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  The American Family

  In the American family the husband and wife usually share important decision making. When the children are old enough, they take part__1__.

  Foreigners are often surprised by the permissiveness of American parents. The old rule that "children should be seen and not heard" is rarely__2__, and children are often allowed to do what they wish without strict parental__3__. The father seldom expects his children to obey him__4__ question, and children are encouraged to be independent__5__ an early age. Some people believe that American parents carry this freedom__6__ far. Others think that a strong father image would not__7__ the American values of equality and independence. Because Americans emphasize the importance of independence, young people are expected to __8__ their parental families by the time they have__9__ their late teens or early twenties.__10__, not to do so is often regarded as a failure, a kind of weak dependence.

  This pattern of independence often results in serious__11__ for the aging parents of a small family. The average American is expected to live __12__ the age of 70. The job-retirement age is __13__ 65. The children have left home, married, and __!4__ their own households. At least 20 percent of all people over 65 do not have enough retirement incomes.__15__ the major problem of many elderly couples is not economic. They feel useless and lonely with neither an occupation nor a close family group.

  1.A) either B) though C) as well D) also

  2.A) discussed B) followed C) seen D) heard

  3. A) control B) support C) agreement D) criticism

  4. A) for B) on C) without D) in

  5. A) in B) at C) on D) for

  6. A) too B) almost C) nearly D) quite

  7. A) fit B) meet C) suit D) satisfy

  8. A) break up B) break into C) break through D) break away from

  9.A) reached B) come C) arrived D) D) developed

  10.A) In truth B) In name C) Indeed D) In a word

  11.A) questions B) problems C) matters D) affairs

  12.A) on B) up C) from D) beyond

  13.A) only B) usually C) sometimes D) seldom

  14.A) set forth B) set aside C) set up D) set down

  15.A) But B) Therefore C) In contrast D) On the other hand




  From the beginning, water has furnished man with a source of food and a highway to travel upon. The first __1__ arose where water was a dominant element in the environment, a challenge to man's ingenuity. The Egyptians invented the 365-day calendar __2__ the Nile's annual flooding. The Babylonians, who were among the most famous law-makers in ancient times, invented laws __3__ water usage. Water inspired the Chinese to build a 1,000-__4__ canal, a complex system which, after nearly 2,500 years, remains still practically __5__ and still commands the astonishment of engineer. But the __6__ never found complete solutions to their water problems. The Yellow River is also known __7__ "China's Sorrow"; it is so unpredictable and dangerous __8__ in a single flood it has caused a million __9__. Floods slowed the great civilization of the Indus River Valley, and inadequate drainage ruined __10__ of its land. Today water dominates __11__ as it always has done. Its presence continues to __12__ the location of his homes and cities; its violent variability can __13__ man of his herds or his crops; its routes links him __14__ his fellows; its immense value may __15__ to already dangerous political conflicts. There are many examples of his in our own time.

  1. A) governments B) cultures C) civilizations D) universities

  2. A) in regard to B) in response to C) in case D) in spite of

  3. A) regulates B) regulate C) regulated D) regulating

  4. A) miles B) mile C) mile's D) miles'

  5. A) in use B) for use C) by use D) on use

  6. A)villagers B) ancients C) farmers D) merchants

  7. A) for B) by C) to D) as

  8. A) that B) when C) because D) which

  9. A) injuries B) deaths C) damages D) ruins

  10. A) a number of B) a couple of C) many of D) much of

  11. A) woman B) women C) man D) men

  12. A) govern B) control C) lead D) change

  13. A) move B) violate C) kill D) disappear

  14. A) by B) on C) and D) to

  15. A) increase B) add C) expand D) extend



  The Development of Rubber

  Here is the story of rubber. From the earliest time it was __1__ common knowledge to the Peruvians that when a cut was made in the outside skin of a rubber tree, a white liquid __2__ milk came out, and that __3__ this a sticky mass of rubber might be made. This rubber is soft when warm, so that it is possible to give it any __4__. The Peruvians made the discovery that it was very good for keeping out __5__. Then in the early 1800's, the Americans made use of it for the first time. First they made overshoes __6__ their feet dry. Then came a certain Mr. Mackintosh, who made coats of cloth covered with natural rubber. From that day to this we have been coating cloth with rubber as Mr. Mackintosh __7__, and our raincoats are still named after him.

  But these first rubber overshoes and raincoats were all soft and sticky in summer, and __8__ and inelastic in the winter when it was cold. But the rubber we have today is soft and elastic, though very strong---even in the __9__ summer and the coldest winter. This was made __10__ by a man called Goodyear. __11__ experiments, he found that nitric acid (HNO3) made the rubber much better, but it is not hard and strong enough. Then strange thing took place. A friend of __12__, Nicholas Hayward, had the idea in his sleep that rubber might be made hard and strong if mixed with sulphur and put in the sun. Goodyear put this idea __13__ the test, and saw that it did have more or less the desired effect---though somewhat less than more. The only effect it had was on the outside of the rubber. It is common knowledge now that the way to make rubber hard and strong is __14__ sulphur. It took Goodyear four more years to find this method. When at last he did it, he had nothing at all. Everything of the smallest value __15__ to get money, even his sons' school-books.

  1. A) a

  B) \

  C) an

  D) the

  2. A) like

  B) alike

  C) in the form of

  D) similar

  3. A) with

  B) from

  C) up

  D) of

  4. A) thing

  B) heat

  C) press

  D) form

  5. A) wet weather

  B) wet day

  C) the wet

  D) wet

  6. A) to make

  B) to keep

  C) make

  D) keep

  7. A) did

  B) had done

  C) has done

  D) was doing

  8. A) cold

  B) cool

  C) hard

  D) strong

  9. A) warmer

  B) warm

  C) warmest

  D) warm-up

  10. A) impossible

  B) possibly

  C) possibility

  D) possible

  11. A) After many

  B) With an

  C) Having made much

  D) With regard to

  12. A) him

  B) his

  C) them

  D) theirs

  13. A) on

  B) to

  C) in

  D) with

  14. A) to heat with

  B) to heat it by

  C) by heating it with

  D) by heating with

  15. A) was used

  B) had used

  C) had been used

  D) was being used


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