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经贸博览之三:多哈会议

2006-02-17 00:00   我要纠错 | 打印 | 收藏 | | |

  多哈会议

  这几天,全中国都在关注多哈世界贸易组织第四届部长级会议。

  一是因为会上将审议并通过中国加入世界贸易组织。

  二是大会将决定是否启动新多边贸易谈判。

  背景知识

  1.什么是多哈会议?

  于2001年11月9日至14日在卡塔尔首都多哈举行的世界贸易组织第四届部长级会议。

  The fourth WTO Ministerial Conference is being held in Doha, Qatar from 9 to 14 November 2001.

  2.部长级会议的来源?前三届部长级会议?

  部长级会议是世界贸易组织的最高决策机构,按照世界贸易组织的成立宪章——《马拉喀什建立世界贸易组织协定》的要求,至少每两年举办一次。

  第一届于1996年12月9日至13日在新加坡举办。

  第二届于1998年5月18日至20日在日内瓦举办。

  第三届于1999年11月30日至12月3日在西雅图举办。

  WTO ministerial conferences

  The ministerial conference is the organization's highest-level decision-making body. It meets "at least once every two years", as required by the Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization - the WTO's founding charter.

  The first WTO Ministerial Conference was held in Singapore between 9 and 13 December 1996.

  The second WTO Ministerial Conference was held in Geneva,     Switzerland between 18 and 20 May 1998.

  The third WTO Ministerial Conference was held in Seattle, Washington   State, US between 30 November and 3 December 1999.

  本届会议

  1.成功启动新多边贸易谈判

  出台《部长宣言》、《关于乌拉圭回合协议执行问题的决定》和《关于知识产权与公共健康问题的宣言》等文件。

  Ministerial Declaration

  Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and public health

  Implementation-related issues and concerns - Decision

  2.中国加入世界贸易组织

  世界贸易组织部长级会议在11月10日通过协商一致的方式通过了中国加入世界贸易组织所需要的文件——《中国入世工作组报告》和《入世议定书》。《入世议定书》中包括中国在货物和服务市场准入方面承诺的减让表。

  The WTO's Ministerial Conference approved on November 10th by consensus the text of the agreement for China's entry into the WTO. The documents adopted today by the Conference are the report of the Working Party for the Accession of China, the protocol of accession, which includes the schedule of China's commitments on market access for goods and services.

  附:

  世界贸易组织第四届部长级会议《部长宣言》中文译本

  注:请以英文本为准。

  世界贸易组织                   WT/MIN(01/DEC/W/1

  2001年11月14日

  部长宣言

  1. 世界贸易组织所包含的多边贸易体系在过去五十年中为经济增长、发展和就业做出了很大的贡献。我们决心,特别是考虑到全球经济放缓的背景,维持贸易政策改革和自由化的进程,以此确保该体系在促进恢复、增长和发展方面完全发挥作用。因此,我们强烈地重申《马拉喀什建立世界贸易组织协定》所阐述的原则和目标,并承诺拒绝采取保护主义。

  2. 国际贸易能在促进经济增长和减少贫困方面起到主要的作用。我们认识到各国人民有从多边贸易体系所产生的机遇和福利增长中受益的需求。大多数世界贸易组织成员是发展中国家。我们寻求将他们的需求和利益置于《部长宣言》接受的《工作计划》的核心位置。忆及《马拉喀什协定》前言,我们应继续积极努力确保发展中国家,特别是最不发达国家能根据自身经济发展分享世界贸易增长的收益。在此背景下,加强市场准入、平衡规则、有的放矢的获得持续资助的技术支持项目和能力建设计划将大有可为。

  3. 我们认识到最不发达国家在全球经济中所特有的脆弱和结构上特殊的困难。我们承诺解决最不发达国家在国际贸易中被边缘化的问题,并促进他们有效地参与多边贸易体系。想起马拉喀什、新加坡、日内瓦部长级会议上部长们以及国际社会在第三届《联合国最不发达国家大会》上就帮助最不发达国家有效和有意义地融入多边贸易体系和全球经济所做的承诺,我们决心世界贸易组织将根据我们正在制定的《工作计划》有效地开展我们关于这些承诺的工作。

  4. 我们一方面强调我们对于作为全球贸易规则制订和自由化独特论坛的世界贸易组织的承诺,另一方面也认识到,地区性贸易协定在促进自由化、拓展贸易和鼓励发展方面发挥重要的作用。

  5. 我们知道成员们在迅速变化的国际环境中所面临的挑战不可能只通过贸易领域的措施来加以解决。我们应继续与实施布雷顿森林体系的机构合作,以争取在制订全球经济政策时获得一致。

  6. 我们强烈重申我们对于《马拉喀什协定》前言所阐述的可持续发展目标的承诺。我们相信支持和维护开放、非歧视的多边贸易体现同保护环境和促进可持续发展的目标可以也必须相互支持。我们注意到各成员在自愿的基础上进行的本国贸易政策环境评估方面做出的努力。我们认识到,在WTO规则下,任何国家都不能被剥夺这样一种权利,即,在其认为适当的程度上,采取措施保护人、动物和植物的生命或健康,以及环境;但要求是,采取的措施在同等情况下不会构成国家间专断或不公正的歧视或成为对于国际贸易变相的限制,因为这样不符合WTO协定的条款。我们欢迎WTO继续和联合国环境规划署和其他政府间环境组织合作。我们鼓励努力促进WTO与有关国际环境和发展组织间的合作,特别是考虑到《可持续发展峰会》将于2002年9月在南非约翰内斯堡举行。

  7. 我们重申成员在《服务贸易总协定》下所享有的在提供服务方面进行管理和采取新规定的权利。

  8. 我们重申新加坡部长级会议上所做的关于核心劳工标准的宣言。我们注意到国际劳工组织在全球化的社会层面已经开始工作。

  9. 我们特别满意的注意到大会完成了中国和中国台北入世的程序。我们也欢迎,自从上次部长级会议以来入世的新成员阿尔巴尼亚、克罗地亚、格鲁吉亚、约旦、立陶宛、摩尔多瓦和安曼,并且注意到这些国家入世所做的全面的市场准入承诺。他们的入世将大大加强多边贸易体系,这对于正在就入世谈判的另外28个国家而言也是一样。所以,我们非常重视尽早结束入世谈判的程序。我们特别致力于加速最不发达国家的入世。

  10. 认识到WTO成员增加所带来的挑战,我们确认在保证内部透明度和所有成员有效参与方面我们承担的集体责任。我们一方面强调WTO政府间组织的性质,同时也致力于通过更加有效和迅捷的信息公布以及促进与公众的对话,来使WTO的运作更透明。所以,我们应在国家和多边的层面上继续促进公众对WTO的了解并传送WTO作为一个自由的、以规则为基础的多边贸易体系的益处。

  11. 有鉴于此,我们在此同意采取以下列出的全面平衡的《工作计划》。这项计划包括了扩展的谈判议程和其他重要的、对于解决多边贸易体系面临的挑战必要的决定和活动。

  工作计划

  与实施有关的议题和关注

  12. 我们高度重视成员提出的与实施有关的议题和关注,并决心找到合适的解决办法。因此,注意到总理事会在2000年5月3日和12月15日做出的决定,我们将进一步采用在文件WT/MIN(01)/W/10中的《与实施有关的议题和关注的决定》,来解决成员面临的许多实施问题。我们同意,就未决问题进行的谈判将是我们正在制订的《工作计划》的组成部分,在早前谈判中达成的协定应根据下面第47条的规定来处理。在这点上,我们应按以下办法进行:(a)我们在《宣言》中提供特定的谈判授权,相关的实施问题应在该授权下解决;(b)相关WTO机构应优先解决悬而未决的实施问题,该机构应向贸易谈判委员会报告。该委员会将根据以下第46段于2002年底前成立,然后开始相应工作。

  农业

  13. 我们认识到,在包含了121名成员提交的大量谈判建议的《农业协定》第20条项下进行的于2000年初开始的谈判工作已经开始。我们忆及协定中谈到的长期目标:通过一项内容为增强规则和有关支持和保护的专项承诺的基础改革计划,建立一个公正、以市场为导向的贸易体系,来纠正和防止世界农产品市场中出现的限制和扭曲贸易行为。我们再次确认对该计划的承诺。在目前已经开展的工作基础上,并且不事先判断谈判的结果,我们承诺进行全面的谈判,目标是:大量提高市场准入;削减任何形式的出口补贴,并以最终结束出口补贴为目标;大幅减少扭曲贸易的国内支持。我们同意,对于发展中国家的特殊和差别对待是谈判的组成部分,应体现在减让表中,并酌情体现在要谈判的规则和纪律中,以便在操作中有效,并使得发展中国家有效地考虑他们的发展需要,这包括食品安全和农村发展。我们注意到成员在谈判建议中反映出的非贸易关注,并确认非贸易关注将在《农业协定》中规定的谈判中得以考虑。

  14. 未来承诺的方式,包括特别和差别对待的条款,应不迟于2003年3月31日建立起来。参加者应在WTO第五届部长级会议日期前提交基于这些方式的全面的减让表草案。这些谈判,包括有关规则和纪律以及相关法律文本的谈判应作为整个谈判议程的一部分,在全部谈判议程结束时一起完成。

  服务业

  15. 服务贸易的谈判应以促进所有贸易伙伴的经济增长和发展中国家和最不发达国家的发展为目标。我们认识到始于2000年1月的谈判工作已经进行,这些谈判是基于《服务贸易总协定》第19条和成员提出的涉及广大领域和一些水平议题(horizontal issues)以及自然人移动问题的大量的建议。我们重申服务贸易总理事会于2001年3月28日通过的作为继续谈判基础的谈判方针和程序,这样做旨在实现《服务贸易总协定》前言、第四条和第十九条规定的目标。参加者应在2002年6月30日前提交最初的特定承诺的请求,在2003年3月31日前提交所要做出的承诺。

  非农产品的市场准入

  16. 我们同意进行如下谈判,其目的是按照协商所得的方式,减少或酌情消除关税,包括削减或消除关税高峰、高关税、关税升级和非关税壁垒,特别是对于发展中国家出口利益相关的产品的关税。产品范围是全面的,没有优先例外的。谈判将充分考虑发展中国家和最不发达国家的特殊需要和利益,这包括根据《1994年关贸总协定》第28条的有关规定和下面第50条,在削减承诺方面不实行完全的互惠。为此,要协商的方式将包括适当的研究和能力建设措施,来支持最不发达国家有效地参与谈判。

  与贸易有关的知识产权

  17. 我们以一种有助于公共健康的方式强调实施和解释《与贸易有关的知识产权协定》的重要性,方法是促进对现有药物和对新药物研发的准入。有鉴于此,我们通过了一个单独的宣言。

  18. 为了完成"与贸易有关的知识产权理事会"开始的关于23.4条实施的工作,我们同意在WTO第五届部长级会议召开前建立一个关于葡萄酒和烈性酒地理标识通报和登记的多边体系。我们注意到在第23条当中提到的关于对葡萄酒和烈性酒以外的产品地理标识保护的延期问题将根据本《宣言》第12段在与贸易有关的知识产权理事会中加以解决。

  19. 我们指示与贸易有关的知识产权理事会,在推行《工作计划》中,审查,特别是审查《与贸易有关的知识产权协定》和《生物多样性公约》、传统知识和民间传说保护以及成员根据71.1条提出的其它新的发展趋势之间的关系。在执行此项工作时,与贸易有关的知识产权理事会应受到《与贸易有关的知识产权协定》第七、八条规定的目标和原则的指导,应充分考虑发展层面的问题。

  贸易和投资的关系

  20. 认识到有这样一种主张,即,建立一个多边框架,来确保透明、稳定和可预测的环境,来服务于有助于扩大贸易的长期的跨国界投资,特别是国外直接投资,也认识到第21段提到的应加强该领域技术支持和能力建设的需要,我们同意在WTO第五届部长级会议后,以《谈判方式会议》上经由明确一致达成的决定为基础,来进行谈判。

  21. 我们认识到发展中国家和最不发达国家需要在该领域获得更多的技术支持和能力建设,包括政策分析和发展,以便他们能更好地评估更加紧密的多边合作对他们的发展政策和目标以及人力和机构建设的影响。以此为目的,我们应与其他有关政府间组织,包括联合国贸易与发展会议(UNCTAD),进行合作;并通过适当的地区和双边渠道为他们的需求提供更多和适合的资源支持。

  22. 从现在到WTO第五届部长级会议这段时间,贸易和投资关系工作组将就以下方面的澄清做进一步的工作:范围和定义;透明度;非歧视;基于《服务贸易总协定》模式的设立前承诺(pre-establishment commitments)的方式;肯定列表方式(positive list approach);发展条款(development provisions);例外和国际收支差额保障;成员间争端的咨询和解决。任何框架都应当平衡地反映本国和东道国的利益,充分地考虑东道国的发展政策和目标以及他们调整公共利益的权利。发展中国家和最不发达国家特殊的发展、贸易和财政需要应当作为框架整体的组成部分加以考虑,该框架应当使得成员承担与他们自身需要和形势相称的义务和承诺。对于其它相关的WTO规定应当予以充分的关注。对于现存的双边和地区投资安排应当予以酌情考虑。

  贸易和竞争政策的互动

  23. 认识到有这样一种主张,即,建立一个多边框架,来加强竞争政策对国际贸易和发展的贡献,也认识到第24段提到的应在该领域对技术支持和能力建设进行加强的需要,我们同意在WTO第五届部长级会议后,以《谈判方式会议》上经由明确一致达成的决定为基础,来进行谈判。

  24. 我们认识到发展中国家和最不发达国家需要在该领域获得更多的技术支持和能力建设,包括政策分析和发展,以便他们能更好地评估更加紧密的多边合作对他们的发展政策和目标以及人力和机构建设的影响。以此为目的,我们应与其他有关政府间组织,包括联合国贸易与发展会议,进行合作;并通过适当的地区和双边渠道为他们的需求提供更多和适合的资源支持。

  25. 从现在到WTO第五届部长级会议这段时间,贸易和竞争政策互动工作组将就以下方面的澄清做进一步的工作:核心原则,包括透明度、非歧视和程序上的公平以及骨干卡特尔(hardcore cartels)规定;自愿合作方式;支持通过能力建设逐步的加强发展中国家的竞争机制。对于发展中国家和最不发达国家参与者的需要应给予完全的考虑,应就解决这些需要给予适度的灵活性。

  政府采购中的透明度

  26. 认识到在政府采购透明度方面设立一个多边协定的主张,也认识到应在该领域对技术支持和能力建设进行加强的需要,我们同意在WTO第五届部长级会议后,以通过《谈判方式会议》上经由明确一致达成的决定为基础,进行谈判。这些谈判将基于在此时间前进行的政府采购透明度工作组所取得的进展,并考虑参与者,特别是最不发达国家参与者的优先发展安排。谈判应限于透明度方面,因此,将不会限制各国对本国内供货和供货商提供优惠的范围。我们承诺在谈判间和结束后确保足够的技术支持和能力建设支持。

  贸易便利化

  27. 认识到有这样一种主张,即,进一步加速货物,包括中转货物的流动、放行和清关以及在该领域对技术支持和能力建设进行加强的需要,我们同意在WTO第五届部长级会议后,以通过《谈判方式会议》上经由明确一致达成的决定为基础,进行谈判。从现在到WTO第五届部长级会议这段时间,货物贸易理事会应审查并酌情澄清和促进《1994年关税与贸易总协定》第五、八和十条的有关规定,并确定成员,特别是发展中国家和最不发达国家的贸易便利化需要和优先发展的方面。我们承诺在谈判间和结束后确保足够的技术支持和能力建设支持。

  WTO规则

  28. 考虑到成员们的经验和越来越多的应用这些文件的事实,我们同意进行旨在澄清和促进《关于实施1994年关税与贸易总协定第四条的协定》和《补贴和反补贴措施协定》项下的纪律的谈判,同时维护这些协定的基本概念、原则和有效性,以及重视发展中国家和最不发达国家参与者的需要。在谈判的初始阶段,参与者将指明这些规定,包括关于贸易扭曲行为的纪律,在接下来的阶段,他们寻求澄清并改进这些纪律。在进行这些谈判的情况下,参与者也应致力于澄清并促进关于渔业补贴的WTO纪律,要考虑这一行业对发展中国家的重要性。我们注意到渔业补贴在31段中也有涉及。

  29. 我们也同意进行旨在澄清和促进在现存的、应用于区域贸易协定的WTO规定项下的纪律的谈判。谈判应考虑区域贸易协定的发展方面。

  争端解决谅解

  30. 我们同意进行旨在促进和澄清《争端解决谅解》的谈判。谈判应基于至今已开展的工作以及成员们所提的补充建议,致力于不迟于2003年5月在促进和澄清工作方面达成一致;从此日期起,我们将采取步骤确保谈判结果尽快生效。

  贸易与环境

  31. 为加强贸易和环境的相互支持,我们同意在不事先判断结果的前提下,就以下方面进行谈判:

  (i) 现存WTO规则和多边环境协定(MEAs)中阐述的明确的贸易义务之间的关系。谈判在范围上应限于WTO规则在讨论中的多边环境协定(MEAs)成员间的适用性。谈判不应歧视不是MEA成员的WTO成员的WTO权利。

  (ii) 在MEA秘书处和相关WTO委员会之间例行的信息交换,以及给予观察员地位的标准。

  (iii) 减少或酌情消除环境产品和服务的关税以及非关税壁垒。

  我们注意到渔业补贴构成了第28段规定的谈判的一部分。

  32. 我们指示贸易与环境委员会在其职权范围内进行其日程上所有各项工作的同时,对以下方面给予特殊的关注:

  (i) 环境措施对于与发展中国家,特别是他们中的最不发达国家的市场准入的效果;以及某些形势,在这些形势下,消除或减少贸易限制和扭曲会有利于贸易、环境和发展。

  (ii) 《与贸易有关的知识产权协定》中的相关规定。

  (iii) 出于环境目的的标签要求(labeling requirements)。

  在这些问题上的工作应当包括确定对WTO规则进行澄清的任何需要。该委员会应向第五届WTO部长级会议报告,并在适当的情况下,就未来行动,包括想谈判的意愿,提出建议。这项工作以及在第31段(i)和(ii)项下进行的谈判的结果应符合多边贸易体系公开和非歧视的性质,不应当增加或减少成员在现存WTO协定,特别是《实施卫生与植物卫生措施协定》下的权利和义务,也不应改变权利和义务间的平衡,并将考虑发展中国家和最不发达国家的需要。

  33. 我们认识到在贸易和环境领域技术支持和能力建设对于发展中国家,特别是最不发达国家的重要性。我们也鼓励在希望开展国家层面上环境审查的国家之间进行专业技能和经验的分享。我们将就这些活动为第五届WTO部长级会议准备一份报告。

  电子商务

  34. 我们注意到自从《1998年5月20日部长宣言》以来总理事会和其他相关机构已经开展的工作,并同意继续《电子商务工作计划》。到目前为止的工作表明了电子商务为在不同发展阶段的成员的贸易提供了机遇与挑战,我们认识到创造和维持这样一个有利于电子商务未来发展的环境的重要性。我们指示总理事会考虑进行该《工作计划》最适当的机构安排,并将进展报告给第五届WTO部长级会议。我们宣告所有成员将维持现行的做法,即,在第五届WTO部长级会议前不对电子商务征收关税。

  小经济体

  35. 我们同意总理事会主持的工作计划,来审查与小经济体贸易有关的问题。这项工作的目标是设计对于有关小的、脆弱的经济体更加全面的融入多边贸易体系中去的、与贸易有关的问题做出回应,而避免在WTO大家庭中创造出一个低级种类。总理事会应审查工作计划,为第五届WTO部长级会议提出行动建议。

  贸易、债务和金融

  36. 我们同意在总理事会主持的工作组中,审查贸易、债务和金融之间的关系,并审查关于在WTO授权和能力范围内可能采取某些步骤的建议,这些步骤加强多边贸易体系的能力建设,以持久解决发展中国家和最不发达国家的外债问题,并加强国际贸易和金融政策的一致性,目的是防止多边贸易体系受到不稳定的金融和货币政策的影响。总理事会应向第五届WTO部长级会议报告在审查中取得的进展。

  贸易和技术转让

  37. 我们同意在总理事会主持的工作组中,审查贸易和技术转让之间的关系,并审查关于在WTO授权范围内可能采取某些步骤的建议,这些步骤增加技术向发展中国家的流入。总理事会应向第五届WTO部长级会议报告在审查中取得的进展。 技术合作和能力建设

  38. 我们确认技术合作和能力建设是多边贸易体系发展方面的核心因素,我们欢迎也认可《WTO能力建设、增长和一体化技术合作新战略》。我们指示秘书处和其他有关机构相协调,来支持各国在国内将贸易融入国家经济发展和扶贫战略主流的努力。提供WTO的技术支持应着眼于使发展中国家、最不发达国家和转型中的低收入国家遵守WTO规则和纪律,执行成员的义务和行使权利,包括吸收开放的、以规则为基础的多边贸易体系所带来的好处。这里,应将优先权给予小的、脆弱的转型经济体,以及在日内瓦没有代表的成员和观察员。我们重申对于国际贸易中心重要工作的支持,该机构应当得以加强。

  39. 我们强调与经济合作与发展组织(OECD)发展支持委员会和相关国际和区域政府间组织中的双边援助方在一个一致的政策框架和时间表内进行有效协调的技术援助的紧迫性和必要性。在互相协调提供技术援助的过程中,我们指示总干事与有关机构、双边援助方和受益方进行协商,确定使《对于最不发达国家给予与贸易有关的技术援助的一体化框架以及技术援助联合一体化计划》(JITAP)得以加强和合理化的方法。

  40. 我们同意需要进行技术援助,来得益于安全的和可预见的资助。所以,我们指示预算、金融和行政委员会来制订一项计划,交由总理事会在2001年12月采用,该计划将确保长期的对于WTO技术援助的资助,其整体水平不低于现年度,并与上文所列活动相称。

  41. 我们在《部长宣言》的许多段落里确立了对于技术合作和能力建设的坚定承诺。我们重申在第16、22、25-27、33、38-40和43段里包含的特定的承诺,也重申我们理解第2段中对于得到持续财政资助的技术合作和能力建设计划的重要作用。我们指示总干事在2002年12月向第五届WTO部长级会议报告,并向总理事会提交一份报告,内容是有关指定段落中提到的那些承诺的实施情况和承诺是否适当。

  最不发达国家

  42. 我们承认最不发达国家在2001年7月桑给巴尔最不发达国家部长会议上表达的担忧的严重性。我们认识到最不发达国家融入多边贸易体系需要获得有意义的市场准入、对他们生产和出口基础多样化的支持,以及与贸易有关的技术援助和能力建设。我们同意最不发达国家有意义地融入贸易体系和全球经济将需要WTO所有成员的努力。我们承诺对原产地是最不发达国家的产品实现免税、免配额限制的市场准入目标。在这点上,我们欢迎WTO成员在2001年5月布鲁塞尔第三届《联合国最不发达国家大会》召开之前在市场准入方面所取得的显著的进展。我们进一步承诺另外的措施逐步促进为最不发达国家进行的市场准入。我们将优先考虑最不发达国家加入WTO。我们同意提供便利,加速最不发达国家入世谈判。我们指示秘书处在技术援助年度计划中反映出我们对于最不发达国家入世的优先考虑。我们重申我们在第三届《联合国最不发达国家大会》上的承诺,并同意WTO应在设计最不发达国家工作计划时,考虑《布鲁塞尔宣言》和《行动计划》中的与贸易有关的因素,这符合WTO在第三届《联合国最不发达国家大会》上获得的授权。我们指示最不发达国家分委会设计这样的一个工作计划,并在总理事会在2002年第一次会议上报告给总理事会。

  43. 我们认可《对于最不发达国家给予与贸易有关的技术援助的一体化框架》(IF)是最不发达国家贸易发展的可行的模式。我们敦促发展伙伴显著地增加对于支持最不发达国家的IF信托基金和WTO附加预算基金的贡献。我们敦促核心机构,与发展伙伴协调,寻求对于IF的加强,以期消除最不发达国家供给方面的限制和将该模式拓展到所有的最不发达国家,这些应在对于IF的审查和对在选出的最不发达国家中进行的试点进行评估之后。我们请求总干事在与其他机构的负责人协调之后,在12月向总理事会提交一份中期报告,并在第五届WTO部长级会议上提交关于所有影响最不发达国家问题的完整报告。

  特殊和差别对待

  44. 我们重申有关特殊和差别对待的规定是WTO协定的组成部分。我们注意到发展中国家,特别是最不发达国家所表达的关于消除特定限制的行动的关注。与此相联系,我们也注意到一些成员已经提交了《关于特殊和差别对待的框架协定》(WT/GC/W/442)。所以,我们同意所有的特殊和差别对待规定都应进行审查,旨在使它们得以加强、更准确、有效和可操作。因此,我们认可在《关于与实施有关的问题和关注的决定》中阐述的有关特殊和差别对待的工作计划。

  工作计划的组织和管理

  45. 在该《宣言》条款项下进行的谈判应在不迟于2005年1月1日前结束。第五届WTO部长级会议将评估谈判中取得的进步,提供任何必要的政治指导,并采取必要的决定。当所有领域的谈判结果出台的时候,将召开一次部长级会议的特别会议,就这些结果的接受和实施做出决定。

  46. 谈判的整体运作应由总理事会下的贸易谈判委员会监督。贸易谈判委员会应在在不迟于2002年1月31日前召开第一次会议。它将根据要求建立合适的谈判机制,并监督谈判的进展。

  47. 除去《争端解决的谅解》的促进和澄清,谈判的进行、完成和生效应作为一项单独工作的组成部分来处理。但是,早期已经达成的协定既可以作为临时的协定,也可以作为最终的协定来实施。在评估谈判的总体平衡时,应考虑早先的协定。

  48. 谈判应向以下方公开:

  (i) WTO的所有成员;

  (ii) 处于加入世界贸易组织进程中的国家和单独关税区,以及在总理事会定期会议上向各成员通报打算就入世条件进行谈判,并且入世工作组已经为他们建立起来的国家和单独关税区。

  谈判的结果应由WTO成员做决定。

  49. 谈判应在参与各方之间以透明的方式开展,这是为了促进所有参与方的有效参与。开展该谈判应旨在确保所有参与方都受益,并在谈判结果方面获得整体的平衡。

  50. 谈判和《工作计划》的其它方面应充分考虑包含在以下条款中的对于发展中国家和最不发达国家给予特殊和差别对待的原则:《1994年关贸总协定》第四部分;《1979年11月28日关于给予发展中国家差别和更优惠待遇、互惠以及更全面参与的决定》;《乌拉圭回合关于有利于最不发达国家措施的决定》;以及所有其它有关的WTO规定。

  51. 贸易与发展委员会和贸易与环境委员会应在各自的授权范围内,各自作为一个论坛,来确定和讨论谈判的发展和环境方面,旨在帮助实现恰当反映出来的目标,即实现可持续发展。

  52. 《工作计划》中不涉及谈判的因素也给予了很大的优先权。它们应在总理事会的监督下实现,总理事应将进展情况报告给第五届部长级会议。

  MINISTERIAL DECLARATION

  1. The multilateral trading system embodied in the World Trade Organization has contributed significantly to economic growth, development and employment throughout the past fifty years. We are determined, particularly in the light of the global economic slowdown, to maintain the process of reform and liberalization of trade policies, thus ensuring that the system plays its full part in promoting recovery, growth and development. We therefore strongly reaffirm the principles and objectives set out in the Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, and pledge to reject the use of protectionism.

  2. International trade can play a major role in the promotion of economic development and the alleviation of poverty. We recognize the need for all our peoples to benefit from the increased opportunities and welfare gains that the multilateral trading system generates. The majority of WTO Members are developing countries. We seek to place their needs and interests at the heart of the Work Programme adopted in this Declaration. Recalling the Preamble to the Marrakesh Agreement, we shall continue to make positive efforts designed to ensure that developing countries, and especially the least-developed among them, secure a share in the growth of world trade commensurate with the needs of their economic development. In this context, enhanced market access, balanced rules, and well targeted, sustainably financed technical assistance and capacity-building programmes have important roles to play.

  3. We recognize the particular vulnerability of the least-developed countries and the special structural difficulties they face in the global economy. We are committed to addressing the marginalization of least-developed countries in international trade and to improving their effective participation in the multilateral trading system. We recall the commitments made by Ministers at our meetings in Marrakesh, Singapore and Geneva, and by the international community at the Third UN Conference on Least-Developed Countries in Brussels, to help least-developed countries secure beneficial and meaningful integration into the multilateral trading system and the global economy. We are determined that the WTO will play its part in building effectively on these commitments under the Work Programme we are establishing.

  4. We stress our commitment to the WTO as the unique forum for global trade rule-making and liberalization, while also recognizing that regional trade agreements can play an important role in promoting the liberalization and expansion of trade and in fostering development.

  5. We are aware that the challenges Members face in a rapidly changing international environment cannot be addressed through measures taken in the trade field alone. We shall continue to work with the Bretton Woods institutions for greater coherence in global economic policy-making.

  6. We strongly reaffirm our commitment to the objective of sustainable development, as stated in the Preamble to the Marrakesh Agreement. We are convinced that the aims of upholding and safeguarding an open and non-discriminatory multilateral trading system, and acting for the protection of the environment and the promotion of sustainable development can and must be mutually supportive. We take note of the efforts by Members to conduct national environmental assessments of trade policies on a voluntary basis. We recognize that under WTO rules no country should be prevented from taking measures for the protection of human, animal or plant life or health, or of the environment at the levels it considers appropriate, subject to the requirement that they are not applied in a manner which would constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination between countries where the same conditions prevail, or a disguised restriction on international trade, and are otherwise in accordance with the provisions of the WTO Agreements. We welcome the WTO′s continued cooperation with UNEP and other inter-governmental environmental organizations. We encourage efforts to promote cooperation between the WTO and relevant international environmental and developmental organizations, especially in the lead-up to the World Summit on Sustainable Development to be held in Johannesburg, South Africa, in September 2002.

  7. We reaffirm the right of Members under the General Agreement on Trade in Services to regulate, and to introduce new regulations on, the supply of services.

  8. We reaffirm our declaration made at the Singapore Ministerial  Conference regarding internationally recognized core labour standards. We take note of work under way in the International Labour Organization (ILO) on the social dimension of globalization.

  9. We note with particular satisfaction that this Conference has completed the WTO accession procedures for China and Chinese Taipei. We also welcome the accession as new Members, since our last Session, of Albania, Croatia, Georgia, Jordan, Lithuania, Moldova and Oman, and note the extensive market-access commitments already made by these countries on accession. These accessions will greatly strengthen the multilateral trading system, as will those of the 28 countries now negotiating their accession. We therefore attach great importance to concluding accession proceedings as quickly as possible. In particular, we are committed to accelerating the accession of least-developed countries.

  10. Recognizing the challenges posed by an expanding WTO membership, we confirm our collective responsibility to ensure internal transparency and the effective participation of all Members. While emphasizing the intergovernmental character of the organization, we are committed to making the WTO's operations more transparent, including through more effective and prompt dissemination of information, and to improve dialogue with the public. We shall therefore at the national and multilateral levels continue to promote a better public understanding of the WTO and to communicate the benefits of a liberal, rules-based multilateral trading system.

  11. In view of these considerations, we hereby agree to undertake the broad and balanced Work Programme set out below. This incorporates both an expanded negotiating agenda and other important decisions and activities necessary to address the challenges facing the multilateral trading system.

  WORK PROGRAMME

  IMPLEMENTATION-RELATED ISSUES AND CONCERNS

  12. We attach the utmost importance to the implementation-related issues and concerns raised by Members and are determined to find appropriate solutions to them. In this connection, and having regard to the General Council Decisions of 3 May and 15 December 2000, we further adopt the Decision on Implementation-Related Issues and Concerns in document WT/MIN(01)/W/10 to address a number of implementation problems faced by Members. We agree that negotiations on outstanding implementation issues shall be an integral part of the Work Programme we are establishing, and that agreements reached at an early stage in these negotiations shall be treated in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 47 below. In this regard, we shall proceed as follows: (a) where we provide a specific negotiating mandate in this Declaration, the relevant implementation issues shall be addressed under that mandate; (b) the other outstanding implementation issues shall be addressed as a matter of priority by the relevant WTO bodies, which shall report to the Trade Negotiations Committee, established under paragraph 46 below, by the end of 2002 for appropriate action.

  AGRICULTURE

  13. We recognize the work already undertaken in the negotiations initiated in early 2000 under Article 20 of the Agreement on Agriculture, including the large number of negotiating proposals submitted on behalf of a total of 121 Members. We recall the long-term objective referred to in the Agreement to establish a fair and market-oriented trading system through a programme of fundamental reform encompassing strengthened rules and specific commitments on support and protection in order to correct and prevent restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets. We reconfirm our commitment to this programme. Building on the work carried out to date and without prejudging the outcome of the negotiations we commit ourselves to comprehensive negotiations aimed at: substantial improvements in market access; reductions of, with a view to phasing out, all forms of export subsidies; and substantial reductions in trade-distorting domestic support. We agree that special and differential treatment for developing countries shall be an integral part of all elements of the negotiations and shall be embodied in the Schedules of concessions and commitments and as appropriate in the rules and disciplines to be negotiated, so as to be operationally effective and to enable developing countries to effectively take account of their development needs, including food security and rural development. We take note of the non-trade concerns reflected in the negotiating proposals submitted by Members and confirm that non-trade concerns will be taken into account in the negotiations as provided for in the Agreement on Agriculture.

  14. Modalities for the further commitments, including provisions for special and differential treatment, shall be established no later than 31 March 2003. Participants shall submit their comprehensive draft Schedules based on these modalities no later than the date of the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference. The negotiations, including with respect to rules and disciplines and related legal texts, shall be concluded as part and at the date of conclusion of the negotiating agenda as a whole.

  SERVICES

  15. The negotiations on trade in services shall be conducted with a view to promoting the economic growth of all trading partners and the development of developing and least-developed countries. We recognize the work already undertaken in the negotiations, initiated in January 2000 under Article XIX of the General Agreement on Trade in Services, and the large number of proposals submitted by Members on a wide range of sectors and several horizontal issues, as well as on movement of natural persons. We reaffirm the Guidelines and Procedures for the Negotiations adopted by the Council for Trade in Services on 28 March 2001 as the basis for continuing the negotiations, with a view to achieving the objectives of the General Agreement on Trade in Services, as stipulated in the Preamble, Article IV and Article XIX of that Agreement. Participants shall submit initial requests for specific commitments by 30 June 2002 and initial offers by 31 March 2003.

  MARKET ACCESS FOR NON-AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS

  16. We agree to negotiations which shall aim, by modalities to be agreed, to reduce or as appropriate eliminate tariffs, including the reduction or elimination of tariff peaks, high tariffs, and tariff escalation, as well as non-tariff barriers, in particular on products of export interest to developing countries. Product coverage shall be comprehensive and without a priori exclusions. The negotiations shall take fully into account the special needs and interests of developing and least-developed country participants, including through less than full reciprocity in reduction commitments, in accordance with the relevant provisions of Article XXVIII bis of GATT 1994 and the provisions cited in paragraph 50 below. To this end, the modalities to be agreed will include appropriate studies and capacity-building measures to assist least-developed countries to participate effectively in the negotiations.

  TRADE-RELATED ASPECTS OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS

  17. We stress the importance we attach to implementation and interpretation of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement) in a manner supportive of public health, by promoting both access to existing medicines and research and development into new medicines and, in this connection, are adopting a separate Declaration.

  18. With a view to completing the work started in the Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (Council for TRIPS) on the implementation of Article 23.4, we agree to negotiate the establishment of a multilateral system of notification and registration of geographical indications for wines and spirits by the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference. We note that issues related to the extension of the protection of geographical indications provided for in Article 23 to products other than wines and spirits will be addressed in the Council for TRIPS pursuant to paragraph 12 of this Declaration.

  19. We instruct the Council for TRIPS, in pursuing its work programme including under the review of Article 27.3(b), the review of the implementation of the TRIPS Agreement under Article 71.1 and the work foreseen pursuant to paragraph 12 of this Declaration, to examine, inter alia, the relationship between the TRIPS Agreement and the Convention on Biological Diversity, the protection of traditional knowledge and folklore, and other relevant new developments raised by Members pursuant to Article 71.1. In undertaking this work, the TRIPS Council shall be guided by the objectives and principles set out in Articles 7 and 8 of the TRIPS Agreement and shall take fully into account the development dimension.

  RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TRADE AND INVESTMENT

  20. Recognizing the case for a multilateral framework to secure transparent, stable and predictable conditions for long-term cross-border investment, particularly foreign direct investment, that will contribute to the expansion of trade, and the need for enhanced technical assistance and capacity-building in this area as referred to in paragraph 21, we agree that negotiations will take place after the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference on the basis of a decision to be taken, by explicit consensus, at that Session on modalities of negotiations.

  21. We recognize the needs of developing and least-developed countries for enhanced support for technical assistance and capacity building in this area, including policy analysis and development so that they may better evaluate the implications of closer multilateral cooperation for their development policies and objectives, and human and institutional development. To this end, we shall work in cooperation with other relevant intergovernmental organisations, including UNCTAD, and through appropriate regional and bilateral channels, to provide strengthened and adequately resourced assistance to respond to these needs.

  22. In the period until the Fifth Session, further work in the Working Group on the Relationship Between Trade and Investment will focus on the clarification of: scope and definition; transparency; non-discrimination; modalities for pre-establishment commitments based on a GATS-type, positive list approach; development provisions; exceptions and balance-of-payments safeguards; consultation and the settlement of disputes between Members. Any framework should reflect in a balanced manner the interests of home and host countries, and take due account of the development policies and objectives of host governments as well as their right to regulate in the public interest. The special development, trade and financial needs of developing and least-developed countries should be taken into account as an integral part of any framework, which should enable Members to undertake obligations and commitments commensurate with their individual needs and circumstances. Due regard should be paid to other relevant WTO provisions. Account should be taken, as appropriate, of existing bilateral and regional arrangements on investment.

  INTERACTION BETWEEN TRADE AND COMPETITION POLICY

  23. Recognizing the case for a multilateral framework to enhance the contribution of competition policy to international trade and development, and the need for enhanced technical assistance and capacity-building in this area as referred to in paragraph 24, we agree that negotiations will take place after the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference on the basis of a decision to be taken, by explicit consensus, at that Session on modalities of negotiations.

  24. We recognize the needs of developing and least-developed countries for enhanced support for technical assistance and capacity building in this area, including policy analysis and development so that they may better evaluate the implications of closer multilateral cooperation for their development policies and objectives, and human and institutional development. To this end, we shall work in cooperation with other relevant intergovernmental organisations, including UNCTAD, and through appropriate regional and bilateral channels, to provide strengthened and adequately resourced assistance to respond to these needs.

  25. In the period until the Fifth Session, further work in the Working Group on the Interaction between Trade and Competition Policy will focus on the clarification of: core principles, including transparency, non-discrimination and procedural fairness, and provisions on hardcore cartels; modalities for voluntary cooperation; and support for progressive reinforcement of competition institutions in developing countries through capacity building. Full account shall be taken of the needs of developing and least-developed country participants and appropriate flexibility provided to address them.

  TRANSPARENCY IN GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENT

  26. Recognizing the case for a multilateral agreement on transparency in government procurement and the need for enhanced technical assistance and capacity building in this area, we agree that negotiations will take place after the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference on the basis of a decision to be taken, by explicit consensus, at that Session on modalities of negotiations. These negotiations will build on the progress made in the Working Group on Transparency in Government Procurement by that time and take into account participants' development priorities, especially those of least-developed country participants. Negotiations shall be limited to the transparency aspects and therefore will not restrict the scope for countries to give preferences to domestic supplies and suppliers. We commit ourselves to ensuring adequate technical assistance and support for capacity building both during the negotiations and after their conclusion.

  TRADE FACILITATION

  27. Recognizing the case for further expediting the movement, release and clearance of goods, including goods in transit, and the need for enhanced technical assistance and capacity building in this area, we agree that negotiations will take place after the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference on the basis of a decision to be taken, by explicit consensus, at that Session on modalities of negotiations. In the period until the Fifth Session, the Council for Trade in Goods shall review and as appropriate, clarify and improve relevant aspects of Articles V, VIII and X of the GATT 1994 and identify the trade facilitation needs and priorities of Members, in particular developing and least-developed countries. We commit ourselves to ensuring adequate technical assistance and support for capacity building in this area.

  WTO RULES

  28. In the light of experience and of the increasing application of these instruments by Members, we agree to negotiations aimed at clarifying and improving disciplines under the Agreements on Implementation of Article VI of the GATT 1994 and on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures, while preserving the basic concepts, principles and effectiveness of these Agreements and their instruments and objectives, and taking into account the needs of developing and least-developed participants. In the initial phase of the negotiations, participants will indicate the provisions, including disciplines on trade distorting practices, that they seek to clarify and improve in the subsequent phase. In the context of these negotiations, participants shall also aim to clarify and improve WTO disciplines on fisheries subsidies, taking into account the importance of this sector to developing countries. We note that fisheries subsidies are also referred to in paragraph 31.

  29. We also agree to negotiations aimed at clarifying and improving disciplines and procedures under the existing WTO provisions applying to regional trade agreements. The negotiations shall take into account the developmental aspects of regional trade agreements.

  DISPUTE SETTLEMENT UNDERSTANDING

  30. We agree to negotiations on improvements and clarifications of the Dispute Settlement Understanding. The negotiations should be based on the work done thus far as well as any additional proposals by Members, and aim to agree on improvements and clarifications not later than May 2003, at which time we will take steps to ensure that the results enter into force as soon as possible thereafter.

  TRADE AND ENVIRONMENT

  31. With a view to enhancing the mutual supportiveness of trade and environment, we agree to negotiations, without prejudging their outcome, on:

  (i) the relationship between existing WTO rules and specific trade obligations set out in multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs). The negotiations shall be limited in scope to the applicability of such existing WTO rules as among parties to the MEA in question. The negotiations shall not prejudice the WTO rights of any Member that is not a party to the MEA in question;

  (ii) procedures for regular information exchange between MEA Secretariats and the relevant WTO committees, and the criteria for the granting of observer status;

  (iii) the reduction or, as appropriate, elimination of tariff and non-tariff barriers to environmental goods and services.

  We note that fisheries subsidies form part of the negotiations provided for in paragraph 28.

  32. We instruct the Committee on Trade and Environment, in pursuing work on all items on its agenda within its current terms of reference, to give particular attention to:

  (i) the effect of environmental measures on market access, especially in relation to developing countries, in particular the least-developed among them, and those situations in which the elimination or reduction of trade restrictions and distortions would benefit trade, the environment and development;

  (ii) the relevant provisions of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights; and

  (iii) labelling requirements for environmental purposes.

  Work on these issues should include the identification of any need to clarify relevant WTO rules. The Committee shall report to the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference, and make recommendations, where appropriate, with respect to future action, including the desirability of negotiations. The outcome of this work as well as the negotiations carried out under paragraph 31(i) and (ii) shall be compatible with the open and non-discriminatory nature of the multilateral trading system, shall not add to or diminish the rights and obligations of Members under existing WTO agreements, in particular the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures, nor alter the balance of these rights and obligations, and will take into account the needs of developing and least-developed countries.

  33. We recognize the importance of technical assistance and capacity building in the field of trade and environment to developing countries, in particular the least-developed among them. We also encourage that expertise and experience be shared with Members wishing to perform environmental reviews at the national level. A report shall be prepared on these activities for the Fifth Session.

  ELECTRONIC COMMERCE

  34. We take note of the work which has been done in the General Council and other relevant bodies since the Ministerial Declaration of 20 May 1998 and agree to continue the Work Programme on Electronic Commerce. The work to date demonstrates that electronic commerce creates new challenges and opportunities for trade for Members at all stages of development, and we recognize the importance of creating and maintaining an environment which is favourable to the future development of electronic commerce. We instruct the General Council to consider the most appropriate institutional arrangements for handling the Work Programme, and to report on further progress to the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference. We declare that Members will maintain their current practice of not imposing customs duties on electronic transmissions until the Fifth Session.

  SMALL ECONOMIES

  35. We agree to a work programme, under the auspices of the General Council, to examine issues relating to the trade of small economies. The objective of this work is to frame responses to the trade-related issues identified for the fuller integration of small, vulnerable economies into the multilateral trading system, and not to create a sub-category of WTO Members. The General Council shall review the work programme and make recommendations for action to the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference.

  TRADE, DEBT AND FINANCE

  36. We agree to an examination, in a Working Group under the auspices of the General Council, of the relationship between trade, debt and finance, and of any possible recommendations on steps that might be taken within the mandate and competence of the WTO to enhance the capacity of the multilateral trading system to contribute to a durable solution to the problem of external indebtedness of developing and least-developed countries, and to strengthen the coherence of international trade and financial policies, with a view to safeguarding the multilateral trading system from the effects of financial and monetary instability. The General Council shall report to the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference on progress in the examination.

  TRADE AND TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY

  37. We agree to an examination, in a Working Group under the auspices of the General Council, of the relationship between trade and transfer of technology, and of any possible recommendations on steps that might be taken within the mandate of the WTO to increase flows of technology to developing countries. The General Council shall report to the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference on progress in the examination.

  TECHNICAL COOPERATION AND CAPACITY BUILDING

  38. We confirm that technical cooperation and capacity building are core elements of the development dimension of the multilateral trading system, and we welcome and endorse the New Strategy for WTO Technical Cooperation for Capacity Building, Growth and Integration. We instruct the Secretariat, in coordination with other relevant agencies, to support domestic efforts for mainstreaming trade into national plans for economic development and strategies for poverty reduction. The delivery of WTO technical assistance shall be designed to assist developing and least-developed countries and low-income countries in transition to adjust to WTO rules and disciplines, implement obligations and exercise the rights of membership, including drawing on the benefits of an open, rules-based multilateral trading system. Priority shall also be accorded to small, vulnerable, and transition economies, as well as to Members and Observers without representation in Geneva. We reaffirm our support for the valuable work of the International Trade Centre, which should be enhanced.

  39. We underscore the urgent necessity for the effective coordinated delivery of technical assistance with bilateral donors, in the OECD Development Assistance Committee and relevant international and regional intergovernmental institutions, within a coherent policy framework and timetable. In the coordinated delivery of technical assistance, we instruct the Director-General to consult with the relevant agencies, bilateral donors and beneficiaries, to identify ways of enhancing and rationalizing the Integrated Framework for Trade-Related Technical Assistance to Least-Developed Countries and the Joint Integrated Technical Assistance Programme (JITAP).

  40. We agree that there is a need for technical assistance to benefit from secure and predictable funding. We therefore instruct the Committee on Budget, Finance and Administration to develop a plan for adoption by the General Council in December 2001 that will ensure long-term funding for WTO technical assistance at an overall level no lower than that of the current year and commensurate with the activities outlined above.

  41. We have established firm commitments on technical cooperation and capacity building in various paragraphs in this Ministerial Declaration. We reaffirm these specific commitments contained in paragraphs 16, 22, 25-27, 33, 38-40, 42 and 43, and also reaffirm the understanding in paragraph 2 on the important role of sustainably financed technical assistance and capacity-building programmes. We instruct the Director-General to report to the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference, with an interim report to the General Council in December 2002 on the implementation and adequacy of these commitments in the identified paragraphs.

  LEAST-DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

  42. We acknowledge the seriousness of the concerns expressed by the least-developed countries (LDCs) in the Zanzibar Declaration adopted by their Ministers in July 2001. We recognize that the integration of the LDCs into the multilateral trading system requires meaningful market access, support for the diversification of their production and export base, and trade-related technical assistance and capacity building. We agree that the meaningful integration of LDCs into the trading system and the global economy will involve efforts by all WTO Members. We commit ourselves to the objective of duty-free, quota-free market access for products originating from LDCs. In this regard, we welcome the significant market access improvements by WTO Members in advance of the Third UN Conference on LDCs (LDC-III), in Brussels, May 2001. We further commit ourselves to consider additional measures for progressive improvements in market access for LDCs. Accession of LDCs remains a priority for the Membership. We agree to work to facilitate and accelerate negotiations with acceding LDCs. We instruct the Secretariat to reflect the priority we attach to LDCs' accessions in the annual plans for technical assistance. We reaffirm the commitments we undertook at LDC-III, and agree that the WTO should take into account, in designing its work programme for LDCs, the trade-related elements of the Brussels Declaration and Programme of Action, consistent with the WTO's mandate, adopted at LDC-III. We instruct the Sub-Committee for Least-Developed Countries to design such a work programme and to report on the agreed work programme to the General Council at its first meeting in 2002.

  43. We endorse the Integrated Framework for Trade-Related Technical Assistance to Least-Developed Countries (IF) as a viable model for LDCs' trade development. We urge development partners to significantly increase contributions to the IF Trust Fund and WTO extra-budgetary trust funds in favour of LDCs. We urge the core agencies, in coordination with development partners, to explore the enhancement of the IF with a view to addressing the supply-side constraints of LDCs and the extension of the model to all LDCs, following the review of the IF and the appraisal of the ongoing Pilot Scheme in selected LDCs. We request the Director-General, following coordination with heads of the other agencies, to provide an interim report to the General Council in December 2002 and a full report to the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference on all issues affecting LDCs.

  SPECIAL AND DIFFERENTIAL TREATMENT

  44. We reaffirm that provisions for special and differential treatment are an integral part of the WTO Agreements. We note the concerns expressed regarding their operation in addressing specific constraints faced by developing countries, particularly least-developed countries. In that connection, we also note that some Members have proposed a Framework Agreement on Special and Differential Treatment (WT/GC/W/442). We therefore agree that all special and differential treatment provisions shall be reviewed with a view to strengthening them and making them more precise, effective and operational. In this connection, we endorse the work programme on special and differential treatment set out in the Decision on Implementation-Related Issues and Concerns.

  ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF THE WORK PROGRAMME

  45. The negotiations to be pursued under the terms of this Declaration shall be concluded not later than 1 January 2005. The Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference will take stock of progress in the negotiations, provide any necessary political guidance, and take decisions as necessary. When the results of the negotiations in all areas have been established, a Special Session of the Ministerial Conference will be held to take decisions regarding the adoption and implementation of those results.

  46. The overall conduct of the negotiations shall be supervised by a Trade Negotiations Committee under the authority of the General Council. The Trade Negotiations Committee shall hold its first meeting not later than 31 January 2002. It shall establish appropriate negotiating mechanisms as required and supervise the progress of the negotiations.

  47. With the exception of the improvements and clarifications of the Dispute Settlement Understanding, the conduct, conclusion and entry into force of the outcome of the negotiations shall be treated as parts of a single undertaking. However, agreements reached at an early stage may be implemented on a provisional or a definitive basis. Early agreements shall be taken into account in assessing the overall balance of the negotiations.

  48. Negotiations shall be open to:

  (i) all Members of the WTO; and

  (ii) States and separate customs territories currently in the process of accession and those that inform Members, at a regular meeting of the General Council, of their intention to negotiate the terms of their membership and for whom an accession working party is established.

  Decisions on the outcomes of the negotiations shall be taken only by WTO Members.

  49. The negotiations shall be conducted in a transparent manner among participants, in order to facilitate the effective participation of all. They shall be conducted with a view to ensuring benefits to all participants and to achieving an overall balance in the outcome of the negotiations.

  50. The negotiations and the other aspects of the Work Programme shall take fully into account the principle of special and differential treatment for developing and least-developed countries embodied in: Part IV of the GATT 1994; the Decision of 28 November 1979 on Differential and More Favourable Treatment, Reciprocity and Fuller Participation of Developing Countries; the Uruguay Round Decision on Measures in Favour of Least-Developed Countries; and all other relevant WTO provisions.

  51. The Committee on Trade and Development and the Committee on Trade and Environment shall, within their respective mandates, each act as a forum to identify and debate developmental and environmental aspects of the negotiations, in order to help achieve the objective of having sustainable development appropriately reflected.

  52. Those elements of the Work Programme which do not involve negotiations are also accorded a high priority. They shall be pursued under the overall supervision of the General Council, which shall report on progress to the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference.

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