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行政法的概念和基本原则

2006-02-24 00:00   我要纠错 | 打印 | 收藏 | | |

  The concept and basic principles of administrative law

  Administration refers to those activities such as organization and regulation. The concept of administration in administrative legal system refers to the regulation of state and public affairs, namely, decision-making, organization and management of state and public affairs by administrative subject according to law, which is often referred to as public administration.

  Administrative law is the general term of all legal norms and principles that regulates the different kinds of social relations occurring in the course of implementation of administrative power by administrative subject.

  Then I would like to introduce the basic principles of administrative law. This problem is one of the elementary theoretical issues in administrative jurisprudence, which denotes the fundamental rules guiding the enactment and application of administrative law. The basic principles mainly consist of legality and reasonableness.

  1, Legality is the foremost principle of administrative law, which means that administrative subject must implement administrative activities according to lawful authorization, form and procedure, and undertake corresponding legal responsibility for its illegal administrative activities. The basic content of the principle of legality is as follows. Firstly, the administrative authority of administrative subject shall be set or conferred by law. Secondly, administrative activities carried out by administrative subject must comply with administrative legal specifications. Thirdly, administrative subject's activities against law are invalid. Fourthly, administrative subject must undertake corresponding legal responsibility for its illegal administrative activities.

  2, The principle of reasonableness is a supplement to the principle of legality. It requires administrative activities of administrative subject be not only legal, but also reasonable. The specific requirements of this principle are: Firstly, administrative activities should comply with objective rules. Secondly, administrative activities should comply with the aim of the enactment of relevant laws. Thirdly, administrative activities should comply with the benefit of state and people. Fourthly, administrative activities should have sufficient objective basis. Fifthly, administrative activities should comply with justice and fairness. Sixthly, unreasonable administrative activities should undertake corresponding legal responsibility. The principle of administrative reasonableness is the principle of administrative law instead of administrative procedural law; so, it is applicable to administrative activities of administrative subject rather than the judicial action of judicial departments.

  The basic principles of administrative law are controlling and binding the various administrative legal systems of our country more and more. Along with the development of socialist market economy and the construction of the socialist country ruled by law, the content of those principles will be increasingly improved.

  行政,是指组织、管理等活动。行政法领域的行政是指国家与公共事务的行政,即行政主体依法对国家与公共事务进行的决策、组织与管理活动,通常称为公共行政。

  行政法则是调整因行政主体行使行政职权而发生的各种社会关系的法律规范和原则的总称。

  下面我来谈谈行政法的基本原则。这一问题是行政法学的基本理论问题之一,是指导行政法制定和实施的基本准则。基本原则主要包括合法性原则和合理性原则。

  1. 合法性原则是行政法的首要原则,是指行政主体必须按照法定的授权、形式和程序实施行政行为,并对其违法行政行为承担相应的法律责任。合法性原则的基本内容是:第一,行政主体的行政职权依法设定或被授予;第二,行政主体的行政行为必须符合行政法律规范;第三,行政主体的违法行为无效;第四,行政主体必须对其违法行政行为承担相应的法律责任。

  2. 合理性原则是对合法性原则的补充。它要求行政主体的行政行为不仅要合法,而且要合理。这一原则的具体要求是:第一,行政行为要符合客观规律;第二,行政行为要符合制定有关法律的目的;第三,行政行为要符合国家和人民的利益;第四,行政行为要有充分客观的依据;第五,行政行为要符合正义和公正;第六,不合理的行政行为要承担相应的法律责任。行政合理性原则是行政法的原则,而不是行政诉讼法的原则,所以它对行政主体的行政行为是适用的,但不适用于司法机关的行政诉讼活动。

  行政法的基本原则越来越支配和约束着我国各种行政法律制度。随着社会主义市场经济的发展和社会主义法治国家的建设,这些原则的内容将会不断得到完善。

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