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应试写作学与练:比较篇

2006-02-09 00:00

  比较型议论文通常是运用比较手段阐述自己的观点。

  例如:

  Where to live----in the city or in the country?

  Do you prefer to independently after marriage or continue to live together with your parents?

  Which is your pastime---watching TV and listening to music or taking part in sports and games?

  这种类型的作文在具体写作时,要根据自己的观点对赞成的事物,其优点要多写详写,而对其缺点要少写,甚至略过;而对反对的事物,其优点要少写略写, 一笔带过,对其缺点则要不惜笔墨,大写特写。这样处理,作者的观点才能得以体现。我们可以从两种结构模式来学习比较型作文的写作。

  一种是A1A2A3-------B1B2B3整体比较法:

  Paragraph 1

  S(1) Topic: The subjects to be compared

  S(2) Thesis: Your preference for B over A

  Paragraph 2

  S(3) Concede A's advantage

  S(4) But A's disadvantage 1

  S(5) A's disadvantage 2

  …….

  S(7) Illustrate B's advantage 1

  S(8) B's advantage 2

  ……….

  Paragraph 3

  Conclusion

  文章开头引出要比较的两个事物,点明作者的观点:赞成哪一个,反对哪一个。第二段中先承认所反对的事物也有优点,然后着重揭示其缺点。评完所反对的事物后,转去评论所赞成的事物。主要是详写其优点或作者赞成的理由,也可用半句或一句承认他也有不足之处。

  另一种结构是A1B1---A2B2---A3B3 的分项比较法。

  Paragraph 2

  S(3) Concede A's advantages

  S(4) But A's disadvantage 1

  S(5) B's corresponding advantage 1

  S(6) A's disadvantage 2

  S(7) B's corresponding advantage 2

  S(8) A's disadvantage 3

  S(9) B's corresponding advantage 3

  这种类型的典型例句列举如下:

  用于文章开头的句型:

  1.With the advent of /development of / the improved standard of ………. ……..plays an important role/part in our daily life.( increasing attention is drawn /called to………)

  2. While it is commonly/ generally/ widely believed/accepted that A….., I believe B……

  用于进行比较时使用的句型:

  3. Studies/Researches/Experiments show/ demonstrate/ reveal that……..

  4. On the contrary/ On the other hand, the advantages of B…….

  5. far outweigh/ carry more weight than advantages of A……..

  6. Although B fails to / can not ………, few things can be compared with/ match/ equal B in terms of …………

  7. The advantage /significance of B is more than ………

  应试作文学与练第三期作文题目(1):

  Large Companies and Small Companies

  Directions: Write a composition on the topic Large Companies and Small Companies in thirty minutes. You should write no less than 120 words and base your composition on the outline (given in Chinese) below.

  1.大学毕业后有的人希望在大公司工作。

  2.有的人则认为在小公司工作更能锻炼人。

  3.我的看法。

  参考范文:

  Large Companies and Small Companies

  Upon graduation from college, young men and women face the first choice in their career life: to go to a large company or a small one? Although many graduates are attracted by the prestige of large companies, I believe the small one will afford more chances of success and more opportunities to develop your ability.

  There are two basic differences between the large and small enterprises. First, working in the small company you operate primarily through personal contacts; you have more chance to develop your communication ability and the ability to handle various kinds of personalities. In contrast, in the large company there are established policies and fairly rigid procedures. Even the man at the top is only a cog in a big machine: you needn't make any decision and can't see the effect of your work.. Second, in a small business you are normally exposed to all kinds of experiences and expected to do a great many things without too much help or guidance. Thus, you may acquire much more skills and experience, and develop the ability to handle different, complicated things. But in the large corporation, since you are normally taught one thing and limited to one procedure, you may become the man who knows more and more about less and less.

  Obviously if you want to gain more experience and ability needed in business organizations and to become an excellent manager or executive in your future career, working in a small company is your best choice.

  比较篇写作题目(2)

  Which Mode of Travel Do You like?

  Directions: For this part you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic Which Mode of Travel Do You like? You should write no less than 150 words and base your composition on the outline (given in Chinese) below:

  1. 有的人喜欢参加旅行社旅游(package tours)

  2. 有的人喜欢自己独立行动(travelling on one's own)

  3. 比较这两种旅游方式,我喜欢的是..........

  本期范文:

  With the general standard of living improving and the working week becoming shorter, more and more people are able to make a holiday trip to places of interest. While many like to join package tours fro convenience, I prefer to travel on my own.

  I like travelling on may own not only because it costs much less but because it gives a great degree of independence and freedom. Travelling on my own, I'm my own boss; and can decide when to start on my way, where to linger a little longer and which spot can be skipped over to save energy or time for another spot. I can always adjust my plan. On the contrary, in a package tour you're deprived of as much freedom as in a military base. At the sound of the whistle, you have to jump up from a sound sleep and, with heavy-lidded eyes, hurry to the gathering place where you are collected and counted to board a coach. At the sight of the little flag waving, you must immediately take yourself away from the scenes you are marveling at and follow the guide whose sole interest is to cover all spots according to him strict schedule, regardless of the weather or your health condition.

  True, you may encounter inconveniences if you travel individually, for instance, getting accommodations for the night and finding a place for meals. But nothing can be compared with the freedom which is vital to a person who takes a holiday trip mainly to escape from constraints of his routine life.

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