We all know that the normal human daily cycle of some 7-8 hours' sleep alternating with some 16-17 hours' wakefulness and that, broadly speaking, the sleep normally coincides with the hours of darkness. Our present concern is win how easily and to what extent this cycle can be modified.
The question is no more academic one. The case, for example, with which people can change from working in the day to working at night is a question of growing importance industry where automation calls insistently for round-the-clock working of machines. It normally takes from five days to one week for a person to adapt to a reversed of sleep and wakefulness, sleeping during the day and working at night. Unfortunately it is often the case in industry that shifts are changed every week; a person may work from 12 midnight to 8 a.m. one week , 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. the next, and 4 p.m. to 12 midnight the third and so on. This means that no sooner has he got used to one routine than he has to change to another, so that much of his time is spent neither working nor sleeping very efficiently.
One answer would seem to be longer periods on each shift, a month, or even three months. Recent research by Bonjer of the Netherlands, however, has shows that people on such systems will revert to their normal habits of sleep and wakefulness during the week-end and that this is quite enough to destroy any adaptation to night work built up during the week.
The only real solution appears to be to hand over the night shift to a corps of permanent night workers whose nocturnal wakefulness may persist through all weekend and holidays. An interesting study of the domestic life and health of night-shift workers was carried out by Brown. She found a high incidence of disturbed sleep, digestive disorder and domestic disruption among those on alternating day and night shifts, but no abnormal occurrence of these symptoms among those on permanent night work.
1. The question raised in Paragraph 1 is "no mere academic one"
A)because Bonjer's findings are different from Browns.
B)because sleep normally coincides with the hours of darkness.
C)because some people can change their sleeping habits easily.
D)because shift work in industry requires people to change the sleeping habits.
2. According to the passage, the main problem about night work is that
A) people hate the inconvenience of working on night shifts.
B) your life is disturbed by changing from day to night routines and back.
C) not all industries work at the same hours.
D) it is difficult to find a corps of good night workers.
3. According to the passage, the best solution on the problem seems to be
A) not to change shifts from one week to the next.
B) to make periods on each shift longer.
C) to employ people who will always work at night.
D) to find ways of selecting people who adapt quickly.
4. In the second paragraph, "the third" means
A) the third week
B) the third shift
C) a third of the time
D) the third routine
5. In the last sentence of the second paragraph, "another" means
A) another routine
B) another shift
C) another week
D) another person
What Makes a Soccer Player Great?
Soccer is played by millions of people all over the world, but there have only been few players who were truly great. How did these players get that way - was it through training and practice, or are great players "born, not made"? First, these players came from places that have had famous stars in the past - players that a young boy can look up to and try to imitate. In the history of soccer, only six countries have ever won the World Cup - three from South America and three from western Europe. There has never been a great national team - or a really great player - from North America or from Asia. Second, these players have all had years of practice in the game. Alfredo Di Stefano was the son of a soccer player, as was Pele. Most players begin playing the game at the age of three or four.
Finally, many great players come from the same kind of neighborhood - a poor, crowed area where a boy's dream is not to be a doctor, lawyer, or businessman, but to become a rich, famous athlete or entertainer. For example, Liverpool, which produced the Beetles, had one of the best English soccer teams in recent years. Pele practiced in the street with a "ball" made of rags. And George Best learned the tricks that made him famous by bouncing the ball off a wall in the slums of Belfast.
All great players have a lot in common, but that doesn't explain why they are great. Hundreds of boys played in those Brazilian streets, but only one became Pele. The greatest players are born with some unique quality that sets them apart from all the others.
1. According to the author, which of the following statements is true?
A) Soccer is popular all over the world, but truly great players are rare.
B) Millions of people all over the world are playing soccer, but only six countries have ever had famous stars.
C) Soccer is played by millions of people all over the world, but only six countries from South America and western Europe have ever had great national reams.
D) Soccer is one of the most popular games all over the world, but it seems the least popular in North America and Asia.
2. The word "tricks" at the end of Paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to
3. The Brazilian streets are mentioned to illustrate that
A) famous soccer players live in slum areas.
B) People in poor areas are born with some unique quality
C) Children in poor areas start playing football at the age of three or four.
D) A great soccer player may be born in a slum area.
4. In the last paragraph the statement "… but only one became Pele" indicates that
A) Pele is the greatest soccer player.
B) the greatest players are born with some unique quality.
C) Pele's birthplace sets him apart from all the others.
D) the success of a soccer player has everything to do with the family back ground.
5. The author mentions all the factors that may affect a soccer player's success except
A) his family back ground.
B) his neighborhood.
C) his practice.
D) his character.