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完整的作文I

2006-02-09 00:00

  一.撰写作文的步骤

  1.总体规划

  写作犹如盖房,建筑工人通常在动工前手头都有蓝图并准备好了足够的材料。习作者也应事先有个规划,同时要收集足够的资料,然后再下笔。

  有了写作题目后,我们应首先考虑与题目有关的各个方面,随想随记,不必在意先后次序。与此同时,还要想想文章选什么主题为好。主题确定后,要重新审查列好的清单,删去与之无关或意义不大的细目,然后把剩下的顺序重新排列,写出一个提纲。

  比如说作文题目是《校图书馆》,大家可能首先想到并写出以下几条:

  A large number of useful books

  All kinds of dictionaries and reference books

  The reading-rooms spacious and quiet

  Newspapers and magazines

  The librarians patient and helpful

  Closed on Sundays and holidays

  Very crowded in the evening

  Students leave books on chairs to reserve seats

  Very few newspapers from abroad

  Students are not allowed to take schoolbags into the First Reading-Room

  Seniors would not be able to write their graduation papers without using the library

  Teachers go to the library frequently

  …

  作文的主题可能是:

  (1) The library is a nice place to work in.

  (2) The library plays a very important part in a student's life.

  (3) The work of the library needs improvement.

  如果我们选定(2)为主题,在重新审查上面的清单时,就会发现有的细目与主题无关或不十分重要,删去这些部分后,就可以准备提纲了:

  题目:The School Library

  主题:The library plays a very important part in a student's life.

  提纲:

  I.A student has to borrow books from the library.

  A.He needs reference books for his elective courses.

  B.He may want to read novels, stories and plays.

  II.He reads newspapers and magazines in the library.

  A.Many new magazines are on display in the First Reading-Room.

  B.There are newspapers from all provinces.

  C.Back numbers may be borrowed at the counter.

  III.He needs the library all the more in his junior and senior years.

  A.The library provides him with books for his research.

  B.He would not be able to write his graduation paper without using the library.

  请描写某人,他/她可能是:

  一本书、一部电影或一个电视节目中的人物,也可以是你自己。

  字数不限,请按照本期的方法来构思提纲完成作文。

  Today's Recommend:

  I want to speak up for mothers who are fighting for good schools, safe neighborhoods, clean air, and clean airwaves; for older women, some of them widows, who have raised their families and now find their skills and life experiences are not valued in the workplace; for women who are working all night as nurses, hotel clerks, and fast food cooks so that they can be at home during the day with their kids; and for women everywhere who simply don抰 have time to do everything they are called upon to do each day.

  Speaking to you today, I speak for them, just as each of us speaks for women around the world who are denied the chance to go to school, or see a doctor, or own property, or have a say about the direction of their lives, simply because they are women. The truth is that most women around the world work both inside and outside the home, usually by necessity.

  --Hillary Rodham Clinton

  2. 提纲类型

  上一期的提纲将作文的中心思想分成若干部分,每一部分由若干段落组成。英文提纲一般按罗马数字、阿拉伯数字以及英文字母排列:

  主题(中心思想)

  I.简介

  II.主要观点

  A.从属观点

  B.从属观点

  1.阐明观点的细节

  2.阐明观点的细节

  a.实例1

  b.实例2

  III.主要观点

  A.从属观点

  B.从属观点

  1.阐明观点的细节

  2.阐明观点的细节

  3.阐明观点的细节

  C.从属观点

  IV.结论

  常见的提纲有两种:题目式提纲和句子式提纲。题目式提纲由名词及其修饰语组成,或由与名词作用相当的动名词短语、动词不定式短语组成;句子式提纲则由完整的句子组成。前者简单明了,后者比较详细。

  另外,写提纲时以下几点值得注意:

  (1)不要列单一的分项。如果提纲中有"I",则下面至少还有"II";如果有"A",则必有"B",以此类推。

  (2)不要混合使用两种提纲。在同一提纲中不要既用短语又用句子。

  (3)同一等级的标题要用相同的结构表示。大标题下的小标题不但应该同等重要,而且要与大标题有关联,并按逻辑顺序排列。

  (4)主题应该用完整句;用肯定陈述句而不是疑问句,也不要用短语或从句。

  Today's Recommend:

  One day thirty years ago Marseilles lay in the burning sun. A blazing sun upon a fierce August day was no greater rarity in southern France than at any other time before or since. Everything in Marseilles and about Marseilles had stared at the fervid sun, and been stared at in return, until a staring habit had become universal there. Strangers were stared out of countenance by staring white houses, staring white streets, staring tracts of arid road, staring hills from which verdure was burnt away. The only things to be seen not fixedly staring and glaring were the vines drooping under their loads of grapes. These did occasionally wind a little, as the hot air barely moved their faint leaves.

  --节选自Charles Dickens A Summer Day

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