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07年考研英语复习整体规划

2006-2-20 15:23 新东方教育在线 

  一、考研政策

  社会对人才需求的不断提高、就业压力对于本科生日益加大、国际化进程中对高等人才的迫切需求是“大环境”,让众多学子义无反顾地踏上了漫漫考研路。2005年报名人数为117万之多,在2006年增加到127.12万人。

  能够入学的人数保持在33万左右。根据国家教育部制订的“十五规划”,到2010年,研究生入学人数将在100万以上。

  几年考研热将继续“高温”。而“高温”的原因主要有以下两个:

  1.目前大学本科毕业生的就业形式不容乐观,考研能够暂缓就业压力。“严峻的就业形势让更多人选择了考研”,教育部高校学生司的一位工作人员说。2005年是高校实行扩招以来第三个就业高峰年,今年的本科毕业生较去年增加了70万。本科生扩招,是导致就业压力增大的重要原因之一。无论是为了留在大城市、继续充电,还是暂时躲避就业高峰,考研热都与当前的就业压力托不了干系。此外,越来越多的学生期望到大城市工作和出国签证难,也导致一些人选择了考研。

  2.考研是提高学历和自身能力的一种方式,能帮助自己扩大就业门路、增加就业砝码,便于以后有更大的发展空间。有统计表明,研究生就业率为93%,高于本科生的84%和高职专科生的61%。虽然“人才高消费”现象提出了好几年,但市场依旧我行我素,就业压力让各种考研理由殊途同归,用研究生学历增厚企业敲门砖成了尽人皆知的秘密。特别是近年来一些企业、机关也以有多少研究生为荣。表:2001年——2006年报名人数与录取人数

  年份 报名人数 增长人数 增幅 录取人数 报名录取比例

  2006年 127.5万人 10.5万 9% 34.4 26.9%(3.7:1)

  2005年 117万 22.7万 24.1% 31万 36.49%(3.8:1)

  2004年 94.5万 14.8万 18.4% 33万 34.92% (2.9:1)

  2003年 79.7万 17.4万 27.7% 27万 33.87%(3.0:1)

  2002年 62.3万 16.3万 35.6% 19.5万 31.30% (3.2:1)

  2001年 46万 6.8万 17.3% 11.05万 24.02% (4.2:1)

  所以要尽早开始引导同学们走向考研之路。

  这样做的理由是:

  1.“凡事预则立,不预则废。”学员要在将来的职场生涯中具有更多的竞争力就要对大学四年或五年的学习有一个清晰的规划,考研是社会要求我们做的选择。尽管研究生已经扩招,但浩浩荡荡的考研大军还是让这一选择的成功变得异常艰难。有考生说:考研最后是在考英语。这么说虽然有失偏颇却也不无道理,好的英语成绩是考研成功的坚实基础。绝大多数在考研上浪费了一年又一年光阴的同学正是由于无法跨越考研英语的大门。从大学一年级开始有针对性地夯实英语基础,提高各方面能力就是最明智的“预”。

  2.在四六级考试业已改革的情况下,四六级与学位脱钩,考试委员会的撤销,限制社会考生报考等一系列改革措施对大学生的影响还有待探讨。考研的重要性又日益重要起来。

  3.一年又一年的考研正在说明,并将继续说明的一个问题就是:对多数考研学子而言,考研已不再是一个一年或半年奋力一搏就能成功的项目,相反,它越来越呈现出一个系统工程的特点,需要投入更多的时间和精力,需要更加细致的规划,需要更加清晰的步骤,以期达成更加良好的项目管理。我们不得不承认,不管是旧时的科举考试,还是现时的高考或研究生考试,都在不同程度上使一批有较高素质的人脱颖而出,改变了他们的命运。另一方面,它们也使相当一部分人,由于他们先天或后天的,合理或不合理的原因,成为考试制度下的牺牲品。所有个体的需求,与社会所能提供的机会之间,也许永远存在着无法完全调和的差距。我们所能做的,只是尽力去减少这两者之间的差距。

  因此,如何才能保证自己在竞争激烈的社会立于不败之地?如何才能顺利地实现自己的梦想,从研究生考试中脱颖而出,成为考试中的胜利者?唯一的答案就是——让自己赢在起跑线上。既然考研是大势所趋,那么就进行针对性的备考就显得极为必要。不管你现在处于哪个年级,明白接下来的大学学习时间其终极目的是为考研服务,你就会对自己进行行之有效的目标管理。结论:考研复习备考的时间延长至少了一年,需要早作规划

  表二:大学英语“大考研”英语学习规划

  年级 主要工作 推荐班级 辅修课程

  大一 适应大学学习方式,培养良好学习习惯,夯实英语基础 大学英语单项班

  (词汇、语法、阅读) 新概念二册

  大二 明晰考研英语考点,进一步提高英语水平,参加四级考试印证英语能力 上学期参加四级强化班,

  下学期参加考研基础班 新概念三册

  大三 踏入考研强化复习阶段,参加六级考试 上学期参加六级强化班;

  寒假或下学期参加考研强化班;

  暑假参加数学强化班 新概念四册

  大四 进入考研冲刺阶段,全力一搏 上学期参加考研冲刺班,

  下学期参加考研复试班 听说部课程相关课程

  二、考研实际上是考的考研英语,考研英语实际上考的是考研英语阅读

  考研要从三个方面提高:词汇、句法和逻辑思路。

  1.词汇

  a)重考性

  2006考研试题 Passage 3

  That matters because theory suggests that the maximum sustainable yield that can be cropped from a fishery comes when the biomass of a target species is about 50% of its original levels.

  2000考研试题 Passage 1

  Self-doubt has yielded to blind pride. 2006考研试题 Passage 4

  Westerner is bombarded with are not religious but commercial, and forever happy .

  1995考研试题 Passage 3

  Telecommunications developments enable……, electronic mail to bombard people with multitudes of messages.

  1999考研试题 Passage 1

  At the same time, ……that companies need not warn customers of obvious dangers or bombard them with a lengthy list of possible ones.

  2005考研试题 Passage 1

  Yet pleasure at your own can vanish if you learn that a colleague has been given a bigger one.

  2000 考研试题 Passage 1

  Some huge American industries, such as consumer electronics, had shrunk or vanished in the face of foreign competition.

  2005考研试题 Passage 1

  Above all, like their female human counterparts, they tend to pay much closer attention to the value of “goods and services” than males.

  2000考研试题 Passage 4

  In addition, far more Japanese workers expressed dissatisfaction with their jobs than did their counterparts in the 10 other countries surveyed.

  b)三个真正学会三个真正:学会倾听作者真正的声音,体会作者真正的感情,理解作者真正的思路

  例1 He was drawing excessively fine distinctions. (选自95年passage 1)

  例2 Too many schools adopt the “win at all costs” moral standard and measure their success by sporting achievements. (选自95年passage 4)

  学会三个真正:学会倾听作者真正的声音,体会作者真正的感情,理解作者真正的思路

  例3 Everywhere you go in America, you hear tales of corporate revival. (选自98年passage 2)

  例4 Fortunately, however, the increasing power and organization of the trade unions, at least in all skilled trades, enabled the workmen to meet on equal terms the managers of the companies who employed them. (选自96年passage 3)(2)句法

  例1. I have discovered, as perhaps Kelsey will after her much-publicized resignation from the editorship of She after a build-up of stress, that abandoning the doctrine of “juggling your life”, and making the alternative move into “downshifting” brings with it far greater rewards than financial success and social status.

  Question: “juggling your life” probably means living a life characterized by:

  A non-materialistic B a bit of everything C extreme stress D anti-consumerism(选自01年passage 5)

  例2. When I decided to quit my full time employment it never occurred to me that I might become a part of a part of a new international trend. A lateral move that hurt my pride and blocked my professional progress prompted me to abandon my relatively high profile career although, in the manner of a disgraced government minister, I covered my exit by claiming “ I wanted to spend more time with my family”

  Question: which of the following is true according to paragraph 1:

  A Full-time employment is a new international trend.

  B The writer was compelled by circumstances to leave her job.

  C “A lateral move” means stepping out of full-time employment.

  D The writer was only too eager to spend more time with her family.(选自01年passage 5)

  例3.Tight-lipped elders used to say, “It‘s not what you want in this world, but what you get.” Psychology teaches that you do get what you want if you know what you want and want the right things.

  Question: what do the elders mean when they say, “It‘s not what you want in this world, but what you get.” ?

  A You‘ll certainly get what you want.

  B.It‘s no use dreaming.

  C.You should be dissatisfied with what you have.

  D It‘s essential to set a goal for yourself. (选自96年passage 1)

  2.逻辑思路逻辑之考研阅读的10种说法

  a)说大家不习惯的,说大家不敢说的

  例1 1997 Passage 3

  Technically, any substance other than food that alters our bodily or mental functioning is a drug. Many people mistakenly believe the term drug refers only to some sort of medicine or an illegal chemical taken by drug addicts. They don't realize that familiar substances such as alcohol and tobacco are also drugs. This is why the more neutral term substance is now used by many physicians and psychologists. The phrase "substance abuse" is often used instead of "drug abuse" to make clear that substances such as alcohol and tobacco can be just as harmfully misused as heroin and cocaine.

  Question: "Substances abuse" (line 4, paragraph 1) is preferable to "drug abuse" in that ________.

  [A] substances can alter our bodily or mental functioning if illegally used

  [B] "drug abuse" is only related to a limited number of drugtakers

  [C] alcohol and tobacco are as fatal as heroin and cocaine

  [D] many substances other than heroin or cocaine can also be poisonous

  例2 2005 Passage 4 Illustrated with an entertaining array of examples from both high and low culture, the trend that Mr. McWhorter documents is unmistakable. But it is less clear, to take the question of his subtitle, why we should, like care. As a linguist, he acknowledges that all varieties of human language, including non-standard ones like Black English, can be powerfully expressive-there exists no language or dialect in the world that cannot convey complex ideas .He is not arguing, as many do, that we can no longer think straight because we do not talk proper.

  Question: To which of the following statements would Mc Whorter most likely agree?

  [A]. Logical thinking is not necessarily related to the way we talk.

  [B]. Black English can be more expressive than standard English.

  [C]. Non-standard varieties of human language are just as entertaining.

  [D]. Of all the varieties, standard English Can best convey complex ideas.

  b)从“是”中说“非”

  例1 1995 Passage 4

  Too many schools adopt the "win at all costs" moral standard and measure their success by sporting achievements.

  例2 1996 Passage 5

  And so it does — and all would be well were reason the only judge in the creationism/evolution debate.

  Question: From the passage we can infer that ________.

  [A] reasoning has played a decisive role in the debate

  [B] creationists do not base their argument on reasoning

  [C] evolutionary theory is too difficult for non-specialists

  [D] creationism is supported by scientific findings

  c)从“非”中说“是”

  例1 2000 Passage 1

  Few Americans attribute this solely to such obvious causes as a devalued dollar or the turning of the business cycle.

  Question: The author seems to believe the revival of the US economy in the 1990s can be attributed to the________.

  [A] turning of the business cycle

  [B] restructuring of industry

  [C] improved business management

  [D] success in education

  d) 从“无”中说“有”

  例1 2000 Passage 1

  All of this caused a crisis of confidence. Americans stopped taking prosperity for granted. They began to believe that their way of doing business was failing, and that their incomes would therefore shortly begin to fall as well. The mid-1980s brought one inquiry after another into the causes of America's industrial decline. Their sometimes sensational findings were filled with warnings about the growing competition from overseas.

  Question: What can be inferred from the passage?

  [A] It is human nature to shift between self-doubt and blind pride.

  [B] Intense competition may contribute to economic progress.

  [C] The revival of the economy depends on international cooperation.

  [D] A long history of success may pave the way for further development.

  e)从“有”中说“无”

  例1 1998 Passage 2

  There is, as Robert Rubin, the treasury secretary, says, a "disjunction" between the mass of business anecdote that points to a leap in productivity and the picture reflected by the statistics.

  Question: The official statistics on productivity growth ________.

  [A] exclude the usual rebound in a business cycle

  [B] fall short of businessmen's anticipation

  [C] meet the expectation of business people

  [D] fail to reflect the true state of economy

  f)从“下文”中说“上文”

  例1 1998 Passage 3

  Few would dispute that the term applies to the Unabomber, whose manifesto, published in 1995, scorns science and longs for return to a pretechnological utopia. But surely that does not mean environmentalists concerned about uncontrolled industrial growth are anti-science, as an essay in US News & World Report last May seemed to suggest.

  The environmentalists, inevitably, respond to such critics. The true enemies of science, argues Paul Ehrlich of Stanford University, a pioneer of environmental studies, are those who question the evidence supporting global warming, the depletion of the ozone layer and other consequences of industrial growth.

  Question: Which of the following is true according to the passage?

  [A] Environmentalists were blamed for anti-science in an essay.

  [B] Politicians are not subject to the labeling of anti-science.

  [C] The "more enlightened" tend to tag others as anti-science.

  [D] Tagging environmentalists as "anti-science" is justifiable

  g) 从“上文”中说“下文”

  例1 2005 Passage 2

  Just as on smoking, voices now come from many quarters insisting that the science about global warming is incomplete, that it's Ok to keep pouring fumes into the air until we know for sure. This is a dangerous game: by the 100 percent of the evidence is in, it may be too late. With the risks obvious and growing, a prudent people would take out an insurance policy now.

  Fortunately, the White House is starting to pay attention. But it's obvious that a majority of the president's advisers still don't take global warming seriously. Instead of a plan of action, they continue to press for more research-a classic case of “paralysis by analysis”.

  Question: What does the author mean by “paralysis by analysis” (Last line, paragraph 4)

  [A]. Endless studies kill action.

  [B]. Careful investigation reveals truth.

  [C]. prudent planning hinders.

  [D]. Extensive research helps decision-making.

  h) 从“宏观”中说“微观”

  例1 1996 Passage 1

  You can make a mental blueprint of a desire as you would make a blueprint of a house, and each of us is continually making these blueprints in the general routine of everyday living. If we intend to have friends to dinner, we plan the menu, make a shopping list, decide which food to cook first, and such planning is an essential for any type of meal to be served.

  Likewise, if you want to find a job, take a sheet of paper, and write a brief account of yourself. In making a blueprint for a job, begin with yourself, for when you know exactly what you have to offer, you can intelligently plan where to sell your services.

  例2 2004 Passage 2

  Over the past century, all kinds of unfairness and discrimination have been condemned or made illegal. But one insidious form continues to thrive: alphabetism. This, for those as yet unaware of such a disadvantage, refers to discrimination against those whose surnames begin with a letter in the lower half of the alphabet.

  例1 2005 Passage 2Do you remember all those years when scientists argued that smoking would kill us but the doubters insisted that we didn't know for sure? That the evidence was inconclusive, the science uncertain? That the antismoking lobby was out to destroy our way of life and the government should stay out of the way? Lots of Americans bought that nonsense, and over three decades, some 10 million smokers went to early graves.

  There are upsetting parallels today, as scientists in one wave after another try to awaken us to the growing threat of global warming. The latest was a panel from the National Academy of Sciences, enlisted by the White House, to tell us that the Earth's atmosphere is definitely warming and that the problem is largely man-made.

  i) 从“微观”中说“宏观”

  例1 1996 Passage 4

  Among the many shaping factors, I would single out the country's excellent elementary schools; a labor force that welcomed the new technology; the practice of giving premiums to inventors; and above all the American genius for nonverbal, "spatial" thinking about things technological.

  例2 2005 Passage 1The researchers studied the behaviour of female brown capuchin monkeys. They look cute. They are good-natured, co-operative creatures, and they share their food tardily. Above all, like their female human counterparts, they tend to pay much closer attention to the value of “goods and services” than males.

  j) 从“小事”说“大义”

  例1 2002 Passage 1

  Here is an example, which I heard at a nurses' convention, of a story which works well because the audience all shared the same view of doctors. A man arrives in heaven and is being shown around by St. Peter. He sees wonderful accommodations, beautiful gardens, sunny weather, and so on. Everyone is very peaceful, polite and friendly until, waiting in a line for lunch, the new arrival is suddenly pushed aside by a man in a white coat, who rushes to the head of the line, grabs his food and stomps over to a table by himself. "Who is that?" the new arrival asked St. Peter. "Oh, that's God," came the reply, "but sometimes he thinks he's a doctor."

  Question: The joke about doctors implies that, in the eyes of nurses, they are ________.

  [A] impolite to new arrivals

  [B] very conscious of their godlike role

  [C] entitled to some privileges

  [D] very busy even during lunch hours

  例2 2004 Passage 2

  Can this merely be coincidence? One theory, dreamt up in all the spare time enjoyed by the alphabetically disadvantaged, is that the rot sets in early. At the start of the first year in infant school, teachers seat pupils alphabetically from the front, to make it easier to remember their names. So short-sighted Zysman junior gets stuck in the back row, and is rarely asked the improving questions posed by those insensitive teachers. At the time the alphabetically disadvantaged may think they have had a lucky escape. Yet the result may be worse qualifications, because they get less individual attention, as well as less confidence in speaking publicly.

  Question: The 4th paragraph suggests that ________.

  [A] questions are often put to the more intelligent students

  [B] alphabetically disadvantaged students often escape form class

  [C] teachers should pay attention to all of their students

  [D] students should be seated according to their eyesight

  扎扎实实提高英语实力是应试之本,做到精读和泛读结合1. 背大纲单词。精读从94年至05年的56篇文章。历年的真题要做至少三遍。

  精读从94年至05年的56篇文章。历年的真题要做至少三遍。

  上网站浏览文章做泛读。网站有:www.economist.com[经济学家] www.latimes.com[洛杉矶时报] www.nytimes.com[纽约时报] www.washingtonpost.com[华盛顿邮报]等等。

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