您的位置:外语教育网 > 英语四六级 > 试题中心 > 六级试题中心 > 正文


2006-02-13 00:00   我要纠错 | 打印 | 收藏 | | |

  Part Ⅰ Listening Comprehension (20 minutes)

  Section A

  Directions: In this section you will hear 10 short conversations. A t the end of each conversation, a question will be asked about what was s aid. Both the conversation and the question will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four suggested answers marked A),B),C)and D) and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.

  Example: You will hear:

  You will read: A) 2 hours. B)3 hours.

  C) 4 hours. D) 5 hours.

  From the conversation we know that the two are talking about some work they will start at 9 o'clock in the morning and have to finish at 2 in the afternoon. Therefore, D)"5 hours" is the correct answer. You should choose [D] on the Answer Sheet and mark it with a single line through the centre.

  Sample Answer [A][B][C][D]

  1. A) On Thursday night. B) On Monday night.

  C) On Friday morning. D) On Thursday morning

  2. A) Try to help him find rooms in another hotel.

  B) Check to see if there are any vacancies in her hotel.

  C) Let him move to a room with two single beds.

  D) Show him the way to Imperial Hotel.

  3. A) Robust. B) Brave. C) Generous. D) Dangerous.

  4. A) He loves his present job. B) He is going to open a store.

  C) He is about to retire. D) He works in a repair shop.

  5. A) She has confidence in him. B) She has also won a scholarship.

  C) She is surprised at the news. D) She is not interested in the news.

  6. A) His only son is dying.

  B) His mother died some time ago.

  C) He didn't like after his sick wife.

  D) He hasn't taken good care of his son.

  7. A) At the airport. B) In a travel agency.

  C) In a hotel. D) At the reception desk.

  8. A) He is not equal to the job.

  B) He is not well paid for his work.

  C) He doesn't think the job is challenging enough.

  D) He cannot keep his mind on his work.

  9. A) The talks haven't started yet.

  B) The talks haven't achieved much.

  C) The talks have produced a general agreement.

  D) The talks broke down and could go to further.

  10. A) Help him to carry some luggage.

  B) Get some travel information.

  C) Tell him the way to the left luggage office.

  D) Look after something for him.

  Section B

  Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At t he end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C), and D). The mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.

  Passage One

  Questions 11 to l3 are based on the passage you have just heard.

  11. A) Crowded air traffic. B) The large size of airplanes

  C) Mistakes by air traffic controllers. D) Bad weather.

  12. A) They bumped into each other over a swimming pool.

  B) They avoided each other by turning in different directions.

  C) They narrowly escaped crashing into each other.

  D) One plane climbed above the other at the critical moment.

  13. A) To show the key role played by air traffic controllers.

  B) To show the great responsibility shouldered by the pilots.

  C) To give an example of air disasters.

  D) To show that air travel is far safer than driving a car.

  Passage Two

  Questions 14 to l7 are based on the passage you have just heard.

  14. A) Her unique experience. B) Her future prospects.

  C) Her favorite job. D) Her lonely life.

  15. A) Authority. B) A good relationship.

  C) Good luck. D) Independence.

  16. A) She will live an empty life. B) She will work in a bookstore .

  C) She will remain single. D) She will earn a lot of money.

  17. A) She should find a good job.

  B) She should open a small restaurant.

  C) She should have more control over her life.

  D) She should get married.

  Passage Three

  Questions 18 to 20 are based on the passage you have just heard.

  18. A) In daycare centers where little children were taken care of.

  B) In areas in Chicago poor people lived.

  C) In places where hot lunch was provided for factory workers.

  D) In schools where free classes were organized for young people.

  19. A) For young people and adults. B) For immigrants.

  C) For factory works. D) For poor city children.

  20. A) Jane Adams' contributions to society.

  B) Jane Adams' struggle for women's liberation.

  C) Jane Adams' life story.

  D) Jane Adams' responsibility for the poor.

  Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension (35 minutes )

  Directions: There are 4 reading passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them the re are four choices marked A),B),C) and D). you should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with

  a single line through the centre.

  Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage:

  It is said that the public and Congressional concern about deceptive(欺骗性的) p ackaging rumpus(喧嚣) started because Senator Hart discovered that the boxes of cereals consumed by him, Mrs. Hart, and their children were becoming higher and narrower, with a decline of net weight from 12 to 10.5 ounces, without any reduc tion in price. There were still twelve biscuits, but they had been reduced in si ze. Later, the Senator rightly complained of a storebought pie in a handsomely illustrated box that pictured, in a single slice, almost as many cherries as there were in the whole pie.

  The manufacturer who increases the unit price of his product by changing his package size to lower the quantity delivered can, without undue hardship, put h is product into boxes, bags, and tins that will contain even 4ounce, 8ounce, onepound, twopound quantities of breakfast foods, cake mixes, etc. A study of drugstore(杂货店) and supermarket shelves will convince any observer that all possible size and shapes of boxes, jars, bottles, and tins are in use at the same time, and, as the package journals show, week by week, there is never any hesitation in introducing a new size and shape of box or bottle when it aids in pro duct differentiation. The producers of packaged products argue strongly against changing sizes of packages to contain even weights and volumes, but no one in the trade comments unfavorably on the huge costs incurred by endless changes of pa ckage sizes, materials, shape, art work, and net weights that are used for improving a product's market position.

  When a packaging expert explained that he was able to multiply the price of hard sweets by 2.5, from 1 dollar to 2.50 dollars by changing to a fancy jar, or that he had made a 5ounce bottle look as thought it held 8 ounces, he was in effect telling the public that packaging can be a very expensive luxury. It evidently does come high, when an average family pays about 200 dollars a year for bottles, cans, boxes, jars and other containers, most of which can't be used anything but stuffing the garbage can.

  21. What started the public and Congressional concern about deceptive packaging rumpus?

  A) Consumers' complaints about the changes in the package size.

  B) Expensive packaging for poor quality products.

  C) A senator's discovery of the tricks in packaging.

  D) The rise in the unit price for many products.

  22. The word "undue" (Line 2, Para.2) means"__________".

  A) improper B) adequate C) unexpected D) excessive

  23. Consumers are concerned about the changes in the package size, mainly because _____.

  A) they hate to see any changes in things they are familiar with

  B) the unit price for a product often rises as a result

  C) they have to pay for the cost of changing package sizes.

  D) this entails an increase in the cost of packaging

  24. According to this passage, various types of packaging come into existence to______.

  A) meet the needs of consumers

  B) suit all kinds of products

  C) enhance the market position of products

  D) introduce new products

  25. The author is critical mainly of __________.

  A) dishonest packaging

  B) inferior packaging

  C) the changes in package size

  D) exaggerated illustrations on packages.

  Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage:

  If sustainable competitive advantage depends on workforce skills, American fir m s have a problem. Humanresource management is not traditionally seen as central to the competitive survival of the firm in the United States. Skill acquisition is considered an individual responsibility. Labour is simply another factor of production to be hired-rented at the lowest possible cost-much as one buys raw materials or equipment.

  The lack of importance attached to humanresource management can be seen in the corporate hierarchy. In an American firm the chief financial officer is almost always second in command. The post of head of humanresource management is usually a specialized job, off at the edge of the corporate hierarchy. The executive who holds it is never consulted on major strategic decisions and has no chance to move up to Chief Executive Officer (CEO). By way of contrast, in Japan the head of humanresource management is central-usually the second most important executive, after the CEO, in the firm's hierarchy.

  While American firms often talk about the vast amounts spent on training their work forces, in fact they invest less in the skills of their employees than do either Japanese or German firms. The money they do invest is also more highly concentrated on professional and managerial employees. And the limited investments t hat are made in training workers are also much more narrowly focused on the specific skills necessary to do the next job rather than on the basic background skills that make it possible to absorb new technologies.

  As a result, problems emerge when new breakthrough technologies arrive. If American workers for example, take much longer to learn how to operate new flexible m anufacturing stations than workers in Germany (as they do), the effective cost of those stations is lower in Germany than it is in the United Stated. More time is required before equipment is up and running at capacity, and the need for extensive retraining generates costs and creates bottlenecks that limit the speed with which new equipment can be employed. The result is a slower pace of technological change. And in the end the skills of the population affect the wages of the top half. If the bottom half can't effectively staff the processes that have to be operated, the management and professional jobs that go with these processes will disappear.

  26. Which of the following applies to the management of human resources in American companies?

  A) They hire people at the lowest cost regardless of their skills.

  B) They see the gaining of skills as their employees' own business.

  C) They attach more importance to workers than equipment.

  D) They only hire skilled workers because of keen competition.

  27. What is the position of the head of humanresource management in an American firm?

  A) He is one of the most important executives in the firms.

  B) His post is likely to disappear when new technologies are introduced.

  C) He is directly under the chief financial executive.

  D) He has no say in making important decisions in the firm.

  28. The money most American firms put in training mainly goes to _____.

  A) workers who can operate new equipment

  B) technological and managerial staff

  C) workers who lack basic background skills

  D) top executives

  29. According to the passage, the decisive factor in maintaining a firm's competitive

  advantage is __________.

  A) the introduction of new technologies

  B) the improvement of worker's basic skills

  C) the rational composition of professional and managerial employees

  D) the attachment of importance to the bottom half of the employees

  30. What is the main idea of the passage?

  A) American firms are different from Japanese and German firms in humanresource


  B) Extensive retraining is indispensable to effective humanresource management .

  C) The head of humanresource management must be in the central position in a

  firm's hierarchy.

  D) The humanresource management strategies of American firms affect their

  competitive capacity.

  Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage:

  The biographer has to dance between two shaky positions with respect to the subject(研究对象). Too close a relation, and the writer may lose objectivity. Not close enough, and the writer may lack the sympathy necessary to any effort to port ray a mind, a soulthe quality of life. Who should writer the biography of a family, for example? Because of their closeness to the subject, family members may have special information, but by the same token, they may not have the distance that would allow them to be fair. Similarly, a king's servant might not be the best one to write a biography of that king, But a foreigner might not have the knowledge and sympathy necessary to write the king's biography-not for a readership from within the kingdom, at any rate.

  There is no ideal position for such a task. The biographer has to work with the position he or she has in the world, adjusting that position as necessary to deal with the subject. Every position has strengths and weaknesses: to thrive, a writer must try to become aware of these, evaluate them in terms of the subject. and select a position accordingly.

  When their subjects are heroes or famous figures, biographies often reveal a democratic motive: they attempt to show that their subjects are only human, no better than anyone else. Other biographies are meant to change us, to invite us to become better than we are. The biographies of Jesus(耶稣) found in the Bible are in this class.

  Biographers may claim that their account is the "authentic" one. In advancing this claim, they are helped if the biography is "authorized" by the subject; this presumably allows the biographer special access to private information. "Un authorized" biographies also have their appeal, however, since they can suggest an independence of mind in the biographer. In book promotions, the "unauthoriz ed" characterization usually suggests the prospect of juicy gossip that the subject had hoped to suppress. A subject might have several biographies, even sever al "authentic" ones. We sense intuitively that no one is in a position to tell "the" story of a life, perhaps not even the subject, and this has been proved by the history of biography.

  31. According to the author, an ideal biographer would be one who ________.

  A) knows the subject very well and yet maintains a proper distance from him

  B) is close to the subject and knows the techniques of biography writing

  C) is independent and treats the subject with fairness and objectivity

  D) possesses special private information and is sympathetic toward the subject

  32. The author cites the biographies of Jesus in the Bible in order to show that______.

  A) the best biogrphies are meant to transform their readers

  B) biographies are authentic accounts of their subjects' lives

  C) the best biographies are those of heroes and famous figures

  D) biographies can serve different purposes

  33. Which of the following statements is true, according to the passage?

  A) An authentic biography seldom appeals to its readers.

  B) An authentic biography is one authorized by the subject.

  C) No one can write a perfect biography.

  D) Authorized biographies have a wider readership.

  34. An unauthorized biography is likely to attract more readers because __________.

  A) it portrays the subject both faithfully and vividly

  B) it contains interesting information about the subject's private life

  C) it reveals a lot of accurate details unknown to outsiders

  D) it usually gives a sympathetic description of the subject's character

  35. In this passage, the author focuses on __________.

  A) the difficulty of a biographer in finding the proper perspective to do his job

  B) the secret of a biographer to win more readers

  C) the techniques required of a biographer to write a good biography

  D) the characteristics of different kinds of biographies

  Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage:

  Whether the eyes are "the windows of the soul" is debatable; that they are intensely important in interpersonal communication is a fact. During the first two months of a baby's life, the stimulus that produces a smile is a pair of eyes. T he eyes need not be real: a mask with two dots will produce a smile. Significantly, a real human face with eyes covered will not motivate a smile, nor will the sight of only one eye when the face is presented in profile. This attraction to eyes as opposed to the nose or mouth continues as the baby matures. In one study , when American fouryearolds were asked to draw people, 75 percent of them d re w people with mouths, but 99 percent of them drew people with eyes. In Japan, however, where babies are carried on their mother's back, infants do not acquire a s much attachment to eyes as they do in other cultures. As a result, Japanese adults make little use of the face either to encode(把…编码) or decode(理解) meaning. In fact, Argyle reveals that the "proper place to focus one's gaze during a conversation in Japan is on the neck of one's conversation partner."

  The role of eye contact in a conversational exchange between two Americans is well defined; speakers make contact with the eyes of their listener for about one second, then glance away as they talk; in a few moments they reestablish e y e contact with the listener or reassure the selves that their audience is still a ttentive, then shift their gaze away once more. Listeners, meanwhile, keep their eyes on the face of the speaker, allowing themselves to glance away only briefly. It is important that they be looking at the speaker at the precise moment when the speaker reestablishes eye contact: if they are not looking, the speaker assumes that they are disinterested and either will pause until eye contact is resumed or will terminate the conversation. Just how critical this eye maneuvering is to the maintenance of conversational flow becomes evident when two speakers are wearing dark glasses: there may be a sort of traffic jam of words caused by interruption, false starts, and unpredictable pauses.

  36. The author is convinced that the eyes are __________.

  A) of extreme importance in expressing feelings and exchanging ideas

  B) something through which one can see a person's inner world

  C) of considerable significance in making conversations interesting

  D) something the value of which is largely a matter of long debate

  37. Babies will not be stimulated to smile by a person __________ .

  A) whose front view is fully perceived

  B) whose face is covered with a mask

  C) whose face is seen from the side

  D) whose face is free of any covering

  38. According to the passage, the Japanese fix their gaze on their conversation

  partner's neck because __________.

  A) they don't like to keep their eyes on the face of the speaker

  B) they need not communicate through eye contact

  C) they don't think it polite to have eye contact

  D) they didn't have much opportunity to communicate through eye contact in babyhood

  39. According to the passage, a conversation between two Americans may break down due to


  A) one temporarily glancing away from the other

  B) eye contact of more than one second

  C) improperlytimed ceasing of eye contact

  D) constant adjustment of eye contact

  40. To keep a conversation flowing smoothly, it is better for the participants ______.

  A) not to wear dark spectacles B) not to make any interruptions

  C) not to glance away from each other D) not to make unpredictable pauses

  Part Ⅲ Vocabulary and Structure (20 minutes)

  Directions: There are 30 incomplete sentences in this part. For each sentence there are four choices marked A),B),C) and D). Choose the ONE that b est completes the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer She et with a single line through the centre.

  41. By ______ computation, he estimated that the repairs o n the house would cost him a

  thousand dollars.

  A) coarse B) rude C) crude D) rough

  42. Your story about the frog turning into a prince is_____ nonsense.

  A) sheer B) shear C) shield D) sheet

  43. I could see that my wife was ______ having that fur co at, whether I approved of it

  or not.

  A) adequate for B) intent on C) short of D) deficient in

  44. The __________ runner can run 2 miles in fifteen minutes

  A) common B) usual C) average D) general

  45. One of his eyes was injured in an accident, but after a __________ operation, he

  quickly recovered his sight.

  A) delicate B) considerate C) precise D) sensitive

  46. As an excellent shooter,Peter practised aiming at both ______ targets and moving


  A) standing B) stationary C) still D) stable

  47. In American universities, classes are often arranged in more flexible _____ and many

  jobs on campus are reserved for students.

  A) scales B) patterns C) grades D) ranks

  48. The insurance company paid him $10,000 in __________ after his accident.

  A) compensation B) instalment C) substitution D) commission

  49. The political future of the president is now hanging by a __________ .

  A) thread B) cord C) string D) rope

  50. The statue would be perfect but for a few small __________ in its base.

  A) mistakes B) weaknesses C) flaws D) errors

  51. Why should anyone want to read __________ of books by great authors when the real

  pleasure comes from reading the originals?

  A) themes B) insights C) digests D) leflets

  52. Parents have a legal __________ to ensure that their children are provided with

  efficient education suitable to their age.

  A) impulse B) influence C) obligation D) sympathy

  53. Most nurses are women, but in the higher ranks of the medical profess ion women are

  in a __________.

  A) scarcity B) minority C) minimum D) shortage

  54. David likes country life and has decided to __________ farming.

  A) go in for B) go back on C) go through with D) go along with

  55. Jack was about to announce our plan but I__________.

  A) put him through B) turned him out C) gave him up D) cut him short

  56. I am sure I can __________ him into letting us stay in the hotel for the night.

  A) speak B) say C) talk D) tell

  57. Last year, the crime rate in Chicago has sharply ________.

  A) declined B) lessened C) descended D) slipped

  58. The republication of the poet's most recent works will certainly ______ his national


  A) magnify B) strengthen C) enlarge D) enhance

  59. Recently a number of cases have been reported of young children _____ a violent act

  previously seen on television.

  A) modifying B) duplicating C) accelerating D) stimulating

  60. This kind of material can __________ heat and moisure.

  A) delete B) compel C) constrain D) repel

  61. Reading __________ the mind only with materials of knowledge; it is thinking that

  makes what we read ours.

  A) rectifies B) prolongs C) minimises D) furnishes

  62. If the fire alarm is counted, all residents are requested to ____ in the courtyard.

  A) assemble B) converge C) crowd D) accumulate

  63. The work in the office was __________ by a constant stream of visitors.

  A) confused B) hampered C) reversed D) perplexed

  64. The joys of travel, having long __________ the disabled, a re opening up to

  virtually anyone who has the means.

  A) omitted B) missed C) neglected D) discarded

  65. Fewer and fewer of today's workers expect to spend their working live s in the same

  field, __________ the same company.

  A) all else B) much worse C) less likely D) let alone

  66. When he finally emerged from the cave after thirty days, john was ___ _______ pale.

  A) enormously B) startlingly C) uniquely D) dramatically

  67. Thank you for applying for a position with our firm. We do not have any openings at

  this time, but we shall keep your application on __________ months.

  A) pile B) segment C) sequence D) file

  68. It will be safer to walk the streets because people will not need to carry large

  amounts of cash; virtually all financial __________ will be conducted by computer.

  A) transactions B) transmissions C) transitions D) transformations

  69. The _____ of a cultural phenomenon is usually a logic al consequence of some

  physical aspect in the life style of the people.

  A) implementation B) manifestation C) demonstration D) expedition

  70. The new technological revolution in American newspapers has brought increase _____,

  a wider range of publications and an expansion of newspaper jobs.

  A) manipulation B) reproduction C) circulation D) penetration

  Part Ⅳ Short Answer Questions (15 minutes )

  Directions: In this part there is a short passage with five questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words (not exceeding 10 words).

  I once knew a dog named Newton who had a unique sense of humour. Whenever I toss ed out a Frisbee(飞蝶) for him to chase, he'd take off in hot pursuit but then seem to lose track of it. Moving back and forth only a yard of two from the toy, Newton would look all around, even up into the trees. He seemed genuinely puzzle d. Finally, I'd give up and head into the field to help him out. But no sooner would I get within 10 ft.of him than he would run invariably straight over to the Frisbee, grab it and start running like mad, looking over his shoulder with what looked suspiciously like a grin.

  Just about every pet owner has a story like this and is eager to share it with a nyone who will listen. On very short notice, TIME reporters came up with 25 stories about what each is convinced is the smartest pet in the world. Among them: t he cat who closes the door behind him when be goes into the bathroom; the cat who uses a toilet instead of a litter box……and flushes it afterward; the dog who goes wild when he sees his owner putting on blue jeans instead of a dress because jeans mean it is time to play; and the cat who used to wait patiently at the bus stop every day for a little girl, then walk her the six blocks home. And so on .

  These behaviours are certainly clever, but what do they mean? Was Newton really deceiving? Can a cat really desire privacy in the toilet? In short, do household pets really have a mental and emotional life? Their owners think so, but until recently, animalbehaviour experts would have gone mad on hearing such a question. The worst sin in their moral vocabulary was anthropomorphism(拟人化), pro jecting human traits onto animals. A dog or a cat might behave as if it were angry, lonely, sad, happy or confused, but that was only in the eye of the viewer. What was going on, they insisted, was that the dog or cat had been conditioned, thro ugh a perhaps unintentional series of punishments and rewards, to behave certain way. The behaviour was a mechanical result of the training.


  S1.What did Newton seem puzzled about?

  ________ _________ __________ __________ __________

  S2. Why does the author say Newton had unique sense of humour?

  ________ _________ __________ __________ __________

  S3. What made it possible for the TIME reporters to come up with so many interesting

  stories about pets?

  ________ _________ __________ __________ __________

  S4.What belief about pet behaviour was unacceptable to experts of animal behaviour?

  ________ _________ __________ __________ __________

  S5.What is the explanation of animalbehaviuor experts for the "clever" behaviour of


  ________ _________ __________ __________ __________

  Part Ⅴ Writing (30 minutes)

  Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes t o write a composition on the topic My View on JobHopping. You should write at least 1 20 words and y u should base your composition on the outline (given in Chinese) below:





  Part Ⅰ Listening Comprehension

  1-10 A A B C A D B C B D

  11-20 C C A B D D D B D A

  Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

  21.C 22.D 23.B 24.C 25.A 26.B 27.D 28.B 29.B 30.D

  31.A 32.D 33.C 34.B 35.A 36.A 37.C 38.D 39.C 40.A

  Part Ⅲ Vocabulary Structure

  41.D 42.A 43.B 44.C 45.A 46.C 47.B 48.A 49.A 50.C

  51.C 52.C 53.B 54.A 55.D 56.C 57.A 58.D 59.B 60.D

  61.D 62.A 63.B 64.C 65.D 66.B 67.D 68.A 69.B 70.C

  Part Ⅳ Short Answer Questions

  S1.Not knowing the Frisbee's track.

  S2.Because Newton intended to deceive him.

  S3.That the owners want others to share their stories.

  S4.That animals have a mental and emotional life.

  S5.Mechanical result of training.

  Part Ⅴ Writing(略)

 学位英语 指南 动态 经验 试题 资料  托福 指南 动态 考情 留学 复习
 雅思 指南 动态 机经 经验 辅导  公共英语 指南 动态 备考 试题 辅导
 日语 指南 资讯 辅导 留学 考试  法语 发音 词汇 语法 听说 阅读
 韩语 入门 口语 阅读 留学 文化  西语 口语 词汇 阅读 留学 风采


  • 四级辅导
  • 六级辅导
超值优惠套餐=写作+词汇+听力+阅读+翻译+真题精讲班 70课时
词汇串讲 精讲大纲词汇,轻松记忆单词
阅读串讲 紧扣大纲要求,直达阅读高分
听力串讲 剖析解题秘笈,提升听力水平
写作串讲 解读命题规律,揭秘高分技巧
翻译串讲 梳理重要考点,提高应试能力
真题精讲 讲授历年真题,直击命题精髓


学员 kxiwo:
学员 doeiia:
学员 ouemnx:
学员 mlbafjlkafmb:
学员 ahogj:
学员 ahigahe32:
学员 loiwu:
学员 yopdm:


   1、凡本网注明 “来源:外语教育网”的所有作品,版权均属外语教育网所有,未经本网授权不得转载、链接、转贴或以其他方式使用;已经本网授权的,应在授权范围内使用,且必须注明“来源:外语教育网”。违反上述声明者,本网将追究其法律责任。