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英语写作:好的段落

2006-02-10 00:00

  1.完整

  完整是就段落中心的内容而言。为了使一个段落的内容完整,它所有的句子必须都围绕着一个中心主题进行叙述。中心主题往往由一中心句点出,即所谓的主题句。主题句或中心句可置于段首,也可置于段中或段末。请看下面的例子:

  One of the central preoccupations of the arts and humanities is the observation of human beings. Painters and sculptors create images of the human form; writers tell stories or compose poems about human experience; musical artists give melodic contours to the human spirit; historians and philosophers ponder the essential qualities of human civilization and nature. And in our own lives, in our own ways, we spend a great deal of our energy and attention on our fellow creatures, being in families and other kinds of relationship, observing people with curiosity and interest in the course of the day, thinking about and forming our own character-deciding what kind of person we wish to be-as we grow.

  -- Don Knefel

  2.连贯 连贯是指段落的结构是否有条理。一个段落中的句子应该条理清晰,层次分明,衔接自然流畅。只有做到这些,读者才能跟上作者的思路,明白他要讲的意思。

  3.过渡

  在一个段落里,即使所有的句子意思都清楚并且逻辑顺序排列正确,但是如果缺乏句与句之间恰当的过渡,整个段落的连贯性仍会受到影响。

  以下几种方法可以用来加强句与句之间的连贯性:

  (1)使用平行结构;

  (2)重复一个词或一个词组;

  (3)在复指上一句提到的名词时使用代词;

  (4)段落中名词和代词的人称和数量保持一致;动词时态也须保持一致。

  (5)使用过渡词语:

  1)用于按空间展开的段落之中的连接词和过渡词有:

  above; before me; here; on the left; across from; below; in the distance; on the right; adjacent to; beyond; nearby; opposite to

  2)用于按时间顺序展开的段落之中的连接词和过渡词有:

  first, second, etc. ; soon; eventually; in the meantime; then; thereupon; at the same time; next; thereafter

  3)用于按分析法展开的段落之中的连接词和过渡词有:

  first, second, etc. ; now; for the first time; but; as a result; furthermore; finally; at last; moreover

  4)用于按比较法展开的段落之中的连接词和过渡词有:

  another; furthermore; moreover; equally important; too, also; at the same time; besides; then; accordingly

  5)用于按对比法展开的段落之中的连接词和过渡词有:

  on the contrary; different from/ in contrast; on the other hand; to; despite; in spite of; unlike; nevertheless

  这期的作业:

  1. 下面列出的是一个中心句和九个有关的句子。把句子按最佳顺序重新排列,并据此写出一段话。中心句应为该段的首句:

  中心句: Since I began living in an apartment and going to school, my biggest problem has been the housework.

  1.Cooking my food is a bigger problem.

  2.The worst problem is doing my laundry.

  3.Cleaning the apartment is not too bad; although it takes time away from my studies; at least when I finish the apartment looks nice.

  4.Sometimes the food is burned, sometimes it is not cooked enough, and sometimes I have not measured correctly, so the food tastes terrible.

  5.Shopping for my food is more difficult because I don't know the English names of many foods, and often I have to spend extra time asking for help.

  6.The laundromat is far from my apartment, and I waste much valuable time.

  7.I have never had to cook before, and usually the results are discouraging.

  8.Mostly I am embarrassed as I sit in the laundromat with all the women, and so I wait until all my clothes are dirty before I do this horrible task.

  9.I also have trouble with the complicated instructions, so occasionally I end up with pink socks or a shirt that is too small.

  Today's Recommend:

  请看下面的段落,注意作者是如何使用以上四种方法写出了一个内容连贯、生动流畅的段落的。

  Americans are queer people: they can't play. Americans rush to work as soon as they grow up. They want their work as soon as they wake. It is a stimulant-the only one they are not afraid of. They used to open their offices at ten o'clock; then at nine; then at eight; then at seven. Now they never shut them. Every business in America is turning into an open-all-day-and-night business. They eat all night, dance all night, build buildings all night, make a noise all night. They can't play. They try to, but can't. They turn football into a fight, baseball into a lawsuit, and yachting into machinery. They can't play. The little children can't play; they use mechanical toys instead-toy cranes, hoisting toy loads, toy machinery spreading a toy industrial depression of infantile dullness. The grownup people can't play; they use a mechanical gymnasium and a clockwork horse. They can't laugh; they hire a comedian and watch him laugh.

  --Stephen Leacock

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