外语教育网
您的位置:外语教育网 > 基础英语 > 英语翻译 > 经验技巧 正文
  • 站内搜索:

英语中的委婉语汇总

2006-02-09 00:00

  英文euphemism(委婉语)一词系源自希腊语。词头"eu-"的意思是"good"(好),词干"phemism"的意思是"speech"(言语),整个字面意义是"word of good omen"(吉言)或(好的说法)。一般认为,凡是表示禁忌或敏感事物的含蓄、迂回或动听的言词,均在委婉语之列。

  英语委婉语一般可分成两大类:传统委婉语(traditional euphemisms)和文体委婉语stylistic euphemisms。所谓传统委婉语亦称是与禁忌语密切相关的。象生、病、死、葬、性、裸、拉、撒等禁忌事物,如果直接表达,那就是禁忌语,给人的感觉是粗鄙,生硬,刺耳,无礼。反之,如果间接表达,这就是委婉语,给人的印象是典雅,含蓄,中听,有礼。所谓文体委婉语,亦称实际上是恭维话、溢美之词,与禁忌语并无关系。英、美人(尤其是当代美国人)在交际过程中,为了表示礼貌,为了避免刺激,或是为了争取合作,有时会采用夸饰的手法,对一些令人不快的事物以美言相称。

  英语委婉语的构成方法各种各样,丰富多彩。一般可分为下面几种类型:构词手段,拼写手段,词汇手段,语法手段和修辞手段等。

  (1)合词法(compounding):如:gezudna(goes+under+"床下放",即夜壶)。

  (2)反成法(backformation): 反成法是通过删除假想中的词缀来构成委婉词。由于这种构词法产词是不大,所以造出的词大多新颖别致,用来代替常见的敏感词,也能收到委婉的效果。如:bugle(盗窃,由burglar[夜盗]盗删去"词尾"而成,用以替代。

  (3)首字母组合法(acronym):首字母组合法是将禁忌词语或敏感词语的第一个字母抽出来拼合在一起借以掩饰。如:BM(bowel movement,大便)the Big C (癌症)

  (4)截短法(clipping):截短法是将一些词语斩头去尾以掩饰。如:gents(Gentlement's Room)(男厕所)lav (lavatory,厕所)

  (5)曲读异拼法(phonetic distortion):曲读异拼法是有意将禁忌词语的发音略加变动,借以避讳。如:god, gosh(god 上帝)

  (6)压韵替代法(rhyming slang):压韵替代法是利用一些词语与禁忌词语押韵的特点来取而代之。如:sis, (piss 小便)

  (7)逆拼法(backslang):逆拼法是将一些禁忌或敏感的单词自后向前拼写,以便避讳。如:elly-bay(belly肚子)

  (8)首字母异拼法(respelling of initials):首字母异拼法是将一些禁忌或敏感单词的首字母按照发音拼写出来,效果委婉。如:dee(damn,该死)

  (9)标点符号法(punctuation):如:d——(damn该死的)son of a —— (son of a bitch,狗娘养的)

  (10)同义词替代法(synonyms)如:slim(苗条的,即skinny,皮包骨头)

  (11)借词法borrowing):一般认为,英语中的本族词-盎格鲁撒克逊词-多为平民百姓的口语词,不登大雅之堂。所以很多人,尤其是知识分子和学生都喜欢借用法语词或拉丁词来婉指那些令人尴尬的事物。如:lingerie(内衣 underwear)

  (12)模糊词语法(fuzzy words):如:affair(事物,即桃色事件)

  (13)儿语法(nurseryism):借用儿童用语来充当委婉语。小孩子讲话天真无 邪,如果大人,尤其是中年人模仿儿语,有时效果是既委婉又幽默。如:pee-pee(小便)poo-poo(大便)

  (14)反面着笔法(negation):从相反的角度去表达那些令人不快的事物,效果有时会比正面直说婉转些。如:unwise(不聪明,即,愚蠢的)

  (15)比喻法(metaphorical transfer):根据禁忌事物的特点,将其描绘成具有相同特点的可以接受的事物。如:go to sleep forever(长眠,即die死去)

  (16)借代法(metonymical transfer):用整体来代替那些不便直言的局面。如:chest(胸部,即 breast乳房)

  (17)低调说法(understatement):如 一种明抑实扬、言轻义重的含蓄的说法,用来表达不愉快的事情时,效果委婉,听者易于接受。smelly (有味道,即stinking,发臭)

  (18)迂回说法(periphrasis):迂回说法是将不便直言的事物用转弯抹角的方式表达出来。其结果是短词长写,"短话长说"。如:adjustment downward(向下调整,即drop下跌)

  (19)首字母曲解法(reinterpretation of initials):首字母曲解法是有意对首字母词作出别的解释,效果不仅委婉,而且还带有幽默色彩。如:hot and cold (heroin and cocaine,海洛因可卡因合剂)

  以上这些方法,大体上都贯穿了两个原则:一是若即若离的原则,一是美好中听的原则。一般说来,委婉语有三个方面的作用。一是避免刺激,给人以安慰;二是消除粗俗,给人以文雅;三是摒弃陈腐,给人以新颖。善于委婉,这是心灵美、修养高的表现。

  在英语中,象生、死、如厕等话题直说很不文雅,这时我们可以用委婉的说法,下面是笔者收集的一些有关这些话题的说法。

  1)Being in Love (恋爱)

  assignation (本义)指定

  to be gone on (本义)一去不返

  to be shock up (本义)被震撼的

  to be taken (本义)被吸引住

  H2 (本义)hot and heavy

  to have a crush on (本义)捣碎

  meeting (本义)会面

  to set one's cap for (本义)指向某人

  to set one's sights at (本义)目光落在身上

  to take a fancy to (本义)喜欢上

  to walk out 出去溜达

  to cut one's eye at (本义)瞥一眼

  the glad eye (本义)高兴的眼光

  to look sweet on (本义)

  to make eyes at (本义)对某人使眼色

  wandering eye (本义)游荡的眼光

  2) Pregnancy (怀孕)

  a hole out in one(本义)一击入洞(高尔夫术语)

  an accident(本义)事故

  anticipating(本义)期待的

  awkward(本义)行动不便

  to be caught(本义)被捉住

  to be gone(本义)已过去了

  to beget(本义)产生

  break one's ankle(本义)脚骨折了

  clucky(本义)抱窝的

  eating for two(本义)吃双份饭

  expecting(本义)期待的

  an expectant mother(本义)期待的母亲

  to fall(本义)倒下了

  far gone(本义)去日苦多

  fragrant(本义)香喷喷的

  full of heir(本义)怀有继承人

  to have a hump in the front(本义)前身有块隆肉

  to have one watermelon on the vine(本义)藤上有瓜了

  to have one on the way (本义)有人要来

  in a bad shape(本义)身体不佳

  in a certain condition(本义)身处某种状态

  in a delicate condition(本义)身体虚弱

  in a (the) family way(本义)家常打扮

  in a familiar way(本义)熟悉地

  in a particular condition(本义)处于特殊状态

  in an interesting condition(situation, state)(本义)处于有趣状态

  in trouble(本义)惹上麻烦

  infanticipating(本义)期望得子

  irregularity(本义)不规则现象

  knitting(本义)绒衣

  to knock up(本义)敲门叫人

  lady-in-waiting(本义)有所期待的女子

  to learn all about diaper folding(本义)学叠尿布

  a mother-to-be(本义)未来的母亲

  on the nest(本义)在抱窝

  P.G.(Pregnant)怀孕的

  preparing the bassinet(本义)准备摇篮

  rattle shopping(本义)采购玩具

  rehearing lullabies(本义)练唱催眠曲

  to spoil a woman's shape(本义)坏了女子体型

  to sprain an ankle(本义)扭伤脚踝

  to swallow a watermelon seed(本义)吞了棵西瓜子

  that way(本义)那样

  waiting for the patter of little feet(本义)等呆小脚牙声

  to wear the apron high(本义)围裙系高

  a waiting woman(本义)等呆中的妇女

  with a baby window(本义)有个凸窗肚

  with child(本义)怀孩子了

  3)Defcation (如厕)

  to be caught short (本义)给了个冷不妨

  the call of nature (本义)自然的需要

  Can I add some powder? (本义)我可以茶点粉吗?

  to cash(write) a check (本义)兑(开)张支票

  to do a job for oneself (本义)做点私事

  do one's business (本义)干自己的活

  to do one's duty (本义)尽职

  to ease oneself (本义)自我轻松一下

  to eliminate (本义)逐出

  evacuation (本义)排空

  to excrete (本义)排泄

  to find a haven of rest (本义)寻找安息所

  to fix one's face (本义)化装

  to freshen up (本义)梳洗打扮

  to get some fresh air (本义)去呼吸一点新鲜空气

  to give oneself ease (本义)使自己舒服一下

  to go (本义)

  to go into retreat (本义)去僻静

  to go somewhere (本义)出去一下

  to go to Egypt (本义)到埃及去

  to go to one's private office (本义)到私人办公室去

  to go to bathroom (本义)到洗澡间

  May I adjourn? (本义)我可以变换一下地方吗?

  May I please be excused? (本义)失陪了

  natural necessity (本义)自然的需要

  nature stop (本义)自然需要停车

  to pluck a rose (本义)摘朵玫瑰

  powder one's nose (本义)搽点粉

  to relieve oneself (本义)轻松一下

  to wash one's hands (本义)洗洗手

  4)Death(死亡)

  to be asleep in the Arms of God (本义)安睡在上帝的怀中

  to be at peace (本义)平静了

  to be at rest (本义)在休息

  to be called to God (本义)被召唤到上帝那

  to be called home (本义)被召回家

  to be home and free (本义)到家自由了

  to be taken to paradise (本义)被送进天堂

  The call of God (本义)上帝的召唤

  to depart (本义)离去

  The final departure (本义)最后离去

  final sleep (本义)最后一觉

  to go home (本义)回家

  to go to heaven (本义)进天堂

  to go to one's long home (本义)回到永久之家

  to go to one's own place (本义)回老家

  happy land (本义)乐土

  to have fallen asleep (本义)入睡了

  to have found rest (本义)得到安息

  to have gone to a better place(land,world,life)到一个更好得地方去了

  in heaven (本义)在天堂

  to join one's ancestors (本义)加入先人的行列

  join the Great majority (本义)加入大多数

  to leave this world (本义)离开今世

  to pay one's fee (本义)付费

  to rest (本义)休息

  to rest in peace (本义)安息

  to return to dust (本义)归之尘土

  to sleep (本义)长眠

  with God (本义)和上帝在一起

  with their Father (本义)与圣父在一起

  to fall (本义)倒下了

  to do one's bit (本义)尽职了

  to lay down one's life (本义)放下自己的生命

  to be no longer with us (本义)不再与我们在一起了

  to be out of pain (本义)摆脱痛苦

  to breathe one's last (本义)呼了最后一口气

  to cancel one's account (本义)销帐

  pay one's last debt (本义)付最后一笔债

  to fade away (本义)消失

  to make one's exit (本义)退场

  to kick off (本义)开球

  to be free (本义)解脱了

  to be gone (本义)去了

  to be no more (本义)不复存在

  to close one's eyes (本义)瞑目

  to come to an end (本义)结束

  to go beyond (本义)到远方去

  to expire (本义)呼气

  to go off (本义)离去

  to go one's last (本义)走到自己的终点

  to go one's place (本义)回老家

  to go to one's resting place (本义)到休息地去

  to go to west (本义)西去

  to kick the bucket (本义)踢翻水桶

  to lose one's life (本义)失去了生命

  to pass away (本义)离去

  to stop living (本义)停止生存

  to take one's rest (本义)休息

  to shut up the shop (本义)关门 转贴

相关热词:英语 翻译 考试
栏目相关课程表
科目名称 主讲老师 课时 免费试听 优惠价 购买课程
英语零起点 郭俊霞 30课时 试听 150元/门 购买
综艺乐园 ------ 13课时 试听 100元/门 购买
边玩边学 ------ 10课时 试听 60元/门 购买
情景喜剧 ------ 15课时 试听 100元/门 购买
欢乐课堂 ------ 35课时 试听 150元/门 购买
基础英语辅导课程
郭俊霞 北京语言大学毕业,专业英语八级,国内某知名中学英语教研组组长,教学标兵……详情>>
郭俊霞:零基础英语网上辅导名师

  1、凡本网注明 “来源:外语教育网”的所有作品,版权均属外语教育网所有,未经本网授权不得转载、链接、转贴或以其他方式使用;已经本网授权的,应在授权范围内使用,且必须注明“来源:外语教育网”。违反上述声明者,本网将追究其法律责任。
  2、本网部分资料为网上搜集转载,均尽力标明作者和出处。对于本网刊载作品涉及版权等问题的,请作者与本网站联系,本网站核实确认后会尽快予以处理。本网转载之作品,并不意味着认同该作品的观点或真实性。如其他媒体、网站或个人转载使用,请与著作权人联系,并自负法律责任。
  3、联系方式
  编辑信箱:for68@chinaacc.com
  电话:010-82319999-2371