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快速英语写作三步法

2006-02-09 00:00

  训练指导者方针的好坏是一个前提条件。合理地设置训练程序,使英语习作从初级到高级沿着一条循序渐进,由简到多的进程发展是成功训练者必须具备的指导思想。本篇认为,在习作训练的初期,应采纳一条从有材料可依的习作方式过渡到脱离本本进行自由写作方式的途径。从有材可依到无材可依的训练过程应包括三个阶段:

  一、短文缩写(Summary)阶段

  短文缩写可以是就所学课文进行缩写,也可以采用其它阅读材料,但要求被缩写的材料难易程度不超过所学课本。被用于进行缩写的课文或其它材料必须观点明确,层次分明,叙述有条理。缩写时应做到简明扼要,抓住重点,不要拖泥带水,没有主次。初学阶段的被缩写材料不宜太长,以不超一千词为佳,缩写文以不超过2m词为佳。以下就一篇短文进行缩写,限于篇幅,短文内容有所节略。

  Most shops in Britain open at 9.00 a.m. and close at 5.00 or 5.30 in the evening. Small shops usually close for an hour at lunchtime. On one or two days a week-usually Thursday and/or Friday-some large food shops stay until about 8.00 p.m. for late night shopping.

  Many shops are closed in the afternoon on one day a week. The day is usually Wednesday or Thursday and it is a different day in different towns. Nearly all shops are closed on Sunday. Newspaper shops are open in the morning, and sell sweets and cigarettes as well. But there are legal restrictions on selling many things on Sundays. Many large food shops (supermarkets) are self-service. When you go into one of these shops you take a basket and you put the things you wish to buy into it. You queue up at the cash desk and pay for everything just before you leave. If anyone tries to take things from a shop without paying they are almost certain to be caught. Most shops have store detectives who have the job of catching shoplifters. Shoplifting is considered a serious crime by the police and the courts. When you are waiting to be served in a shop, it is important to wait your turn. It is important not to try to be served before people who arrived before you. Many people from overseas are astonished at the British habit of queuing.

  将短文缩写如下:

  This article tells us about British shops. British shops usually open at 9.00 a.m. and close at 5.00or 5.30 p.m. Many shops are closed in the afternoon one day a week. Nearly all shops are closed on Sundays. In Britain, many large food shops are self-service. And when you wait to be served in a shop, you have to wait patiently for your turn.

  这是一篇不超过100词的缩写,句子基本上由原文各段落的主要内容构成。个别段落被完全删除以保证缩写重点突出,前后连贯。缩写是一种"依材剪贴"的习作方式,基本上采用原材料中的词语和句子,仅作了部分调整,是最初级的习作方式。

  二、短文评论(Brief Comment)阶段

  短评是就所学课文或阅读材料进行评论。通过分析原文中的内容和观点,提出一定的看法。短评可以是对原文观点表示赞同,也可以提出异议或不同看法。如对前文便可作以下评论:

  From the article we learned about British shops, about their opening and closing time and their service. But we find that there are something inconvenient with British shop service. First is the time. Shops in Britain open very late and close too early. Second is that there is almost no Sunday service. Where can people go if they suddenly need to buy something? The last is the habit of queuing. It will be a waste of time if the queue is too long.

  初学阶段,短文评论的字数一般也应在150字左右,不宜写大多。短评是一种"一半依材一半发挥"的习作方式。在内容上,一部分取自原文,一部分靠自己的思考。在用词上,可以部分地依赖原文,也需使用一些其它词汇。此外,短评的行文布局和用句也是一半模仿,一半创造。短评的这种特点使它非常适合承接短文缩写阶段,而又为后期阶段打下一定的基础。

  三、引导写作(Guided Writing)阶段

  引导写作可分为重新编排句子顺序。规定情景作文。看图作文。提纲作文。关键词作文等形式。这些形式均可以用于训练,但以提纲作文和关键词作文多用为佳.

  提纲作文是一种给出题目和段落提纲的习作方式,其段落写作提纲可以采用段落主旨句的形式,也可以是短语。关键词作文是一种给出作文题目和一些关键词或词组的命题作文形式。由于有段落写作提纲或主旨句等,进行习作时,减少了审题环节,且写作思路受到引导。在训练初期,引导写作的命题应尽量与所学英语书本的内容挂钩,使学生能够参照一部分课文所学的词汇与结构,避免大多生词。如针对上篇短文便可出一道相关命题引导学生习作:

  题目:Shops in China

  提纲:(1)中国商店的作息时间 (2)中国商店的周末服务情况 (3)中国商店服务态度的好坏

  以上是关于英语习作初级阶段的训练步骤。三个步骤的三种形式,相承相继,循序渐进,为进入自由命题写作打下了良好的基础。既适合教师指导学生习作课使用,也适合学习者自我训练。事实证明,这三个步骤是英语习作人门的有效做法。

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