 1901 (1916–1945)
• John Sloan Dickey, 1929 (1945–1970)
• John George Kemeny (1970–1981)
• David Thomas McLaughlin, 1954 & Tuck 1955 (1981–1987)
• James Oliver Freedman (1987–1998)
• James E. Wright (1998– )

Academics

The centerpiece of today's Dartmouth College is its undergraduate college of 4,078 students, constituting one of the most selective undergraduate institutions in the world. For the Class of 2009, 12,756 students applied for a little over 1,000 places in the class, and only 16.9% of applicants were admitted. The median SAT score of enrolled students in the freshman class is 1470, of whom 87% were in the top ten percent of their high school class. Alongside the undergraduate college lie a small graduate school and three professional institutes, Dartmouth Medical School (1797), Thayer School of Engineering (1867), and Amos Tuck School of Business Administration (1900). With these graduate programs, conventional American usage would accord Dartmouth the label of "university"; but for historical and nostalgic reasons (such as the Dartmouth College case) the school uses "Dartmouth College" for the entire institution.

Board of Trustees

Dartmouth is governed by a Board of Trustees. The board includes the college President, the state Governor (ex officio), eight trustees elected by the board itself (Charter Trustees), and eight trustees nominated for board appointment by members of the Association of Alumni of Dartmouth College (Alumni Trustees), a body created in 1854 that represents over 60,000 alumni. (Specifically, trustee candidates may be nominated by an alumni council or by alumni petition, then an election is held, and finally the winner is, by longstanding agreement, appointed to the board by all Trustees. Three recent petition candidates have become Trustees in this manner.)

Facilities

Hopkins Center for Performing Arts

The Hopkins Center ("the Hop") houses the college's drama, music, film, and studio arts departments, as well as a woodshop, pottery studio, and jewelry studio which are open for use by students and the public. The building was designed by the famed architect Wallace Harrison, and its front façade is similar to that of Manhattan’s Lincoln Center, a later design by Harrison. Facilities include two recital halls and one large auditorium. It is also the location of all student mailboxes and the Courtyard Café dining facility. The Hop is connected to the Hood Museum of Art and the Loew Auditorium, where films are shown. The Hopkins Center is an important New Hampshire performance venue.

Nelson A. Rockefeller Center for Public Policy and the Social Sciences

The Nelson A. Rockefeller Center is a center for interaction and discussion on public policy. Dedicated in 1983, the center stands in tribute to Nelson A. Rockefeller (Class of 1930). Known on campus as Rocky, the Center provides students, faculty and community-members opportunities to discuss and learn about public policy, law, and politics. Sponsoring lunch and dinner discussions with prominent faculty and visitors, the Center aides provides close interaction and discussion.

The Rockefeller Center has established a Public-Policy Minor at Dartmouth College and an exchange program on political economy with Oxford University (Keble College). In addition, the Center provides grants to students engaged in public-policy research and/or activities.

The Rockefeller Center's Policy Research Shop is an innovative program that provides rese