China's Foreign Trade
During the Tenth Five-Year Planning, foreign trade of China maintained a rapid development, and strategies of rejuvenating foreign trade through science and technology, winning by quality and going global made new progresses. The gradual improvement of structure of foreign trade, quality and efficiency made an outstanding contribution to the economic and social development.
1, Imports and exports developed with a high speed. During the Tenth Five-Year Planning, China's foreign trade went to a new stage and accomplished a historical leap, established the place of a big trading country. From 2001 to 2005, the annual average increase rate of foreign trade was 24.6%, the highest record of foreign trade development since the reform and opening up and much higher than that of global trade and of Chinese economy in the same period. Imports and exports in 2004 broke through US$1 trillion and amounted to US$1.1546 trillion, becoming the third country that trade value of goods exceeded US$1 trillion. Besides, imports and exports in 2005 maintained a growth rate of over 20% and total value hit US$1.4221 trillion.
2, Structure of imports and exports was improved step by step. From 2001 to 2005, total exports were close to US$2.4 trillion. Share of industrial products exports in total exports increased from 90.1% to 93.6%, and of electromechanical and hi-tech products rose from 44.6% and 17.5% to 56% and 28.6% respectively, up by 2.6 and 3.7 times. Meanwhile, exports of agricultural products, textile, chemical products and major light products were up by 73.4%, 120.4%, 173.7% and 105.2% respectively. In the same period, total imports reached US$2.2 trillion, share of primary products imports increased from 18.8% to 22.4%, and imports of agricultural products, raw material of textile products, base metal and mineral products were up by 154.7%, 41.6%, 174.6% and 276.3% respectively.
3, Strategy of rejuvenating foreign trade through science and technology made a positive progress. From 2001 to 2005, contract value of introduced technology were about US$73 billion, and there were over 240 enterprises with exports of hi-tech products exceeding US$100 million, forming a promotion system of rejuvenating foreign trade through science and technology with 20 cities, 25 bases, 12 categories of commodities and 1000 enterprises. Number and value of introduced technology contracts in 2005 hit the highest historical level.
4, Various kinds of trading forms developed together. From 2001 to 2005, imports and exports by conventional trade and processing trade increased by 1.6 and 1.9 times respectively, and amounted to US$594.8 billion and US$690.5 billion respectively in 2005. Strategy of "Bring in" and "Going Global" developed with a high speed, China totally attracted US$266.9 billion foreign investment within 5 years, foreign investment enterprises played a more important role in imports and exports, and the proportion went up from 50.8% to 58.5%. In 2005, China newly established 440 thousand foreign investment enterprises with actual use of foreign investment of US$60.3 billion, which drove up the exports.
5, Pattern of diversification of foreign trade entities had come into shape. After the entry into WTO, China expedited the release of rights of imports and exports. On Jan. 1, 2004, Measures on Registration of Foreign Trade Operators and newly revised Foreign Trade Law were published and implemented at the same time, helping collective and private enterprises to enter into distribution area and honored WTO commitment half a year ahead of schedule . From 2001 to 2005, number of domestic enterprise that obtaining the rights of imports and exports increased from 450 thousand to more than 200 thousand, imports and exports of foreign investment enterprises and private enterprises were up by 1.9 and 5 times. Share of private enterprises in total imports increased from 4.7% in 2001 to 15.8% in 2005.
6, Market diversification obtained new progresses. During the period from 2001 to 2005, proportion of Chinese imports and exports at traditional markets like America, Japan and EU was down from 48.8% to 43.1% but at new markets up from 13.4% to 18.7%, and at Africa and Latin America up from 2.2% and 2.7% to 2.8% and 3.6% respectively.
7, In 4 years after China's entry into WTO, domestic major industries did not greatly affected. Within the 4 years after the entry into WTO, Chinese economy maintained a momentum of steady and rapid development, made an obvious effect in macro control, unsteady and unhealthy factors in the process of economic operation was controlled. Major industries developed steadily, industrial structure optimized gradually and international competitiveness improved obviously, which further enhanced the influence of global economy. Besides, domestic market operated steadily, counter-measures in automobile, refinery and petrochemical industry in the transition period was powerful, Chinese major industries was slightly influenced by imported products.