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应试写作学与练:分析篇

2006-02-09 00:00

  分析型议论文主要是判断和分析所讨论的事物或观点的性质。具体地说就是阐述其重要性,正确性,必要性或荒谬性,危害性等。例如:

  The benefits of making friends of different kinds;

  The importance of making cities greener;

  The harmful effects of heavy exposure to TV.

  此类论文基本结构如下:

  Paragraph 1

  S(1) Topic

  S(2) Thesis(my attitude towards it)

  Paragraph 2

  S(3) Thesis ( more specific)

  S(4) Benefit (or effect)

  S(5) Detail

  S(6) Benefit (or effect)

  S(8) Detail

  S(9) Benefit (or effect)

  Paragraph 3

  Conclusion

  第一段引出要讨论的主题,如离婚率上升、体育锻炼热等,然后提出对这些问题的基本态度和看法,是赞成还是反对。

  第二段S(3) 把为什么赞成或反对的基本理由先扼要的提一下。接着从几个方面来阐述赞成或反对的理由,即阐述事物的重要性或危害性。S(5)S(7)S(9)则用具体的实例来论证之前提出的重要性或危害性。最后一段是总结。

  有时分析不一定从同一方向进行,也可以从正反两个方向进行。例如:在一篇提倡体育锻炼的文章中,当中一段可以先说体育锻炼的重要性,然后说如不进行体育锻炼可能带来的后果。此时的第二段结构为:

  Paragraph 2

  S(3) Thesis( more specific)

  S(4) Importance ( with it)

  S(5) Detail 1

  S(6) Detail 2

  S(7) Consequence ( without it)

  S(8) Detail 1

  S(9) Detail 2

  此类作文的常用句型如下:

  1.One of the benefits derived from / harmful effects on ……. is……

  2.To have a better/ full understanding/ appreciation of ……, we may look at / turn to ……

  3.There's hardly a man or woman who doesn't …..

  4.Another benefit/ effect is concerned with/ relates to…..

  5.A good case in point / typical example of this is……

  6.Of all the benefits resulting from, none has been / nothing is more significant than/ as significant as…..

  7.Thus, it can be seen that……….

  分析篇-1 写作题目: My Views on Examinations

  Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic My Views on Examinations. You should write no less than 150 words and base your composition on the outline (given in Chinese) below:

  1.我们现在都用考试来衡量学生的成绩。

  2.考试可能到来的副作用

  3.我对考试的看法

  范文:

  In most schools and colleges the examination is used as a chief means of deciding whether a student succeeds or fails in mastering a particular subject. Although it does the job quite efficiently, its side effects are also enormous.

  The most undesirable effect is that examinations encourage bad study habits. As the examination score is the only criterion for his academic performance, a student is driven to memorize mechanically rather than to think creatively. Examinations do not motivate a student to seek more knowledge, but to restrict his reading; they do not enable him to study consistently throughout the semester, but to induce cramming during exam week. Examinations also lower the standards of teaching. Since teachers themselves are often judged by examination results, they are often judged by examination results, they are reduced to training their students in exam techniques. And no subjects can be taught successfully merely through being approached with intent to take examinations.

  Actually, few of us admit that examinations can contribute anything really important to the students' academic development. If that's the case, why can't we make a change and devise something more efficient and reliable than examinations?

  优秀作文:

  My Views on Examinations

  Since school comes into being, the test standard has been used to appraise performance of students. So far it is still being used, which may suggest that actually there are some advantages in it. However, it is also highly possible that the test standard is a not ideal way to find out what students have learned and what they haven't. Most school is still using it just because there is no better method to replace it.

  In my opinion, the following three points are the critical flaws in the test standard.

  One of the most harmful effects on the test method is that it will force us to study just for passing tests, not for acquiring knowledge especially in China. Obviously the final object of education is making us intellective by learning more knowledge. While the test is only a way to examine the level of students' studies, it has been deteriorated to a sifter deciding the fate of students. Why can it be called a terrible sifter? Now in the tests, which decide who can enter a higher school, thousands of poor students, who want a splendid future, must prepare for the tests by finishing a great deal of practices. Those practice tests are heavy-laden to them. So in this case, how can they be expected to study to obtain knowledge? To them that are enough if they can reach the level which tests need. In the end what our nation will get, genuine persons with ability or just test robots?

  Secondly, tests will bring the examinees great pressure, which can affect their lives. A typical example of this is that most young students have worn glasses even though some of them are still children. For preparing for tests, they must spend a lot of time on doing their homework so that their eyesight becomes worse and worse. And the more time they spend on those, the less time they have for playing and relaxing. Consequently, there is a bad influence on their health.

  Thirdly, in fact, test system itself can not veraciously estimate who is better than others because there are many factors impacting the results of test. For instance, someone cheated in test so that his score would be higher than others. Or someone who was too nervous to perform well fell in the test.

  Only in spare time and no pressure of tests existent, students can study simply for the fun, for obtaining knowledge and for the things that they are really interested in. But now the test system is the only way to select which one is better, who can reach better school and who can get good job. Then what we can do is to improve the test system or hope that something better will be invented and replace the test system.

  --------------

  分析篇-2 作文题目:Beliefs

  Direction: In this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition entitled Beliefs. Your composition should be at least 120 words and contain the following information.

  Outline:

  1.importance of having belief;

  2.Different beliefs will lead to different results.

  3.Conclusion

  优秀作文兼范文:

  Belief, a creation of human's wise (wisdom), always plays an important role in human's society. As a say (saying) goes:" If one's mind is full, it won't be filled in (with) any bad idea." Anyone who has strong beliefs can enjoy a colorful life. Otherwise, he will lose himself in his way of life.

  Beliefs are so important that it can change one's fate. Two little mice fell in a bucket of cream. The first mouse quickly gave up and drowned. The second mouse wouldn't quit. He struggled so hard that eventually he churned that cream into butter and crawled out.

  Obviously, the latter mouse is the one who has his own beliefs. There are always hopes in his eyes that encourage him to fight, and fight, and fight. He never gives up when he is in some difficulty situations. Because the optimist sees the opportunity in every difficulty, while the pessimist sees difficulty in every opportunity. The first mouse is one of these kinds of pessimists. He holds no belief in his life and become the slave of his fate.

  Thus, it can be seen that one with firm beliefs is likely to get successful and master his own life.

  --------------

  分析篇-3作文题目:Privacy of Famous People

  Directions: you are allowed 30 minutes to write an essay no less than 120 words on the following topic.

  Newspapers and magazines have special interest in the private lives of famous people.

  What can you explain it?

  What effect it will have on the people being exposed?

  And what is your opinion of it?

  范文:

  In recent years, many newspapers and magazines focus on the activities of film stars, pop singers and some other famous men and women. Reporters disguise their identities, infiltrate the subject's business and family, or even bug and wiretap them---to get the news by whatever means are necessary.

  It is not difficult to explain the reason for their surprising amount of interest in famous people's lives. They are in the spotlight, renowned or notorious, they are the topic of ordinary people who like to know everything about them. To satisfy their curiosity, or "the people's right to know", journalists often find it their duty to report their activities.

  More over, what matters to a newspaper or a magazine is the number of readers. A large readership means the rise in the circulation of their publications, hence a huge profit. Since film stars and pop singers are newsworthy figures, and their stories draws far more attention than those of other people, it is natural that the press tries to attract them to buy their magazines by featuring private lives of famous people.

  How ever, those exposed people can be severely injured by such press attention. Sensational stories about their private lives cause great unhappiness to them. To escape reporters, they can't even lead a normal life. Sometimes their lives will be in danger. For example, Princess Diana died in a car accident as she attempted to escape photographers in a chase through Paris.

  Famous people are also citizens. They have the right to keep their own privacy like ordinary people---the basic right which should be respected, protected and guaranteed by our laws in whatever circumstances.

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