The Barbie Dolls
In the mid 1940's, the young ambitious duo Ruth and Elliot Handler, owned a company that made wooden pictures frames. It was in 1945 that Ruth and Elliot Handler joined with their close friend Harold Mattson to form a company that would be known for the most famous and successful doll ever created. This company would be named Mattel, MATT for Mattson, and EL for Elliot.
In the mid 1950's, while visiting Switzerland, Ruth Handler purchased a German Lilli doll. Lilli was a shapely, pretty fashion doll first made in 1955. She was originally fashioned after a famous cartoon character in the West German Newsletter, Build.
Lilli is the doll that would inspire Ruth Handler to design the Barbie doll. With the help of her technicians and engineers at Mattel, Barbie was born. Ruth then hired Charlotte Johnson, a fashion designer, to create Barbie's wardrobe. It was in 1958 that the patent for Barbie was obtained. This would be a fashion doll unlike any of her time. She would be long limbed, shapely, beautiful, and only 11.5 inches tall. Ruth and Elliot would name their new fashion doll after their own daughter, Barbie.
In 1959, the Barbie doll would make her way to the New York Toy Show and receive a cool reception from the toy buyers.
Barbie has undergone a lot of changes over the years and has managed to keep up with current trends in hairstyles, makeup and clothing. She is a reflection of the history of fashion since her introduction to the toy market.
Barbie has a universal appeal and collectors both young and old enjoy time spent and memories made with their dolls.
1. When Ruth and Elliot Handler was young, they had a strong desire
A) to go to school.
B) to take photos.
C) to make frames.
D) to be highly successful.
2. Who owned Mattel?
C) Harold Mattson and Elliot Handler.
D) Harold Mattson, Ruth and Ellion Handler.
3. It can be inferred from the second paragraph that Lilli was fashioned after
B) a German doll.
C) a pretty girl.
D) a shapely woman.
4. Where did Ruth Handler's inspiration for the design of the Barbie doll come from?
C) Charlotte Johnson.
D) A fashion designer.
5. Which of the following statements is NOT true of the Barbie doll?
A) She does not attract young men.
B) She has undergone many changes over the years.
C) She is 11.5 inches tall.
D) She has managed to keep up with fashion.
The potential of closed-circuit television and other new electronic teaching tools is so great that it is fascinating to visualize" the school of tomorrow"
Televised lessons will originate from a central building having perhaps four or five master studios. The lessons will be carried into classrooms all over a city, or even an entire country.
After a televised lesson has been given, the classroom teacher will take over for the all-important "follow-up" period. The students will ask any troublesome questions, and difficult points will be cleared up through discussion.
The teacher in the classroom will have additional electronic tools. On the teacher's desk, the traditional chalk and erasers will have been replaced by a multiple-control panel and magnetic tape players. The tape machines will run pre-recorded lessons which pupils will follow by headphones. The lessons will be specifically geared to the students' levels of ability. For instance, while the class as a whole studies history, each student will receive an individual history lesson, directed to his particular level of ability.
Should question arise, the students will be able to talk directly to the teacher on individual "intercoms without disturbing the rest of the class. In this way, the teacher will be able to conduct as many as three classes at the same time.
With the rapid development of computer science, students will be aided with specially prepared multi-media software to study their subjects better. Homework will possibly be assigned and handed in via electronic mail system. Students can even take examinations on their computer linked with the teachers' and get the score instantly. They will get certificates or diplomas if they pass all the required examinations. Experts believe that this type of education will be very popular in the years ahead.
1. Lessons broadcast by television will come from
A) the school of tomorrow.
C) Big buildings.
D) Master studios
2. Which of the following statements about the function of the teacher in the teaching process is true?
A) The teacher will not need to be involved.
B) The teacher will still have to play an important role.
C) The teacher will only need to press buttons.
D) The teacher will be completely replaced by electronic tools.
3. When having lessons, the students will.
A) always listen to the same pre-recorded lessons together.
B) Usually have individual lessons according to their ability levels.
C) Control the multiple-control panel and magnetic tape players.
D) Receive face-to-face instructions from the teacher in the same classroom.
4. If there are questions, the students will
A) talk to the teacher through "intercoms".
B) Raise their hands and wait for the answer.
C) Discuss them with the rest of the class.
D) Solve the problems all by themselves.
5. Computer teaching will help the study in the following ways except that
A) teachers can give and collect homework using electronic mail system.
B) Examinations can be conducted on computers better than on paper.
C) Test scores can be obtained soon after the test is taken.
D) Certificates or diplomas are required if the students want to pass the tests.