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中国的投资环境(第一部分)

2006-02-17 00:00

中国投资发展促进会副会长沈觉人
(1999年11月,意大利)  
  Vice President of China Association for the Promotion of Investment
(Italy, November, 1999) 
女士们,先生们,各位朋友:
  非常荣幸出席今天关于中国投资环境的专题研讨会。我向诸位企业家介绍一下中国目前的投资环境、对外商投资的有关政策及意大利企业到中国投资的机会,希望我的介绍了有助于增进意大利工商界对中国的了解,促进中意双边经贸关系的发展。 
  Ladies and gentlemen, friends,
It is a great pleasure to attend today's symposium on the investment environment in China. I would like to avail myself of this opportunity to brief you on the current investment environment in China, policies concerning foreign investment and the opportunities for Italian enterprises. I hope my briefing will be helpful to the enhanced understanding of China by the Italian business circle and the promotion of bilateral economic and trade relations. 
  一、中国改革开放以来吸收外资的基本情况    I. General situation of China's investment absorption since its reform and opening up 
  吸收外商直接投资是中国改革开放的起步之举。从1979年颁布中外合资经营企业法、1980年首次批准外商在中国设立企业以来,随着中国投资环境的不断改善,涉外经济法律的不断完善,中国吸收外商直接投资发展迅速,逐步成为国际投资的热点地区。    FDI attraction is the starting move of China's reform and opening up. Since the promulgation of Law on Sino-Foreign Equity Joint Ventures in 1979 and the first approval of foreign investors to set up enterprises in China in 1980, with the constant improvement of China's investment environment and the continuous perfection of foreign-related economic laws, China has achieved rapid development in FDI absorption and has gradually become a hot spot for international investment. 

  截至1999年6月底,中国累计批准外商投资企业33万2千7百家,合同外资金额5918.9亿美元,实际利用外商直接投资金额2856.8亿美元。目前,在中国投资的国家和地区达180多个,外商投资企业已经开业近17万家,就业人数超过1800万,占中国非农业劳动力人口的11%。从1993年到1998年,中国连续六年成为吸收外商直接投资最多的发展中国家。1993-97年,中国吸收外国直接投资在全球仅次于美国,居世界第二位;1998年在美国、英国之后,位居世界第三。1997年、1998 年外商对华实际投资金额均超过450亿美元,今年外商对华投资略有下降,但仍保持相当的规模,预计实际投入金额可接近400亿美元。 
  As of the end of June 1999, China has all together approved 332,700 foreign-funded enterprises with s total commitment of USD 591.89 billion of which USD 285.68 billion has already been realized. At present, over 180 countries and regions have investment in China, nearly 170,000 enterprises have started operation. In these enterprises, there are more than 18 million employees, which accounts for 11% of China's non-agricultural labor. From 1993 to 1998, China has been the largest FDI recipient among developing countries. 1993 through 1997, China's absorption of FDI has been listed the second globally, next only to the United States. And that for 1998 ranked the third in the world following US and UK. The amount of paid-in foreign investment to China for 1997 and 1998 have both exceeded USD 45 billion. Despite the slight decline in foreign investment this year, the scale will still be maintained with an expected realized value of nearly USD 40 billion.  

  改革开放二十年来,中国吸收外商投资的产业结构不断改善。1998年,在新批合同外资金额中,第一产业占2.3%,第二产业占64.6%,第三产业占33.1%,其中房地产项目占7.9%。按实际投入金额分析,第一产业占1%,第二产业占65%,第三产业占34%。这一年,外商投资的资金和技术密集型项目明显增加,国家鼓励投资类项目增加较多,限制类项目减少,基础产业和基础设施项目成为外商投资的热点。由于大项目投资增加,平均单项外商投资规模不断扩大,1998年新批外商投资平均单项投资额为260多万美元。由于加强了对外商投资产业的引导,有效减少了低水平的重复建设。 
  The industrial structure for China's FDI attraction has been steadily improved over the past two decades since the reform and opening up. Of the newly approved foreign investment contracts in 1998, the primary industry took up 2.3%, the secondary industry 64.6%, and the tertiary industry 33.1%, among which real property projects accounted for 7.9%. 1% Of the brought-in capital went to the primary industry, 65% the secondary, and 34% were occupied by the tertiary industry. This year capital- and technology-intensive projects with foreign investment have increase sharply, together with the growth of projects encouraged by the country and decrease of those restricted. Basic industry and infrastructure projects have become priorities of foreign investment. Due to rising investment in large-scale projects and the ever expanding average investment magnitude for single project, the average investment for individual newly-approved project in 1998 run as high as over USD 2.6 million. The strengthened guidance for FDI industries has effectively reduced low-level duplicated construction. 

  外商对华直接投资主要由合资、合作和独资三种形式。截至1998年底,中外合资、合作企业占外商投资企业数、合同外资金额和实际投资额的73.2%、68%和69.4%。近年来,外商独资企业有所增加,1998年新批独资企业数,合同外资金额和实际投资额分别占当年中国吸收外资总量的48.9%,41.8%和36%。 
  There are mainly three forms for FDI in China, namely Sino-foreign joint ventures, Sino-foreign cooperatives and wholly foreign owned enterprises. Up to the end of 1998, Sino-foreign joint ventures and Sino-foreign cooperatives accounted for 73.2%, 68% and 69.4% of foreign-funded enterprises, contractual capital value and realized value respectively. In recent years the number of solely foreign funded enterprises has picked up and in 1998, these newly approved enterprises took up 48.9%, 41.8% and 36% respectively of the total investment absorbed by China that year. 

  亚洲、美国、欧盟和部分自由港是中国吸收外商投资的主要来源地。按实际投入外资金额,截至1998年底,对华投资前十五位的国家和地区依次为香港、日本、美国、台湾、新加坡、韩国、维尔京群岛、英国、德国、澳门、法国、马来西亚、加拿大、荷兰和泰国。 
  Asia, US, EU and some free ports are China's main sources of FDI. As of the end of 1998, the top 15 countries and regions of investment in China in terms of paid-in capital are as follows, Hong Kong, Japan, US, Taiwan, Singapore, Republic of Korea, Virgin Islands, UK, Germany, Macao, France, Malaysia, Canada, the Netherlands and Thailand. 
  跨国公司来华投资日益增多,目前世界前五百家跨国公司中,有近四百家来华投资。摩托罗拉、西门子、贝尔、朗讯、三菱重工、伊藤忠商社、沃尔马特、飞利浦、波音、雀巢、惠普、联合利华、通用电气、荷兰皇家壳牌、诺基亚、爱立信、三星、松下电气、大宇等著名跨国公司在华均有较大投资。    Investments from transnational corporations are also on the rise. At present nearly 400 multinational corporations out of world's top 500 have investment in China, among them are Motorola, Siemens, Bell, Lucent, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Itochu, Walmart, Philips, Boeing, Nestle, HP, Unilever, GE, Shell, Nokia, Ericsson, Samsung, Panisonic, Daewoo etc. 

  按企业售额计算,1998年中国最大的二十家外商 投资企业分别是:上海大众汽车有限公司、摩托罗拉(中国)电子有限公司、华能国际电力股份有限公司、深圳希捷科技有限公司、长飞光纤光缆有限公司、康佳集团公司、广东核电合营有限公司、上海贝尔电话设备有限公司、一汽大众汽车有限公司、广州宝洁有限公司、希捷国际科技(无锡)有限公司、大连西太平洋石油化工有限公司、上海轮胎橡胶股份有限公司、中国国际海员集装箱股份有限公司、北京吉普汽车有限公司、深圳三洋华强能源有限公司、北京诺基亚移动通信有限公司、庆铃汽车股份有限公司、上海三菱电梯有限公司、南通远洋船务工程有限公司。 
  The top 20 foreign funded enterprises in China for 1998 according to annual sales are, Shanghai Volkswagen Automotive Company Ltd, Motorola (China) Electronics Limited, Hua Neng Power International, Inc, Seagate Technology (Shenzhen) Co. Ltd, Yangtze Optical Fiber and Cable Company Ltd, Konka Group Co. Ltd, Guangdong Nuclear Power Joint Ventures Co. Ltd, Shanghai Bell Telephone Equipment Mfg Co. Ltd, FAW-Volkswagen Automotive Company Ltd, P&G (Guangzhou) Co. Ltd, Seagate Technology International Wuxi Co. Ltd, West Pacific Petro chemical Co. Ltd. Dalian, Shanghai Tyre and Rubber Co. Ltd, China International Marine Containers (Group) Ltd, Beijing Jeep Corporation, Ltd, Shenzhen Sanyohuaqiang Energy Co. Ltd, Beijing Nokia Mobile Telecommunications Co. Ltd, Jiangsu Isuzu Automobile, Shanghai Mitsubishi Elevator Co. Ltd and Nantong Ocean Ship Engineering Co. Ltd. 
  二、中国的投资环境和对外商直接投资的优惠政策    II. Investment Environment in China and preferential policies for FDI 

  改革开放以来,中国一直致力于营造良好的外商投资环境,根据社会经济发 展的具体情况,给外商来华投资提供了一系列优惠政策。  
  China has been committed to the cultivation of a favorable investment environment since the reform and opening up and in accordance with the specifics of China's social and economic development , provided foreign investors with a serious of preferential policies. 
  1〕中国政府不断采取措施,扩大对外商投资的开放领域。最近,中国政府又决定在以下领域取消或进一步放宽外商投资限制:    I). Chinese government has unceasingly adopted measures to expand the scope for FDI. Recently Chinese government decided to eliminate or further relax restrictions on foreign investment in the following areas: 

  取消外商投资金融领域的地域限制,外国金融机构可申请在全国任何省市设立金融机构; 
  Geographic restrictions on FDI in financial sectors will be abolished, foreign financial institutions may apply to set up branches in any provinces and municipalities all over China; 

  将保险业地从目前的上海、广州两市,扩大到深圳、重庆、大连、天津等主要城市和贸易中心; 
  Open areas for insurance will be expanded from the current Shanghai and Guangzhou to Shenzhen, Chongqing, Dalian, Tianjin and other key cities and foreign trade centers; 

  将外商投资零售商业企业试点地扩大到全国省会城市,直辖市和经济特区,同时开始在京、津、沪、渝等地进行商业批发业吸收外商投资的试点; 
  Areas for pilot enterprises of foreign funded retail business will be extended to provincial capital cities, municipalities directly under the central government and special economic zones. At the same time, pilot wholesale business with foreign investment will begin in Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Chongqing and other places; 

  扩大跨国公司在华设立的投资公司的经营范围; 
  The business scope for investment companies set up by transnational corporations will be enlarged; 

  扩大外商投资外贸企业的试点范围和试点数量; 
  The scope and number of foreign funded import and export enterprises pilots will be increased; 

  扩大外商投资会计师事务所、评估机构、监理公司、法律咨询公司等各类中介服务业的试点; 
  The pilot intermediary services such as foreign funded accounting firms, assessing institutions, surveillance companies and law consulting firms will be expanded; 

  进一步增加航空运输业吸收外商投资的公司数量; 
  The number of air transportation companies with foreign capital will be further increased; 

  支持符合条件的国内公司与国际上有实力大公司,合资建立工程公司,鼓励其承接国内外大型工程项目; 
  Qualified domestic companies and powerful international companies will be supported in establishment of engineering corporations, they are also encouraged to undertake large-scale projects at home and abroad; 

  继续有步骤的开放电信 市场 
  Telecommunication market will continue to be opened step by step. 

  到目前为止,中国除了国家受保护野生动植物资源、电网建设和经营、放射性矿产采选及加工、新闻业等少数行业禁止外商投资以外,多数行业都鼓励和允许外商投资。 
  To date, apart from wild animal and plant resources protected by the country, electricity network construction and operation, selection and processing of radioactive minerals, press and a few other industries where foreign investment are prohibited, FDI are allowed and encouraged in most industries. 

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