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面试英文须知

2006-02-21 00:00

  你获得面试了,恭喜!如何留下好印象对成功与否至关重要。就算英文还可以,由于紧张也可能发挥不好。更何况,有些情况不是英文本身的错误,而是是否选择了适当的词在适当的时候说出来。

  面试的英文需要运用一系列比较专业的词汇,并且善用几种时态,如说明过去的工作要用过去时,以前取得的成绩要用过去完成时等等。这里我们就讲讲什么时候该说什么。

  当你走进雇主的办公室,先介绍自己,握手,微笑很重要。此后第一句话往往是打开局面的,通常面试人员会问:

  How are you today?

  Did you have any trouble finding us?

  What do you think of the weather lately?

  他们的语调可能会很友好,因为他们也希望你放松,尽量发挥你自己的水平。这时候你要有简单爽快而有礼貌的回应,如:

  对方问:How are you today?

  好的回答是:I'm fine thank you, and you? 或 I'm well thank you.

  不好的回答是:So, so 或 OK 或Not so well

  面试过程中最重要的部分是表述自己的学历,工作经验和资历。这些是和你应聘工作直接相关的。

  学历方面:记住你的学历是在以前完成的,要用过去时态。例如:

  I attended the University of Beijing from 1990 to 1993.

  I graduated with a degree in civic engineering.

  如果你现在还是学生,那么应用现在时态,例如:

  I am currently studying at the University of York and will graduate with a degree in Economics in the coming spring.

  I am studying English at the Seneca Community College.

  记得要告诉雇主,你仍然在不断改善你的英语,比如你每周还上几小时的英语课。因为英文不是你的母语,他们对此可能会有顾虑。

  工作经验和资历无疑是面试中最重要的部分。所以雇主很想知道个中的许多细节。雇主想知道你到底做过什么,做得好不好。因此你不要谦虚,把最好的成绩和方面表达出来。

  当谈到你目前在做的工作时你可以用现在完成进行时,表示你不但一直在这样做,而且将来也会持续下去:

  ABC Engineering Inc. have employed me for the last 3 years as a salesperson. I have been creating customer contacts for 6 months.

  但谈到以前的工作时用过去时:

  I was employed by Jackson's Ltd. from 1995 to 1997 as a office manager.

  I worked as a production supervisor at the Heitz while I was living in New York.

  当谈及以前的工作成绩和表现,尽量用一些主动的,积极的,令人印象深刻的动词,比用名词或者系动词词组效果好。比如与其说My job is to assist the senior scientist with unit testing不如说I assisted the senior scientist with unit testing.与其说I was responsible for the business needs analysis不如说I analyzed the business needs.

  以下是一些非常好的动词来帮助你表达你干得多好:

  acted accomplished adapted administered advanced

  advised allocated analyzed applied approved

  arbitrated arranged assisted attained blended brought

  built carried out catalogued changed classified collaborated

  compared completed computed conceived conducted

  constructed consulted contracted controlled cooperated

  coordinated corrected counseled created dealt

  decided decreased defined delegated derived

  designated detected developed devised

  directed discovered distributed documented

  doubled edited encouraged engineered

  enlarged escalated established estimated

  evaluated examined expanded experienced

  explored facilitated finalized formulated

  founded functioned governed grouped

  guided handled harmonized harnessed

  headed identified implemented improved

  increased indexed initiated inspected

  installed instituted interpreted introduced

  invented investigated justified led

  localized located made managed

  maintained mechanized merged moderated

  motivated negotiated opened operated

  organized originated overcame perceived

  performed pioneered planned prepared

  presented presided processed programmed

  promoted provided purchased raised

  recommended recorded recruited rectified

  redesigned repaired replaced restored

  reversed reviewed revised saved

  screened selected serviced set up

  solved sorted sparked specified

  started stimulated strengthened summarized

  supervised supported systematized tested

  trained transacted transcribed transformed

  tripled upgraded validated varied

  verified vitalized won wrote

  而这些是一些很好的形容词来形容你的工作能力和个性品德:

  accurate

  active

  adaptable

  adept

  broad-minded

  competent

  conscientious

  creative

  dependable

  determined

  diplomatic

  discreet

  efficient

  energetic

  enterprising

  enthusiastic

  experienced

  fair

  firm

  genuine

  honest

  innovative

  logical

  loyal

  mature

  methodical

  motivated

  objective

  outgoing

  personable

  pleasant

  positive

  practical

  productive

  reliable

  resourceful

  self disciplined

  sense of humor

  sensitive

  sincere

  successful

  tactful

  trustworthy

  上一期我们讨论了面试英文的基本要求,这次我们来谈谈面试中最常问的题目以及如何对答为妥。

  问: Tell me about yourself.

  答: I was born and raised in Dalian, China. I attended the University of Beijing and received my master's degree in Economics. I have worked for 5 years as a financial consultant in Beijing for various companies including Rossi Consultants, People's Insurance of China and Pepsi. I enjoy playing soccer in my free time and traveling.

  答: I've just graduated from the University of Toronto with a degree in Computers Science. During the summers, I worked as a systems administrator for a small company to help pay for my education.

  评语: 这个问题的目的是想大概地了解你,所以无需讲太多细节的东西。你的回答通常会帮助面试官决定下个问题问什么。除了给对方一个整体的印象,最重要的是着重讲和工作有关的经验。工作经验是大多数面试中最重要的环节,比学历更重要。

  问: What type of position are you looking for?

  答: I'm interested in an entry level (beginning) position.

  答: I'm looking for a position in which I can utilize my experience.

  答: I would like any position for which I qualify.

  评语:对于一个英语非母语的申请人,许多公司期望你能从低做起,慢慢弥补语言方面的不足。就算你以前很成功有多年经验,也应当有这个心理准备。

  问: Are you interested in a full-time or part-time position?

  答: I am more interested in a full-time position. However, I would also consider a part-time position.

  评语: 尽量留最大的余地争取机会。因为只要工作拿到了,以后的事情就容易把握,主动性大多了。

  问: Can you tell me about your responsibilities at your last job?

  答: I advised customers on financial matters. After I consulted the customer, I completed a customer inquiry form and catalogued the information in our database. I then collaborated with colleagues to prepare the best possible package for the client. The clients were then presented with a summarized report on their financial activities that I formulated on a quarterly basis.

  评语: 提到过往工作经验时,注意越详细越好。新移民最容易犯的错误之一是讲过去经历时太过笼统。雇主是想知道你到底做什么以及你做得怎么样,你讲得越详细,他们就越能知道你是否在行。你可以换着用一些不同的词汇来形容,而且尽量不要每句话都用"I"开头。记得用过去时态。

  问: What is your greatest strength?

  答: I work well under pressure. When there is a deadline (a time by which the work must be finished), I can focus on the task at hand (current project) and structure my work schedule well. I remember one week when I had to get 6 new customer reports out by Friday at 5. I finished all the reports ahead of time without having to work overtime.

  答: I am an excellent communicator. People trust me and come to me for advice. One afternoon, my colleague was involved with a troublesome (difficult) customer who felt he was not being served well. I made the customer a cup of coffee and invited both my colleague and the client to my desk where we solved the problem together.

  答: I am a trouble shooter. When there was a problem at my last job, the manager would always ask me to solve it. Last summer, the LAN server at work crashed. The manager was desperate and called me in (requested my help) to get the LAN back online. After taking a look at the daily backup, I detected the problem and the LAN was up and running (working) within the hour.

  评语: 不用谦虚,充满自信地把自己最好的方面都抖出来。记得要给一些具体的例子,举例时变化用词。

  问: What is your greatest weakness?

  答: I am overzealous (work too hard) and become nervous when my co-workers are not pulling their weight (doing their job). However, I am aware of this problem, and before I say anything to anyone, I ask myself why the colleague is having difficulties.

  答: I tend to spend too much time making sure the customer is satisified. However, I began setting time-limits for myself If I noticed this happening.

  评语: 这其实是一个很巧妙的问题,你要讲得出一个其实是优点的缺点。比如工作太认真啦,对自己对人要求很高啦,工作很追求完美啦,等等。在讲到缺点后要记得说你一直在致力于改善。

  问:Why do you want to work for us?

  答: After following your firms progress for the last 3 years, I am convinced that Smith and Sons are becoming one of the market leaders and I would like to be part of the team.

  答: I am impressed by the qualitiy of your products. I am sure that I would be a convincing salesman because I truly believe that the Atomizer is the best product on the market today.

  评语: 对这个问题你要事前做研究,通过看公司网站,其他有关信息等。越了解公司,对你越有利。

  问: When can you begin?

  答: Immediately.

  答: As soon as you would like me to begin.

  评语: 充分表示你想要工作!

  以上只是一些最基本的面试问答。对于英语非母语的人来说,最重要和最难的是用英语讲述大量细节,尤其是复杂的细节。然而,雇主是很有必要知道你能否把工作范畴内的细节表达清楚,这对你是否胜任至关重要。不要太过担心语法问题。只要用词够多,内容够细,只要不影响理解,语法往往不是那么重要。

  面试时招聘人员总会问你:"Do you have any questions?"以前我们讲过,面试十七大忌中其中一忌就是用"nothing"来回答这个问题。问什么问题,对你的印象分有帮助,显示你是一个用心的人。一般来说,围绕着这些话题来问比较得体:

  the competitive environment in which the organization operates 公司营运所处的竞争环境

  executive management styles 管理高层的风格

  what obstacles the organization anticipates in meeting its goals 公司在达到其目标过程中预计会遇到什么障碍

  how the organization's goals have changed over the past three to five years 公司的经营方向在过去三到五年内有什么变化

  第一次面试,或者在双方未有确定的意向以前,除非是已经到了签OFFER的阶段,最好不要问待遇如何。那样显得你更关心公司能为你做什么,而不是你为公司能做什么。

  具体来说,你可以问以下问题:

  1. What are the main objectives and responsibilities of the position?

  2. How does the company expect these objectives to be met?

  3. What obstacles are commonly encountered in reaching these objectives?

  4. What is the desired time frame for reaching the objectives?

  5. What resources are available from the company and what must be found elsewhere to reach the objectives?

  上次我们讲了在面试时可以问招聘人员的问题,主要是围绕着对该公司,该行业的认识和发展来提问。这次我们来看看哪些问题是可以探测面试官对这次面试的印象以及有没有下一步安排。

  1. Have you had a chance to review my resume?

  别以为这是个多余的问题,事实上,不少的面试人员事前并没有看过应聘者的简历,就匆匆忙忙开始了面谈。他们一边面试一边看你的简历。这个问题是个开场白,如果他们没有看过你的简历,通常也不会承认,可能会说:" I haven't had the chance to review it in details as I would like to."(其实就是一次也没看过。)不要为此懊丧,没看过的话,正好可以说,"well, maybe it is helpful for me to talk about the highlights of my qualifications." 就好象一个销售人员在推销产品之前,总是问"你对这个产品有什么认识/了解吗?"然后再开始自己的陈述。即使他们说已经看过你的简历,你一样可以说:"So let me talk about the highlights of my qualifitions."

  2. Is there anything else I can tell you about my qualifications?

  有可能的话,尽量用"qualifications"代替"experience"。前者代表了取得的成绩,更加突出了你是有才之士,相比之下后者比较中性,被动。问这个问题,有益无害,只要面试官说Yes,你就有更多的机会把最好的料子亮出来。越能让对方说Yes,你在他们眼中就越有价值,留下的印象越深。这是在首次和第二次面试中值得问的问题(假设面试总共有三次的话)。

  3. I've read the job description, of course, but how would you describe the nature and duties of this job?

  乍看这个问题显得明知故问,其实不然。你对这份工作有你的理解,而招聘人员也许有他自己的看法,和登出来的招聘要求并不完全一样。通过他们对这份工作的描述,至少你可以听出来什么是最重要的,什么是招聘广告里面没提到的。那么借此发挥:"I am glad to hear that maintaining customer relationship is a great part of this position. I am very customer-focused and always keep their needs in mind." 假设你在第二次面试中和另一个面试人员谈,那么可以再次问这个问题:"I've spoken to Mr. Smith about the responsibilities involved in this job. What's your take on the most important aspects of this position?"

  4. What are the major chanllenges that you staff is facing right now?

  这个问题有双重目的。第一个目的就是看看自己对公司面临的问题能否提出自己的意见和看法,来表面自己是一个善于解决问题的人。第二个目的就是如果这家公司真的存在着问题,你要考虑是否要加入。

  5. What results would you like to see me produce?

  问这个问题,显示出你的心态是"do a job",真正的干活,不是混口饭吃。不管对方说什么,你都可以接着说:"This is what you expect, this is what I will do." 可以对新的面试官重复同样的问题。

  6. What do you consider ideal experience of this position?

  这个问题的目的是衡量自己的资历水平和对方所说的理解人选差多少,然后尽量把距离拉近。先把已经符合的部分重申一次,然后再说不符合的部分,强调自己的经验和学习能力,可以很快把差距消除。

  7. How would you describe the atmosphere, the culture of this company?

  这也是个有双重目的的问题。首先就是了解公司的气氛,文化,环境是怎样的,是否合适自己发展;其次是可以表明自己很喜欢这种环境。可以说:"I really like that. I am energized by pressure situations."

  8. Was the person who held this job before me promoted?

  这个问题是要知道到底是不是有空缺,同时也可以了解拿到这个位子以后下一步可以晋升到什么水平。

  9. May I talk to the person who held this job previously(or who is currently doing this job)?

  根据上一个问题的结果,你大概已经知道,招这个职位是因为现在在做的人升了官,辞了职,还是转到其他的职位上去了。如果能够面谈当然好,如果不能够,看看对方用什么理由来拒绝你,

  10. Based on what I've told you, don't you think that I could give you all that you need in this position?

  就象所有的销售人员,在最后敲定之前,都会问:"根据我前面的介绍,你难道不认为这是笔好交易吗?"这个问题是为了引出一个积极的回应,绝大多数的面试人员很难在这个问题下生硬地打发你,他们很可能说Yes。

  面试中总有些问题是不好回答的,招聘人员往往根据你的回答来判断你的个人品质,工作风格和可能存在的问题。

  1. Why are you leaving your present job? 你为什么要辞掉现在的工作?

  在自己觉得舒服的基础上诚实地回答,比如公司机构重组,不再需要你这个职位。或者你觉得现在工作不适合你自己的长远职业需要等等。

  2. Describe what you feel to be an ideal working environment. 形容一下你认为最理想的工作环境。

  这是看你对工作环境的要求。你可以说"最理想的工作环境是人人都得到公平的对待。"To me the ideal working environment is one in which people are treated as fairly as possible. 也可以说challenging and fun workplace.

  3. How would you evaluate your present firm? 你如何看待你现在工作的企业?

  如果不是因为有什么过失或矛盾而要离开现在的公司,那么最好说说现在公司好的一面。It's an excellent company that is regarded as one of the industry leaders.

  4. In your current or last position, what features did you like the most? Least? Why? 在你现在或者上一份工作中,你最喜欢和最不喜欢的是什么?为什么?

  对最喜欢的部分照实说,对最不喜欢的事情,由于始终是你职责的一部分,你最好用积极的方式来说明。In my last job I had to report what I do to my manager on a daily basis. I think that I am very organized and self-supervised so daily report is not the best way of using the time of both.

  5. Why haven't you found a new position before now? 为什么在这之前你没找到一份新工作呢?

  找工作不难,找份合适的就难多了。这里强调你是有选择地求职,旨在找到对口的位置。

  6. What do you think of your boss? 你对你现在的上司怎么看?

  尽量讲好的方面。一般招聘人员都不喜欢听你讲以前老板的坏话,尽管真假难以查考。

  7. How do you resolve conflict on a project team? 在一个团队中你如何解决矛盾?

  沟通是最重要的,要理解各方的真正要求。开始会私下进行了解。Communication is very important to resolve conflict. First I would discuss the issues privately with the team members involved then I will help to find out a way to settle based on the business needs.

  8. Do you generally speak to people before they speak to you? 一般来说,在人们和你说话之前你会先和他们说话吗?

  看情况了。It depends on the circumstances.

  9. How would you describe your own personality? 你如何形容你的个性?

  根据你所应聘的公司和职位的要求来调整你的回答。有的职位要求人听话,肯干,有的要求人有创造性,主动性。在回答以前你心中对这家公司和工作应当有一定的感觉或认识。

  10. Are you a leader? 你是一个领导者吗?

  当然是了。信不信由你,leadership领导才能在西方社会里是极受重视的,就算你是个生产线的装配工,有领导才能也会比没有好。所以,多多少少你也要说你有领导才能。举几个例子。

  11. What career options do you have at the moment? 你目前的职业有些什么选择?

  讲到职业选择,应该设法和所应聘的行业和职位相连。"I see three areas of interest……"

  12. How would you describe the essence of success? According to your definition of success, how successful have you been so far? 你如何定义成功?根据你的定义,你认为到现在为止你有多成功?

  仔细想想,回答时重点强调你以往取得的成绩。

  13. You may be overqualified for the position we have to offer. 对我们目前招聘的职位你可能资历过高。

  这里指出由于你资历高,公司对你的投资更小,回报更快。而且你会找到把工作做得更好的方法。并强调你看重长远的发展。Strong companies need strong people. A growing, energetic company is rarely unable to use its employees' talents.

  14. What do you look for when you hire people? 当你雇人的时候你会看重什么?

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