Rockets in the Sky
If someone asked you, "What color is the sky?" I expect that you would answer, "Blue." I am afraid that you would be wrong. The sky has no color. When we see blue, we are looking at blue sunlight. The sunlight is shining on little bits of dust in the air.
We know that there is air all around the world. We could not breathe without air. Airplanes could not fly without air. They need air to lift their wings. Airplanes cannot fly very high because as they go higher the air gets thinner. If we go far enough away from the earth, we find there is no air.
What is the sky? The sky is space. In this space there is nothing except the sun, the moon and all the stars.
Scientists have always wanted to know more about the other worlds in the space. They have looked at them through telescopes and in this way they have found out a great deal.
The moon is about 384,000 kilometers away from the earth. An airplane cannot fly to the moon but there is a thing that can fly even when there is no air. This is rocket.
I am sure that you are asking, "How does a rocket fly?" if you want to know, get a balloon and then blow it up until it is quite big. Do not tie up the neck o f the balloon. Let go! The balloon will fly off through the air very quickly. The air inside the balloon tries to get out. It rushes out through neck of the balloon and this pushes the balloon through the air. It does not need wings like an airplane.
This is how a rocket works. It is not made of rubber like a balloon, of course. It is made of metal. The metal must not be heavy but it must be very strong. There is gas inside the rocket which is made very hot. When it rushes out of the end of the rocket, the rocket is pushed up into the air.
Rockets can fly fat out into space. Rockets with men inside them have already reached the moon. Several rockets, without men inside them, have been sent to other worlds much farther away. One day rockets may be able to go anywhere in the space.
1. What color is the sky?
A) It is blue.
B) It is white.
C) It is grey.
D) It has no color.
2. When an airplane flies too high,
A) the air will be too thin to support its wings.
B) the air will become thicker.
C) the air will exert pressure on it.
D) the air will disappear in no time.
3. A rocket can fly to the moon because
A) it looks like a balloon.
B) it is much lighter than an airplane.
C) it doesn't have wings.
D) it works like an untied balloon.
4. Which of the following statements about a rocket is NOT true?
A) It can fly when there is no air.
B) It can fly without wings.
C) It is made of strong metal.
D) It is propelled by burning gas inside it.
5. A rocket is pushed up into the air when
A) hot gas rushes out of its head.
B) it is powered by gas.
C) hot gas rushes out of its bottom.
D) hot gas rushes out of its neck.
Adaptation of Living Things
Certain animals and plants develop characteristics that help them cope with their environment better than others of their kind. This natural biological process is called adaptation. Among the superior characteristics developed through adaptation are those that may help in getting food or shelter, in providing protection, and in producing and protecting the young. That results in the evolution of more and more organisms that are better fitted to their environments.
Each living thing is adapted to its way of life in a general way, but each is adapted especially to its own distinct class. A plant, for example, depends upon its roots to fix itself firmly and to absorb water and inorganic chemicals. It depends upon its green leaves for using the sun's energy to make food from inorganic chemicals. These are general adaptations, common to most plants. In addition, there are special adaptations that only certain kinds of plants have.
Many animals have adaptations that help them escape from their enemies. Some insects are hidden by their body color or shape, and many look like a leaf or a little branch. The coats of deer are colored to mix with the surroundings. Many animals have the ability to remain completely still when an enemy is near.
Organisms have a great variety of ways of adapting. They may adapt in their structure, function, and genetics; in their development and production of the young; and in other respects. An organism may create its own environment, as do warm-blooded mammals, which have the ability to adjust body heat exactly to maintain their ideal temperature despite changing weather. Usually adaptations are an advantage, but sometimes an organism is so well adapted to a particular environment that if conditions change, it finds it difficult or impossible to readapt to the new conditions.
1. Some plants and animals develop superior characteristics so that they may
A) help others of their kind get food, shelter and other things needed.
B) survive even in extremely severe conditions.
C) become better adapted to the environments than others of their kind.
D) result in the evolution and production of more intelligent organisms.
2. In the first paragraph, the word "environments" could best be replaced by
3. It can be inferred from this passage that the feathers of a bird are colored
A) to frighten its enemies.
B) to attract its enemies.
C) to adjust its body heat.
D) to match its environment
4. Which of the following is not directly mentioned in the passage?
A) A living thing way adapt in its structure.
B) An organism may adapt in its function.
C) A living creature may adapt in its genetic makeup.
D) A living organism may adapt in its sleeping habit.
5. The author cites the behavior of warm-blooded mammals in order to that a living thing may have the ability
A) to create an environment of its own.
B) to remain still when an enemy is near.
C) to make food from inorganic chemicals.
D) to change the color of its skin.