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篮球比赛基本规则

2006-02-20 00:00

  James Naismith devised a set of thirteen rules of basketball:

  1. The ball may be thrown in any direction with one or both hands.

  2. The ball may be batted in any direction with one or both hands, but never with the fist.

  3. A player cannot run with the ball. The player must throw it from the spot on which he catches it, allowance to be made for a man running at good speed.

  4. The ball must be held in or between the hands. The arms or body must not be used for holding it.

  5. No shouldering, holding, pushing, striking or tripping in any way of an opponent. The first infringement of this rule by any person shall count as a foul; the second shall disqualify him until the next goal is made or, if there was evident intent to injure the person, for the whole of the game. No substitution shall be allowed.

  6. A foul is striking at the ball with the fist, violations of Rules 3 and 4 and such as described in Rule 5.

  7. If either side make three consecutive fouls it shall count as a goal for the opponents (consecutive means without the opponents in the meantime making a foul).

  8. Goal shall be made when the ball is thrown or batted from the ground into the basket and stays there, providing those defending the goal do not touch or disturb the goal. If the ball rests on the edge and the opponents move the basket, it shall count as a goal.

  9. When the ball goes out of bounds, it shall be thrown into the field and played by the first person touching it. In case of dispute the umpire shall throw it straight into the field. The thrower-in is allowed five seconds. If he holds it longer, it shall go to the opponent. If any side persists in delaying the game, the umpire shall call a foul on them.

  10. The umpire shall be judge of the men and shall note the fouls and notify the referee when three consecutive fouls have been made. He shall have the power to disqualify men according to Rule 5.

  11. The referee shall be the judge of the ball and decide when it is in play in bounds, to which side it belongs, and shall keep the time. He shall decide when a goal has been made and keep account of the goals with any other duties that are usually performed by a referee.

  12. The time shall be two 15-minute halves with five minutes' rest between.

  13. The side making the most goals in that time shall be declared the winners.

  篮球比赛基本规则:

  30秒钟规则

  ——进攻球队在场上控球时必须在30秒钟内投篮出手(NBA比赛为24秒,全美大学体育联合会比赛中为35秒)。

  10秒钟规则

  ——球队从后场控制球开始,必须在10秒钟内使球进入前场(对方的半场)。

  5秒钟规则

  ——持球后,球员必须在5秒钟之内掷界外球出手。FIBA规则规定罚球也必须在5秒钟内出手(NBA规则中为10秒)。

  3秒钟规则

  ——与对方发生身体接触而产生的犯规,比如与裁判发生争执等情况。

  侵人犯规

  ——与对方发生身体接触而产生的犯规行为。

  技术犯规

  ——队员或教练员因表现恶劣而被判犯规,比如与裁判发生争执等情况。

  取消比赛资格的犯规

  ——球员做出的不体现运动员精神的犯规动作,比如打人。发生此类情况后,球员应立即被罚出场外。

  队员5次犯规

  ——无论是侵人犯规,还是技术犯规,一名球员犯规共5次(NBA规定为6次)必须离开球场,不得再进行比赛。

  违例

  ——既不属于侵人犯规,也不属于技术犯规的违反规则的行为。主要的违例行为是:非法运球;带球走;3秒违例;使球出界。

  队员出界

  ——球员带球或球本身触及界线或界线以外区域,即属球出界。在球触线或线外区域之前,球在空中不算出界。

  干扰球

  ——投篮的球向篮下落时,双方队员都不得触球。当球在球篮里的时候,防守队员不得触球。

  被紧密盯防的选手

  ——被防守队员紧密盯防的球员必须在5秒钟之内传球,运球或投篮,否则其队将失去控球权(NBA规则中无此规定)。

  球回后场

  ——球队如已将球从后场移至前场,该球队球员便不能再将球移过中线,运回后场。

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