Global Shortage of Fresh Water
Generally, people think that fresh water is inexhaustible. Every year there is enough rain. And there is plenty of fresh water in the rivers and lakes. What's more, we have a lot of underground water.
Actually, fresh water is in a short supply. Due to the rapid population increase, fresh water consumption remains great. Besides, with the development of industry, more water is needed. Moreover, a lot of our rivers and lakes have been so polluted that water from them is undrinkable.
We must take some measures to solve the problem of water shortage.First, population growth should be slowed down to reduce fresh water demand.Second, pollution should be controlled to purify fresh water in the riversand lakes. What is most important, we should cherish every drip of water in our daily life.
提纲：1） 有人认为钱是幸福之本（source of happiness）
2） 有人认为金钱是万恶之源(root of evil)
Some think that money is the source of happiness. Once they have money, they will enjoy everything. They can use the money they have to buy, a beautiful house or even a wife.
Some others think that money is the root of all evil. Due to the greed for money, people will do various kinds of evil things, such as stealing, robbing or even murder. Money can easily change a kind, honest man into a cruel, cunning woe.
In my opinion, both of the above-mentioned viewpoints go to an extreme. Money itself is neither good nor evil. It all depends on how we look at it.
We can not deny the importance of money in the modern society. Meanwhile, we should not ignore the fact that something can not be bought by money, such as friendship, true love and so on.
What is money? To this question, different people hold differently. Some thing money is the source of happiness, while some regard it as the root of all evils. As far as I am concerned, they both have their reasons Those who consider money as the source of happiness argue that money means massive house, beautiful clothes, or luxurious cars, and can enable them and their families live comfortably. They even believe that money can bring power, friendship, and love. But due to the temptation of money, there are many people who become thieves, robbers, or murderers. It is also out of the greed for money that some officials forget their duty and cause enormous losses to the country, so some people think that money is the root of all evil and suggest that we keep away from money.
In fact, money is merely a medium of exchange. It may bring you happiness; it may lead you to a life of crime. Whether it is good or bad depends on how it is used.
As the saying goes, 'Money makes the mare go', but there are many things we can't buy with money, such as time and true love. …
'Practice makes perfect' is an old saying. It tells us that it does not matter if we are clumsy at doing something. As long as we keep on trying and practicing, we will do a good job in the end.
a. Do you have many friends? Are they similar to you or different from you? Which kind of friends do you prefer?
b. What is a good student? Different people may have different answers to this question.
In recent years, with the development of science and technology, the Internet has come into more and more homes and is playing a more and more important role in our work and daily life. It has become a must to us, but at the same time, Internet has also brought with it a lot of problems.
故事法指用简单有趣的故事激发读者的兴趣，从而提出自己的观点。如下面'Is Stress a Bad Thing?'
'Just as eating without liking harms the health, learning without interest harms the memory and can't be retained.' From Vinci's words we can see how important it is to motivate the students in language learning.
为了得到读者的认可，文章的开始可以引出调查数据等，借以提出主题，如下面'Is Stress a Bad Thing?'的1）和'Can School children Start Using the Internet?'的4）。
Suppose you were offered two jobs, one is highly-paid but rather demanding, the other is less demanding, but poorly-paid, which would you prefer? …
题目：Is Stress a Bad Thing?
' I can't stand the pressure and competition,' explained one friend of mine when asked why he decided to quit his highly-paid but demanding position in his company recently. My friend may have his own reasons, but I don't think his decision is wise in reality.
It is true that my friend's case is not unique. In the last few years quite a number of men and women have chosen to do something less competitive at the cost of a comfortable, easy life a highly-paid job can obtain. They are afraid that the stresses and strains of work will rob them of joy and happiness and do them harm both physically and mentally. In fact, however, stress isn't the bad thing it is often supposed to be. Unless it gets out of control, a certain amount of stress is vital to provide motivation and challenge, and to give purpose and significance to an otherwise meaningless, idle life. People under stress tend to express their full range of potential and to actualize their own personal worth - the very aim of a human life.
Stress is a natural part of everyday life and there is no way to avoid it. What we can do is to develop our adaptive abilities to deal with it rather than to escape from it.
1) According to a recent survey, in the last few years, quite a number of young people have chosen to quit their demanding but highly-paid jobs.
Although they may have their own respective reasons, I don't think their decision is wise in reality.
2) Which job do you prefer, a highly-paid but very competitive position or a poorly-paid but also less demanding job? You may choose the latter and have your own reasons, but I don't think this choice is wise enough whatever reasons.
3) Faced with a hard and demanding task, people's attitude varies widely: some try to avoid it and others regard it as a challenge to their abilities.
In fact the choice we make between 'flight' or 'fight make the difference between leaders and mediocrities(平庸之辈).
标题：Can Schoolchildren Start Using the Internet?
1) Nowadays, using the Internet has become a fashion. Many parents begin to teach their children to use the Internet. However, there are diverseopinions on this. Some think it wise, but I don't agree with them.
2) Today, the Internet is becoming more and more common. It begins to play a more and more important role in our society and life. It's so useful that most adults are learning how to use it. What about children? Of course they can start using it.
3) Today, with the development of science and technology, the Internet is beginning to play a more and more important role in our life. More and more people are starting to use the Internet, including schoolchildren. However, I think schoolchildren are too young to start using the Internet.
4) According to a recent survey, Internet users are becoming younger and younger, and Internet bars have become a resort for schoolchildren who log in to chat or play games. Faced with this phenomenon, many people argue for measures to prevent schoolchildren from using the Internet, and I think they have their reasons.
Families offer us warmth and care. Friends give us strength and horizon. They both help us understand the world as it is. Both of them are the dearest parts in our life.
Since postcards do us more harm and good, since we have many other ways to convey our feelings and promote our friendship, I hope everyone will take actions now to stop using postcards.
As we can see from the above, living in the suburb we can stay away from pollution, lead an easy leisure time, and needn't invest too much money, so I prefer living in the suburb to living in the city.
In particular, I enjoy what Francis Bacon said 'Studies serve for delight, for ornament and for ability.'
10） As we all know, the next century will become one of the Internet.
Internet will become more and more important in both our daily life and our work. So I suggest that schoolchildren should start using the Internet.
11） So I think schoolchildren not only can start using the Internet, but also should start using it They are sure to benefit a lot from the internet.
12） Internet can help our children know the world, get useful information and enrich their knowledge. So I think schoolchildren can start using the Internet.
13） In a word (In conclusion/ In summary/ To sum up / In short), the Internet is playing a more and more important role in our life and it is helpful for children's growth both physically and mentally. It is better for them to start using the Internet as early as possible.
比较：like A, B …
Just as A, B …
A, similarly/correspondingly, likewise/in the same way, B …
对照： Unlike/ Contrary to/ As opposed to A, B …
A , however/on the other hand/in contrast, B ……
A …, B, however/on the other hand/in contrast, …
First/ Second (Next) / Third (Then)/ Last (Finally), …
The fist/ The second/ The third/ The last (The final)
One/Another/Still another/The last
The most essential/most important/primary/chief is …
as a result, consequently, therefore, hence, so, because of this, for these reasons, due to the fact that
When asked about/ When it comes to/ Faced with …, some people claim/think/argue/believe that …, but/while others …(differently)
Nowadays there is much/general discussion as to ….
With the development/improvement/growth of …,
Now, it is commonly/widely/increasingly believed/thought/held/acknowledge that …,
According to a recent survey/investigation/poll, …
Have you ever thought/wondered …?
As the saying goes, …
Those who hold ….
It is true that …
To be sure ……
The main/leading/underlying/root/ primary/chief/essential ….
It sounds like a good(attractive) idea (suggestion), but they fail to understand (see, notice
There is probably an element of truth in the arguments (ideas), but they ignore a more important (basic) fact …
Closer examination (analysis), however, suggests (shows) that this argument (claim, idea) may not be borne of (supported) by the following evidence (facts, examples, statistics).
Close (careful) examination (analysis) of these arguments (ideas, suggestions), however, would reveal (suggest, prove) how flimsy (不足信的，不严密)(fallacious（靠不住的）, groundless（没有根据的）) they are.
However logical (sound, forcible(有说服力)) these arguments may be, they don't make sense (only skim the surface of the problem) when … is viewed the other way (taken into consideration).
As opposed to (Contrary to) the widely (commonly, generally) held idea (belief, view), new studies (facts) challenge (fail to justify) the opinion (view).
Good/Superior/Wonderful as …., it has its own disadvantages/ it brings its own problems.
They may be right about …, but they seem to neglect /fail to mention/take into account …
In all the discussion and debate over …, one important/basic fact is ignored/overlooked/neglected.
It is true that/ Admittedly, but it is unlikely/doesn't follow/doesn't mean that …
There is an element of truth in these arguments/statements, but they ignore a deeper and more basic/essential/important fact/factor …
In many cases, however, …
As far as …… is concerned, …
Experience/Evidence/All the facts suggest/show/demonstrate/ indicate that …
From what has been discussed above/Taking into account all these factors, we may safely draw/reach/come to/arrive/ the conclusion that…
In conclusion/To sum up/In summary/In short/To conclude ….
It is important/necessary/essential that effective/proper/powerful actions/measure/remedies should be taken to …
标题：City Life and Suburban Life
In recent years more and more homes are being pushed outwards as the activities of business, government and pleasure tend to be concentrated in the centers of the cities. Although most people are reluctant to move to the outskirts of the cities, I feel like living in the suburbs.
It is true that the city can provide much convenience and entertainment, the very reason why people can't bear to part with city life. But the cost for the privilege of living in the city is also high. What's more, there is more gas and noise pollution in the city, which is full of petrol fumes and toxic gases, torn by the roar of buses and taxies, and thronged ceaselessly by great crowds. In contrast, living near the countryside one can enjoy the clean atmosphere, the closeness to nature and the quiet, peaceful surroundings —— the essentials of a healthy life. Although living in the suburbs one may suffer a little discomfort brought about by the necessity of traveling miles to work every day, it means nearly nothing when thinking of the high cost and heavily polluted environment of the city.
The new suburban life is fast becoming a predominant pattern of living in most cities; and with the improvement of traffic and the perfection of services, it will prove to hold great superiority over city life.
标题： My View on College Students' Part-time Jobs
Nowadays, an increasing number of college students are doing part-time jobs. People hold different opinions on that.
Some people think that there are many advantages for college students to have part-time jobs. Firstly, part-time jobs offer them opportunities to apply what they have learned in school and demonstrate their abilities.
Secondly, it enables them to be more independent of their family and builds up their self-confidence. Thirdly, part-time experiences may be of great help to their future careers. Finally, part-time jobs can broaden their college lives and help them know more of themselves and society.
However, some other people hold that doing part-time jobs has more disadvantages. The main job of college students is to study, not to work. If they have part-time jobs, they may have to reduce their time for sleep, rest, study and activities. Working several hours a day consumes a lot of time and energy and may affect their studies. As a result, they may find it hard to adjust to what the college expects of them as well as their employers expect, and finally, they may fall behind or fail in their studies.
In my opinion, students can choose to take up a part-time job according to their own situation. The most important thing for them is to keep a good balance between part-time jobs and his study.
标题：How to Achieve Success
Some people say the key to success is the luck, while others claim it is hard work. As far as I am concerned, there are many factors contributing to success and the three fundamental ones are diligence, devotion and perseverance.
Diligence is the first key factor to success. Diligence helps us remove ignorance, overcome difficulties, and enlighten our minds. It makes a fool wise, and a poor man rich. Devotion is another factor to success. Whatever we do, we must love it and do it whole-heartedly. Only when we set our minds on the job, can we do it well. Furthermore, perseverance, or a strong will, is the last key to success. Without a strong will, we are likely to give up when we meet some difficulties, let alone perform wonderful deeds.
To conclude, all great men achieve success through diligence, devotion and perseverance. Just as the famous saying goes, 'No pains, no gains', 'Where there is a will, there is a way.'
标题：On Housing Reform
The old house-allotting policy had at least two disadvantages. First, the government spent a lot of money building some houses, but these houses were allotted to people free of charge. Thus, the government would have no money to build more houses for people who badly needed them. Second, the persons who were in power could get more houses than those who were powerless. This was quite unfair.
On the contrary, the new system of house allotment may bring about many new things. For example, the government will have more money which can be used in house construction. So, the housing industry can develop more quickly. Besides, because houses will be sold to people, the chances they get will be equal.
When I enter the society, I would get a loan from the bank to buy my own house. Then, I would try to pay back the loan in the shortest time possible.
After that, I would proudly claim: 'Now, I am the master of that house.'
In our modern life, punctuality is one of the most important qualities that any person should possess. Punctuality demonstrates that you are reliable and can be trusted with responsibilities. Besides, it can make a person a good man. And if you are not punctual, you may injure others.
We should practice punctuality for the sake of others, as well as ourselves.
He who is punctual will accomplish far more in a day than he who is not so.
Washington was remarkable for this virtue. His mother had taught him, when a boy, or have certain hours for every employment, and to do everything at the appointed time. This habit helped, in his later life, to make him a good man. Without it, he could never have made such success.
Neglect of punctuality may injure both to others and to oneself. An applicant may be turned away just for the sake of being late for the interview. Students coming late for class will undoubtedly interrupt the teacher. Therefore, we ought never to say 'It is only once —— I will not do so again' to excuse ourselves; otherwise we will be tardier and we will fail in our society.
In a word, if we form the habit of punctuality at school, it will be of great advantage to us in our future life.
1． Why College Students Take a Part-time Job
According to a recent survey, about 25 percent of Chinese college students now hold a part-time or temporary job, compared with nearly none 10 years ago, and this figure increases to 72 percent during summer vacations. College students are working as tutors, salespersons, engineers and doing whatever work they can find.
Why do they want odd jobs —— jobs usually requiring little skill and knowledge? The primary reason, I think, is money. Feeling the financial pressure as books, movies and bus fares have all gone up in price, there is scarcely a young boy or girl who does not want to earn a little money to
help cover the increasingly higher college costs, and at best save enough to go traveling or buy things they have long desired. In this way they hope to be economically independent and avoid the indignity of having to ask for money again and again. Besides they want to gain some experience in the ways of society. Students growing up from nursery school to college only know about books and have trouble dealing with realities. Working on a part-time basis can provide them with a rare opportunity to know the outside world and prepare them for a future career.
The significance for college students of doing a part-time job means more than money and experience. It will broaden their outlook and exert a profound influence on their personality and life.
2. The Job I like Best
a. 我最喜欢的工作是 ……
In the past three years of my college life I have never ceased to think what kind of work I shall take up upon graduation. Although my ideas are not consistent, I have now decided on a college teacher as my lifelong career.
A variety of reasons have led me to choose this occupation over other more lucrative ones.
First, teaching is learning. To make my lectures more constructive and stimulating, I have to read more books, explore new knowledge and gain a better understanding of the world —— the very thing I enjoy in my life.
Second, teaching means freedom and independence. As a teacher, I'm free to use my own ideas and make my own decisions, a privilege not everyone can have, even those with highly-paid positions. Finally, I like teaching because it offers a certain peace of mind. No more rushing to catch a morning bus, no more anxiety to please a boss, no more worries about your paycheck which is steady, if not handsome.
Nothing, not even a big salary, can equal for the opportunity to continue learning, the satisfaction of being your own boss, and a gentle peace of life. (归纳全文，强化全文的中心论点)
3. How to Solve the Energy Problem
When asked about one of the biggest problems today, many people say that an energy crisis is approaching and is threatening mankind's survival. They are afraid that the world is likely to run out of oil and metals and to run short of food in the near future.
To this problem, most countries respond with the demand for more rigid conservation of our natural resources. Indeed, this is urgently needed, for the present waste of energy in industrial and personal consumption is so serious that it has become habitual and traditional. If the natural resources are used economically, we can certainly slow down the present drain on the limited energy supply. However, conservation alone is not the answer. It is obvious that even if we can save much energy, we can only delay the energy crisis, but cannot solve the problem completely. However abundant certain natural resources may be, they cannot reproduce themselves and are bound to be used up ultimately. So in the long run, we must develop new sources of energy instead of merely conserving the known, limited supplies.
Man is highly adaptable and creative, and since he is able to tap such resources as oil and metal, why can't he develop and harness solar energy, nuclear energy and other unknown energy resources?
4. The Internet
The later part of the 1990s finds the worlds 'the Internet' become fashionable in people's daily life. The Internet is a network of thousands of networks, linking schools, universities, businesses, government agencies, libraries and millions of individuals.
Something like 'information superhighways', the internet can bring many conveniences into the school, home and office. College students can check the card catalogue of Library of Congress in the United States to finish their papers. Housewives can do shopping and pay bills without leaving their homes. Businessmen can sign a contract and land an order through electronic media. Patients can reach the world's leading authorities and experts on the disease they may suffer from ……men and women can have a conversation with people all over the world by sending and receiving electronic mail. With a basic computer and modem any individual can call up information about almost anything from almost anywhere and almost anytime.
The Internet exerts such a profound effect on our life that it revolutionizes the way of people's living and thinking.
5. Advantages and Disadvantages of Home Computers
Just a few years ago, the idea of having a computer in one's home seemed far-fetched for most Chinese. Now, however, with the advent and popularity of the home computer, its advantages and disadvantages have been a subject of discussion.
There is no doubt that like TV, computers benefit people hugely. With the computer, the home will become a library, a school, an office and an entertainment center. All transactions, from banking to shopping, will be performed electronically and all information, form train schedules to discount price goods, will be as close as the press of a key. In addition to providing us many of the facilities and services we now must travel to obtain, with the Internet, the computer will even let us communicate directly with other homes and with information sources worldwide. Despite the increase in efficiency and convenience generated by the computer, the changes it brings could very well lead to potentially adverse consequences.
For example, as nearly all activities could be conducted in the comfort of our homes, we could all become hermitlike, never feeling any need to leave the house. This would be unfortunate because our children especially will become so addicted to computers that they might never be exposed to either peer pressure or social interaction.
Unquestionably, the challenge of the home computer means we all should consider how we can control it, so that it won't control us.
6. Should Euthanasia Be Legalized
Euthanasia, a quite and easy death, or 'mercy killing' as we call it recently has made the headlines frequently. Many people applaud it and argue that euthanasia should be legalized.
As is pointed out, to practise euthanasia can benefit both the patient and his family. To a terminally ill person who is suffering excruciating pains day and night or living 'like a vegetable', to be allowed to end his life painlessly is a good release. To his family it is also a big relief considering the financial and emotional drain on them that having to sustain his life entails. However, the legalization of euthanasia may also bring with it problems our society has not previously faced. Is it humane, for example, that a terminally ill patient is thus caused to feel guilty for remaining alive because he does not want to die? Is it wise that a patient is killed alive simply because of a mistaken terminal diagnosis? And is it possible that euthanasia could be taken advantage of for some ulterior or even criminal purposes?
Since the legalization of euthanasia will raise serous moral and social issues, the decision our society makes about euthanasia will undoubtedly have tremendous consequences in society.
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