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经贸博览之七:市场经济地位

2006-02-17 00:00   我要纠错 | 打印 | 收藏 | | |

  经过二十多年的改革开放,特别是近几年来,中国市场经济建设取得巨大成就,其成熟度甚至已经超过目前一些被认为是市场经济的国家。但美国和欧盟直到现在,也没有给予中国完全市场经济地位;在反倾销调查中,使用第三国价格来确定中国商品的正常价值,将我正常的产品价格判定为倾销价格,使我出口蒙受损失。

  Over the past 20-strong years of reform and opening-up, especially in recent years, China has achieved great accomplishments in developing its market economy. The level of its market economy is even higher than that in some countries who have already been granted market economy status. However, the US and the EU have not yet recognized China's market economy status. Therefore, in their anti-dumping investigations against Chinese products, they use the third country's price rather than the normal value of Chinese products, which often lead to the decision that Chinese products were dumped and then disadvantaged Chinese exports.

  下面我将介绍一下美国和欧盟判定市场经济地位时实行的一套标准。

  Next, I'm going to brief you with the sets of standards referred to by the US and the EU when judging a country's market economy status.

  美国(US)

  美国1930年关税法案,经修订后,规定美国商务部按照六项标准判定一国是否可以获得市场经济地位。这六项标准在1930年关税法案第771节18段。具体如下:

  (1)一国货币自由兑换度;

  (2)劳资双方通过自由讨价还价确定工人工资;

  (3)针对合资企业设立或外国投资的限制程度;

  (4)生产方式的国有或国家控制程度;

  (5)管理机构认为合适的其它标准。

  Section 771(18)of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, directs the Department of Commerce (DOC) to consider 6 factors when making a non-market economy country determination. These factors are listed in Section 771(18).

  (1)The extent to which the country's currency is convertible into the currencies of other countries;

  (2)The extent to which wage rates are determined by free bargaining between labor and management;

  (3)The extent to which joint ventures or other investments by firms of other countries are permitted;

  (4)The extent of government ownership or control of the means of production;

  (5)The extent of government control over the allocation of resources and over the price and output decisions of enterprises; and

  (6)Such other factors as the administering authority considers appropriate.

  上述六标准是美国在判定国家市场经济地位时的标准。此外,针对国内某一行业是否是市场导向的行业(MOI),美国有专门的三条标准:

  (1)政府不能干预被调查商品的定价或产量;

  (2)被调查商品所属的行业应以私人企业或集体所有制企业为主。该行业可以有国有企业,但国有企业的大量存在将很不利于市场经济地位的判定;

  (3)所有主要的投入,不论是实物或非实物(例如劳动力、企业管理费用)以及总投入中占重要比例的那部分投入,应该是按照市场价格支付的。

  The above-mentioned six factors refer to a country's market economy status while the US government has three tests, specifically designed to judge whether a specific industry is a market-oriented industry(MOI). They are as follows:

  (1)For merchandise under investigation, there must be virtually no government involvement in setting prices or amounts to be produced;

  (2)The industry producing the merchandise under investigation should be characterized by private or collective ownership. There may be state-owned enterprises in the industry but substantial state ownership would weigh heavily against finding a market-oriented industry;

  (3)Market-determined prices must be paid for all significant inputs, whether material or non-material (e.g., labor and overhead), and for an all but insignificant proportion of all the inputs accounting for the total value of the merchandise under investigation.

  欧盟(EU)

  1. 公司有关成本、价格和投入,包括原材料、技术和劳工成本、产量、销售和投资方面的决定是依据市场信号作出的,反映了供应和需求,没有严重的国家干预,主要投入的成本很大程度地反映了市场价值。

  2. 公司有一套根据国际会计标准独立审计的,并适用于任何目的的清晰的会计审计报告。

  3. 公司的生产成本和财务状况没有因为以前的非市场经济体制受到严重的扭曲,特别是在有关资产折旧、其他呆帐、易货贸易和以抵偿债务方式实现的支付。

  4. 有关公司受到破产法和财产法的管辖,确保了公司营运的合法性和稳定性。

  5. 汇率转换依据市场汇率确定。

  1. Decisions of firms regarding costs, prices and inputs, including for instance raw materials, cost of technology and labor, output, sales and investment are made in response to market signals reflecting supply and demand and without significant State interference in this regard, and costs of major inputs substantially reflect market values;

  2. Firms have one set of clearly audited accounting records which are independently audited in accordance with international accounting standards and are applied for all purposes;

  3. The production costs and financial situation of firms are not subject to significant distortions carried over from the former non-market economy system, in particular in relation to depreciation of assets, other write-offs, barter trade and payment via compensation of debts;

  4. The firms concerned are subject to bankruptcy and property law which guarantee legal certainty and stability for the operation of the firms, and

  5. Exchange rate conversions are carried out at the market rate.

  上一篇:  经贸博览之五:知识产权

  下一篇:  经贸博览之六:保障措施

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