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经贸博览之八:再谈APEC

2006-02-26 00:00   我要纠错 | 打印 | 收藏 | | |

  June 4th, city of Pucon, Chile: Trade Ministers Meeting, APEC 2004. Theme: “One Community, Our Future”. One of the heavyweight events marking the logbook of Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) ever since its maiden voyage in November, 1989 from Canberra, Australia. Hereunder is a fact sheet assembling the ends and bits concerning this organization into a rough reminder justifying its very existence.

  六月四日,智利普贡:2004年APEC贸易部长会。主题:“一个大家庭,我们的未来”。亚太经济合作组织(APEC)于1989年11月澳大利亚首都堪培拉开始首航,今年的贸易部长会是其漫漫日志上的又一个重量级事件。以下是有关该组织点滴情况的陈述,希望籍此拼凑所得以表明其存在之理由。

  No. 1: What gave rise to APEC? Three key words to note: economic globalization, trade and investment liberalization, regional economic integration. US, Japan, ASEAN and Australia enlisted for varying benefits and concerns. One plus, to provide impetus to the then stalled Uruguay Round of WTO negotiations.

  一. 何以会有APEC?记住三个词:经济全球化,贸易投资自由化,区域经济一体化。美国,日本,东盟和澳大利亚都为不同的利益和关注加入了该组织。除此之外,成立APEC也是为了推动当时停滞不前的世贸组织乌拉圭回合谈判。

  No. 2: What sustained APEC's cohesive power: A. “Bogor Goals, namely, free and open trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific by 2010 for industrialised economies and 2020 for developing economies”. B. Its feature as the only inter governmental grouping in the world operating on the basis of non-binding commitments, open dialogue and equal respect for the views of all participants. That APEC has no treaty obligation required of its members guarantees exactly the basis on which to hold them together.

  二. 是什么使APEC保持了其凝聚力?1. “茂物目标,即发达经济体到2010年,发展中经济体到2020年,在亚太地区实现自由开放的贸易和投资。”2. APEC的特点在于,它是世界上唯一一个基于非约束性承诺,公开对话和平等尊重所有成员意见建立的政府间组织。对其成员不存在条约上的约束要求这一事实,恰恰保证了成员间的团结。

  No. 3: Membership of APEC. With 21 Member Economies on board, no new entrant will be accepted until 2007, when APEC wraps up its 10-year consolidation process. Standing members include: Australia; Brunei Darussalam; Canada; Chile; People's Republic of China; Hong Kong, China; Indonesia; Japan; Republic of Korea; Malaysia; Mexico; New Zealand; Papua New Guinea; Peru; The Republic of the Philippines; The Russian Federation; Singapore; Chinese Taipei; Thailand; United States of America; Viet Nam.

  三.APEC的成员。 现有21个成员,在2007年APEC完成其十年巩固期之前,不会接纳新成员。现有成员包括:澳大利亚,文莱苏丹王国,加拿大,智利,中华人民共和国,中国香港,印度尼西亚,日本,韩国,马来西亚,墨西哥,新西兰,巴布亚新几内亚,秘鲁,菲律宾共和国,俄罗斯,新加坡,中国台北,泰国,美国,越南。

  No. 4: Work focus of APEC. Trade and investment liberalization and facilitation (TILF), and economic and technical cooperation (ECOTECH), which are called the “two wheels” propelling the organization's march in its designated sphere of economic engagement and policy alignment. Count in business facilitation, “two wheels” in turn blossom into “three pillars”.

  四.APEC的工作重点。贸易投资自由化和便利化(TILF),以及经济技术合作(ECOTECH)被称作该组织的“两个轮子”,它们一起推动APEC在经济合作和政策对应方面取得进展。加上商业促进,“两个轮子”转而扩展为了“三大支柱”。

  No. 5: Operational structure of APEC. With Economic Leaders' Meeting (ELM) as the top decision-making body, APEC has under it the Ministerial Meeting and Sectoral Ministerial Meetings. The first involves the participation of both the Minister of Foreign Affairs and the Minister Responsible for Trade, who jointly contribute to the decision-making mechanism. The latter includes the Trade Minister's Meeting as the one held in Chile recently and other Ministerial Meetings in different sectors on a selective basis. More specific work are assigned by the Ministers to the Senior Officials' Meeting (SOM), which, supported by APEC secretariat, steers the operation of four permanent committees and various task forces.

  五.APEC的组织结构。 经济领导人会议是APEC的最高决策机构,在其之下的是双部长会议和专业部长会议。双部长会由外交部长和贸易部长一起出席,共同为最后的决策献智献力。专业部长会包括最近在智利举行的贸易部长会和其他有选择性的主管不同行业的部长会议。部长们将更为具体的工作交给高官会(SOM),后者在APEC秘书处的支持下,负责四个常设委员会和多个工作组的运转。

  No.6: APEC as the “Bridge”. WTO membership and APEC membership overlap in most of its member economies. Meanwhile, around 40 regional trade agreements (RTAs) and free trade agreements (FTAs) have either taken root or entered the pipeline within the Asia Pacific. How best to guide the development of those RTAs and FTAs in such a way as to reinforce the multilateral trade system currently hinging on the fate of the Doha Development Agenda (DDA)? Housing economies involved in both, APEC is the natural intermediary for synergy. Besides, the organization is increasingly positioning itself as a platform through which government meets the business, thus promoting public private partnership across the board.

  六. APEC的“桥梁”作用。 其成员经济体中绝大多数也是WTO成员。同时,在亚太地区,已签署的或计划中的地区贸易安排(RTAs)和自由贸易安排(FTAs)就有四十个之多。那么该如何引导这些地区和自由贸易安排的发展,从而为当前取决于多哈发展议程,命运未卜的多边贸易体系添砖加瓦呢?拥有涉足这两方面成员的APEC自然就扮演了一个创造聚合效应的中间人的角色。除此之外,APEC也逐渐将自己定位为一个政府与企业交流的平台,以推动组织内公共私营部门的合作。

  No.7: The developed versus the developing, APEC's future. Developing and developed economies advocate differing perspectives into the nature, principle, focus and pace underlying the development of APEC. Should APEC stick to its definition as a regional economic forum or extend into other dimensions? Should it hold to the principle of voluntary participation and consensus through consultation or adopt the practice of “substantial majority” favored by its more prepared developed members? Or should there be some readjustment shifting more fuel to power the running of ECOTECH, from which the developing economies stand to benefit yet on which progress lags far behind its twin brother, TILF? And of course, in which gear should the organization ride alongside the thrust of WTO initiated opening up and integration? For both the developing or the developed, however, change is the call of the day.

  七.发达与发展中成员面对面,APEC的未来之路。对于APEC的性质,原则,重点和前进速度,发展中和发达成员经济体有各自不同的见地。比如说:APEC是应该继续其区域经济论坛的性质,还是要把触角伸进别的领域?它是应当坚持自主自愿,协商一致的原则呢,抑或采纳为发达成员所青睐的“实质多数”的决策方式?那么又是否需要做出调整,转移更多的资源去推动经济技术合作呢?比起它的同伴“贸易投资自由化和便利化”,经济技术合作已经远远落后了,而它的发展无疑将使发展中成员从中受益。当然,在WTO引导下的开放和一体化进程中,APEC应当以怎样的步调加入呢?但是,发展中也好,发达也罢,变革才是真正的主题。

  No. 8: China and APEC. Figures suffice. In 2003, trade between China and other APEC economies was valued at nearly 600 billion US dollars, accounting for 70 per cent of the country's total foreign trade volume. Nine out of the ten largest trade partners with China, with the exception of EU, are APEC members. And more than 70 per cent of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows into China during recent years are contributed by other APEC members. In creating an open trade and investment environment in the Asia Pacific region, APEC's role is as much crucial as the full and interactive participation by China, not as a separate entity, but as a member of APEC as well as an emerging giant seeking integration into the global family.

  八. APEC与中国。数据就足以说明一切。2003年,中国和其他APEC成员的贸易往来接近六千亿美元,占前者全年对外贸易总量的百分之七十。中国十大贸易伙伴中,除欧盟外,其余都是APEC成员。近年来中国引进外资的百分之七十以上也来自其他APEC成员。要在亚太地区创造一个开放的贸易和投资环境,少不了中国的全面和积极参与,同样也少不了APEC在其中所扮演的角色。更何况中国不是作为一个单独的存在参加进来的,她既是APEC的一员,也是一个在崛起中寻求融入世界大家庭的巨人。

  No.9: Pucon, APEC 2004. For this year's Meeting of Ministers Responsible for Trade (MRT), these areas were highlighted. They include: APEC support to the WTO process, trade and security, and free trade agreements (FTAs) and regional trade agreements (RTAs). Once again, this has renewed APEC's policy theme of “A Commitment to Development through Trade and Investment”.

  九. 2004年智利普贡。对于今年的APEC贸易部长会而言,受到重点关注的有三个领域。它们包括:APEC支持WTO进程,贸易与安全,以及自由贸易安排和区域贸易安排。这也又一次体现了该组织“通过贸易与投资致力于发展”的宗旨。

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