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经贸博览之二:亚太经合组织

2006-02-17 00:00   我要纠错 | 打印 | 收藏 | | |

  亚太经济合作组织(APEC)

  APEC应该成为具有鲜明亚太地区特色的经济合作组织,即要推动贸易投资自由化,又要开展经济技术合作;即以自主自愿行动为基础,又有经过适当协调的集体行动;既努力寻求共同利益,又尊重不同成员的各自利益;既对区域内开放,又对区域外开放。

  ——江泽民

  编者按-此栏目以中英文对照的形式,向大家介绍国际经贸中出现的一些热点的背景知识。本期介绍一下亚太经济合作组织。

  一、 亚太经济合作组织ABC

  1. 什么是APEC?

  根据英文直译,APEC意为Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation(亚太经济合作)。可要是我们这样称呼她,总觉得有些便扭。那么该怎样称呼她呢?是叫亚太经合组织、亚太经合会、还是叫论坛?国内最开始时,对APEC的称呼是有些混乱的。但到了92年,考虑到APEC设立了秘书处,开始了某种机制化的进程,我国外交部经商国内主要协作部门后,将APEC定名为"亚太经济合作组织"。

  但APEC秘书处出版的"APEC Brochure 2001",首段就将APEC定位为区域论坛。另外,中国前任APEC高官王隅生(音同)在其所著《一个中国高官的体察》一书中称,"严格说来,根据APEC成立时的宗旨和性质,它只是一个具有实质内容的官方论坛,而不是具有约束性的组?quot;。

  2. APEC的目标

  Blake Island, 1993

  APEC Economic Leaders met for the first time in November, 1993, when they held informal discussions at Blake Island near Seattle. They envisioned a community of Asia-Pacific economies, based on the spirit of openness and partnership; which would make cooperative efforts to address the challenges of: change; promote the free exchange of goods, services and investment; and work towards broadly-based economic growth, higher living and educational standards and sustainable growth that respects the natural environment.

  1993年西雅图布莱克岛

  1993年APEC经济领导人在布莱克岛首次聚会,设想建立一个基于开放态度和伙伴精神的、由亚太各经济体共同组成的大家庭;大家共同努力,解决变革中遇到的挑战;促进货物、服务和投资的自由流动;努力实现更大范围的经济增长、提高生活和教育水平,并在保护自然环境的同时实现可持续增长。

  In subsequent annual meetings, APEC Ministers and Leaders further refined this vision and launched mechanisms to translate it into action. In 1994 in Bogor, the vision of an open trading system became the very ambitious goal of "free and open trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific by 2010 for developed member economies and 2020 for developing ones".

  1994年茂物

  经济领导人建立了雄心勃勃的茂物计划,即:在亚太范围内,发达成员在2010年前实现贸易投资自由化,发展中成员在2020年前实现贸易投资自由化。

  Osaka, 1995

  In Osaka, APEC Leaders adopted the Osaka Action Agenda (OAA), which firmly established the three pillars of APEC activities: trade and investment liberalization, business facilitation, and economic and technical cooperation.

  1995年日本大阪

  APEC领导人接受大阪行动纲领,建立起APEC的三大支柱:贸易投资自由化、商业便利化以及经济技术合作。

  Manila, 1996

  The Manila Action Plan for APEC (MAPA), adopted by the APEC Leaders in November 1996, compiled members' initial individual action plans to achieve the objectives outlined in Bogor. APEC Leaders also instructed that high priority be given to the following six areas of economic and technical cooperation: developing human capital; fostering safe and efficient capital markets; strengthening economic infrastructure; harnessing technologies of the future; promoting environmentally sustainable growth; and encouraging the growth of small and medium-sized enterprises.

  1996年马尼拉

  将各国的单边行动计划汇总,形成并通过马尼拉行动计划,来落实茂物目标。此外,各经济体领导人还确认了六大优先发展的领域:发展人力资本、培育安全有效的资本市场、加强经济基础设施建设、利用未来技术、促进保护环境的可持续发展、鼓励中小企业成长。

  Vancouver, 1997

  In Vancouver APEC Leaders recognized members' efforts to improve the commitments in their Individual Action Plans (IAPs) and reaffirmed their intention to update these annually. APEC Leaders endorsed their Ministers' agreement that action should be taken with respect to early voluntary sectoral liberalization (EVSL) in 15 sectors, with nine to be advanced throughout 1998 and implementation to begin in 1999.

  1997年温哥华

  在温哥华,APEC领导人认识到各成员为促进各自单边行动计划中所作的承诺,做出了努力;并重申他们每年都会做出新的努力。此外,APEC领导人同意部长会议上所达成的协议,即:各成员应采取行动实现部门自愿提前自由化,其中9个部门的提前自由化于1998年推动,1999年开始实施。

  1997年下半年开始爆发亚洲金融危机

  Kuala Lumpur, 1998

  In Kuala Lumpur APEC Leaders reaffirmed their confidence in the strong economic fundamentals and prospects for recovery of the economies of the Asia-Pacific. They agreed to pursue a cooperative growth strategy to end the financial crisis. They pledged efforts to strengthen: social safety nets; financial systems; trade and investment flows; the scientific and technological base; human resources development; economic infrastructure; and business and commercial links, so as to provide the base and set the pace for sustained growth into the 21st century. APEC Leaders also welcomed the Ministers' decision to seek an EVSL agreement with non-APEC members at the World Trade Organisation.

  1998年吉隆坡

  在吉隆坡,APEC领导人重申他们对于亚太地区雄厚的经济基础及经济复苏前景的信心。他们同意采取一项通过合作促进增长的战略,来结束亚洲金融危机。他们承诺做出努力来加强以下方面:社会保障网络、金融体系、贸易投资流动、科技基础、人力资源发展、经济基础设施、商业联系,以此来打下基础,迈出步伐,实现21世纪的可持续发展。APEC领导人也欢迎部长们做出的决定,即:在世界贸易组织那里与非APEC成员一起寻求部门自愿提前自由化。

  Auckland, 1999

  At their meeting in September 1999 in Auckland, APEC Leaders agreed that the performance and prospects of the APEC economies had improved, but they were not complacent about the risks to recovery. Accordingly they pledged to strengthen markets and improve the international framework governing trade and investment flows. APEC Leaders also put people and their prosperity at the forefront of their discussions, welcoming the more active participation of women and the business sector in APEC's work.

  1999年奥克兰

  在1999年9月奥克兰首脑会议上,APEC领导人一致认为,APEC各经济体的表现和前景都有所改善,但任重而道远。因此,他们承诺加强市场,改善贸易投资流动的国际框架。此外,领导人还讨论了以人为本的问题,欢迎妇女更多的参与APEC的商业活动。

  Bandar Seri Begawan,2000

  With the emerging signs of economic recovery in the region, APEC Economic Leaders, in their meeting in Bandar Seri Begawan in November 2000, mapped out ways of preserving, strengthening and further opening markets as well as sustaining economic recovery in APEC. Aiming to deliver on the various agreements, to the people and the diverse communities that APEC serves, they decided to address the challenges of the New Economy in the following areas:

  Managing Globalization.

  The Action Agenda for the New Economy.

  Creating New Opportunities.

  Strengthening the Multilateral Trading System.

  Making APEC Matter More.

  2000年斯里巴加湾

  随着本地区出现了经济复苏的迹象,APEC经济领导人在2000年11月斯里巴加湾会议上制订了办法,来维护、加强、促进市场的开放,实现亚太经济的复苏。他们还决定通过以下方法来应对新经济的挑战:

  管理全球化

  制定新经济行动计划

  创造新机遇

  加强多边贸易体系

  让APEC更有份量

  二、 中国与APEC

  I. Background of APEC this year

  In terms of the global economic and trade climate, two major scenarios distinguish the APEC meetings of this year. One is that some of the major members have suffered economic slowdown such as the United States and Japan; and the other is whether to launch a new round of WTO talks this year, remains uncertain. Given that, this year's APEC meetings are focused on the following two issues:

  1. Strengthening the cooperation between and among the APEC members in the face of potential economic slowdown for confidence rebuilding;

  2. Furthering the liberalization and facilitation process of trade and investment and supporting the development of the multilateral trading system by pushing forward a new round of WTO talks at an earlier date.

  I.背景

  今年举办APEC会议,就全球经济贸易环境来说,主要面临两个大背景,一个是一些主要成员经济增长速度减缓,如:美国、日本等成员均出现了经济减速的问题;另一个是WTO能否在今年启动新一轮谈判问题。因此,今年的APEC会议将主要侧重于以下两个方面:

  1. 加强APEC之间的合作,共同应对可能出现的经济衰退,重树信心;

  2. 继续推进APEC贸易投资自由化和便利化进程,支持多边贸易体制发展,推动WTO尽早启动新一轮谈判。

  II. Themes and Agenda of APEC meetings

  By analyzing the objective environment and practical needs that APEC is facing, and condensing the ideas from various parties, we have agreed upon the theme of APEC 2001 as "Meeting New Challenges in the New Century: Achieving Common Prosperity through Participation and Cooperation". This theme was mainly aimed at guiding the APEC members towards the 21st century and against the backdrop of the economic globalization and New Economy, seeking favorable positions, exploring new opportunities and enhancing cooperation for the common prosperity. Following this way of thinking and considering the present APEC cooperative framework, we worked out three sub-themes, which are:

  1. Making all APEC members benefit from the globalization and New Economy by promoting capacity building and exploring future opportunities;

  2. Advancing Trade and Investment for the establishment of a more reasonable multilateral trading system;

  3.Creating a favorable macro-environment for the sustainable economic development in Asia and Pacific.

  II.会议的主题和议题

  根据APEC面临的客观环境与现实需要,在征求各方意见的基础上,我们已确立了"新世纪、新挑战:参与、合作、促进共同繁荣"作为2001年APEC会议的主题。这一思路主要立意于引导APEC成员面向21世纪,在经济全球化和新经济的形势下,趋利避害,开拓发展机遇,加强合作,实现共同繁荣。按此思路,并考虑到APEC现有合作框架,拟订了三个分主题:

  1.加强能力建设,开拓未来发展机遇,使各成员从全球化和新经济中受益。

  2. 促进贸易与投资,推动建立更加合理的多边贸易体制。

  3. 为亚太地区经济可持续发展创造有利的宏观环境。

  III 筹办机构人员

LEADING GROUP
 
姓 名  领导小组  职务 
NAME    POSITION 
钱其琛   组长   中共中央政治局委员、国务院副总理 
QIAN Qichen  Director  Memberof the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of CPC (CCCPC)
VicePremier of the State Council  
黄菊   副组长   中共中央政治局委员、上海市委书记 
HUANG Ju  DeputyDirector  Member of the Political Bureauof the Central Committee of CPC
Party Secretaryof Shanghai 
曾庆红   副组长   中共中央政治局候补委员、中共中央书记处书记、中央组织部部长 
ZENG Qinghong  DeputyDirector  Alternate member of the PoliticalBureau of CCCPC
Secretary of the Secretariatof CCCPC
Minister of the Organization Department,CCCPC 
王忠禹   副组长   国务委员兼国务院秘书长 
WANG Zhongyu  DeputyDirector  State CouncilorSecretary General of the State Council 
王刚   成员   中共中央办公厅主任 
WANG Gang  Member  Directorof the General Office, CCCPC 
唐家璇   成员   外交部部长 
TANG Jiaxuan  Member  Ministerof Foreign Affairs 
石广生   成员   对外贸易经济合作部部长 
SHI Guangsheng  Member  Ministerof Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation 
徐匡迪   成员   上海市市长 
XU Kuangdi  Member  Mayorof the Shanghai Municipal Government 
THE ORGANIZING COMMITTEE 
姓名  筹委会  职务 
唐家璇   主任   外交部部长 
TANG Jiaxuan  Director  Ministerof Foreign Affairs 
石广生   副主任   对外贸易经济合作部部长 
SHI Guangsheng  DeputyDirector  Minister of Foreign Trade and EconomicCooperation 
徐匡迪  副主任  上海市市长 
XU Kuangdi  DeputyDirector   Mayor of the Shanghai MunicipalGovernment   
THE SECRETARIAT 
职 务  筹委会  职务 
 外交部副部长   主任   外交部部长 
Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs  Director  Ministerof Foreign Affairs 
外交部部长助理   副主任   对外贸易经济合作部部长 
  Assistant Minister of Foreign Affairs  DeputyDirector  Minister of Foreign Trade and EconomicCooperation 
徐匡迪  副主任  上海市市长 
XU Kuangdi  DeputyDirector   Mayor of the Shanghai MunicipalGovernment   

  IV. 中国筹办会议一览

APEC经济领导人非正式会议 
InformalMeeting of Economic Leaders 
贸易部长会议 
MRT (Ministers Responsible forTrade) Meeting 
2001年APEC投资博览会 
APEC Investment Mart 2001 
杰出青年企业家论坛 
YongLeaders Entrepreneurs Forum 
海关与商界对话会 
APEC Customs-Business Dialogue 2001 
APEC妇女领导人会议 
APECWomen Leaders Network Meeting 2001 
中小企业部长会议 
APEC SMEs Meeting 
第八届APEC财长会议 
The 8th APEC Finance Ministers Meeting (AFMM) 
APEC工商领导人峰会  
APECCEO Summit 2001 
ABAC工商咨询理事会 
APEC Business Advisory Council (ABAC) 
电子商务与无纸贸易高级研讨会 
High-LevelSymposium on E-commerce and Paperless Trading 
APEC研究中心联席会议 
APEC Study Centers (ASC) Consortium Meeting 
APEC青年节 
APECYouth Festival 
人力资源能力建设高峰会议 
APEC High-level Meeting on Human Capacity Building 
第四届APEC科技博览会 
APECTechnomart IV 

  三、APEC小知识

  Q : When and why "APEC" was established ?

  A : "APEC" was established in 1989 in response to the growing interdependence among Asia-Pacific economies. Its goal is to advance Asia-Pacific economic dynamism and sense of community.

  APEC何时成立,为什么成立?

  答:APEC成立于1989年,是为了响应APEC经济体之间出现的不断增长的互动。其目标是增加APEC的活力,推动建立APEC大家庭。

  Q: Who are the "Observers" of APEC ?

  A: There are three observers, namely Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Secretariat, Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (PECC) and South Pacific Forum (SPF).

  APEC的观察员有哪些?

  答:APEC有三个观察员:东盟秘书处、太平洋经济合作理事会和南太论坛。

  Q : What does "EVSL" mean ?

  A : "EVSL" means "Early Voluntary Sectoral Liberalization". The concept was presented by the APEC Economic Leaders in 1996 to identify potential sectors where early voluntary liberalization would have a positive impact on trade, investment, and economic growth in the individual APEC economies as well as in the region.

  什么是"部门自愿提前自由化"?

  答:"部门自愿提前自由化"是1996年由APEC经济领导人提出的概念,是要确认出一些部门,其提前自愿自由化将对各个成员和整个地区的贸易、投资和经济增长有积极的影响。

  Q : How many sectors are involved in the "EVSL" process ?

  A : Fifteen (15) sectors were identified in 1997. They are : environmental goods and services; fish and fish products; toys; forest products; gems and jewellery; medical equipment and instruments; chemicals; energy sector; telecommunications mutual recognition arrangement (MRA); food sector; natural and synthetic rubber; fertilizers; automotive; oilseeds and oilseed products and civil aircraft. The first nine (9) sectors belonged to fast track sectors.

  有多少部门加入了"部门自愿提前自由化"进程?

  答:在1997年确认了15个,它们是:环境产品和服务;渔业及渔产品;林产品;宝石珠宝;医疗设备和仪器;化工产品;能源;电信相互承认安排;食品;天然和合成橡胶;化肥;汽车;油籽和油籽产品;民用航空器。前九个部门属于快轨名单。

  Q : What is the composition of the Secretariat staff ?

  A : The Secretariat has two-category of staff. The first category is Professional Staff Members (PSMs) which are seconded from the government of member economies. The other is Supportive Staff Members (SSMs) which are openly recruited in Singapore.

  APEC秘书处的人员组成是怎样的?

  答:分两类:一类是专业成员,从各成员经济体的政府部门中临时借调;另一类是辅助成员,从新加坡公开招募。

  Q : How is the APEC decision-making process ?

  A : APEC operates by consensus. Members conduct their activities and work programs on the basis of open dialogue with equal respect for the views of all participants.

  APEC的决策程序是怎样的?

  答:APEC实行的是协商一致的原则。成员的活动和工作计划在公开对话、平等尊重的基础上,征集所有参与者的意见。

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