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新GRE网考样题 (txt)

2006-02-09 00:00

  Sample Questions for the Revised Graduate Record Examinations General Test

  Reader's Script Edition

  Important: The Quantitative Reasoning sample questions in this document are intended to be used with a figure supplement. A large-print (18 point) figure supplement will be available on the website where you obtained this script. A tactile (braille) figure supplement can be ordered free of charge from the ETS Disabilities Services Office, phone: 1-866-387-8602 in the United States, U.S. Territories, and Canada; 1-609-771-7780 all other locations. E-mail stassd@ets.org.

  Copyright (c) 2006 by Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved.

  GRE, GRADUATE RECORD EXAMINATIONS, ETS, EDUCATIONAL TESTING SERVICE

  and the ETS logos are registered trademarks of Educational Testing Service.

  Table of Contents

  (Note: In this plain text (ASCII) version, page numbers have been removed from the table of contents, as pagination will depend on print options chosen. Instead, use the headings to search for the sections you wish to read. A "live" table of contents is available in the Word version of this document, which is available from the website where you obtained this plain text version.)

  Changes in the General Test

  Description of the Revised General Test

  Sample Questions from the Revised GRE General Test

  Sample Test Instructions

  Analytical Writing Topics

  Sample Issue Topic Directions

  Sample Issue Topic:

  Sample Argument Topic Directions

  Sample Argument Topic:

  Sample Quantitative Reasoning Questions

  Answer Key: Sample Quantitative Reasoning Questions

  Sample Verbal Reasoning Questions

  Answer Key: Sample Verbal Reasoning Questions

  Changes in the General Test

  The revised GRE General Test will reflect changes made to the verbal reasoning, quantitative reasoning, and analytical writing measures. These changes reflect a desire to increase the validity of the test, enhance test security, provide faculty with better information about applicants' performance, increase worldwide access to the test, and make better use of advances in technology and psychometric design. As part of these changes, a range of new question types will be introduced in the verbal reasoning and quantitative reasoning sections, and the topics in the analytical writing section will be revised in order to elicit more focused responses.

  Description of the Revised General Test

  The verbal reasoning measure is designed to assess the fundamental abilities required for understanding written texts and reasoning about them. Questions will measure your ability to interpret, analyze, and evaluate texts of various lengths and to reason with words in solving problems. There is a balance of passages across different subject matter areas, including humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences, but the questions do not assess specific content knowledge.

  The quantitative reasoning measure is designed to assess your ability to solve problems in a quantitative setting, using quantitative reasoning, elementary mathematical concepts, and basic mathematical skills. The mathematical content required does not go beyond the mathematics usually studied in high school and includes arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and data analysis. For individuals taking the test by computer, an online calculator will be provided for use in the quantitative sections. For individuals testing in alternate formats, a hand-held basic calculator (one that supports order of operations is recommended), including a talking calculator if approved as an accommodation, will be permitted in the quantitative sections.

  The analytical writing section tests your critical thinking and analytical writing skills. It assesses your ability to articulate and support complex ideas, analyze an argument, and sustain a focused and coherent discussion. It does not assess specific content knowledge.

  Sample Questions from the Revised GRE General Test

  The questions that follow represent the full range of question types that will appear on the revised GRE General Test.

  Sample Test Instructions

  This material is copyright 2006 by Educational Testing Service. Reproduction of any part of it is prohibited.  In an actual test, you will have the additional time approved by Educational Testing Service to complete the test. You will be permitted to start, stop, and repeat the tape as needed within a section. Breaks, including lunch breaks, must occur at the end of sections.

  These sample questions may include certain types of test questions that would not be used in an actual test administered in an alternate format because they have been determined to be less suitable for presentation in such formats.

  If you are using the script edition along with another format of the sample questions, you may notice some  differences in the wording of some questions.  Differences in wording between the script and other editions are the result of adaptations made each edition. In addition, the selection and order of questions has been slightly modified for the alternate format versions of this material. That modification was done in order to group together some questions that share a common set of directions.

  Analytical Writing Topics

  The Analytical Writing portion of the GRE consists of two writing topics, an Issue topic and an Argument topic.

  Sample Issue Topic Directions

  You will be given a brief quotation that states or implies an issue of general interest and specific instructions on how to respond to that issue.  Plan and compose a response in which you develop a position on the issue according to the specific instructions.  A response to any other issue will receive a score of zero. Standard timing for an issue topic is 30 minutes.

  Make sure that you respond to the specific instructions and support your position on the issue with reasons and examples drawn from such areas as your reading, experience, observations, and/or academic studies.

  GRE readers, who are college and university faculty, will read your response and evaluate its overall quality according to how well you do each of the following:

  o Respond to the specific instructions on the issue

  o Consider the complexities of the issue

  o Organize, develop, and express your ideas

  o Support your position with relevant reasons and/or examples

  o Control the elements of standard written English

  Before you begin writing, you may want to think for a few minutes about the issue and the instructions and then plan your response.  Be sure to develop your position fully and organize it coherently, but leave time to reread what you have written and make any revisions you think are necessary.

  Sample Issue Topic:

  QUOTE, The best ideas arise from a passionate interest in commonplace things, END QUOTE

  Write an essay in which you take a position on the statement given. In developing and supporting your position, you should consider ways in which the statement might or might not hold true.

  Sample Argument Topic Directions

  You will be given a short passage that presents an argument, or an argument to be completed, and specific instructions on how to respond to that passage.  Plan and compose a response in which you analyze the passage according to the specific instructions.  A response to any other argument will receive a score of zero. Standard timing for an argument topic is 30 minutes.

  Note that you are NOT being asked to present your own views on the subject.  Make sure that you respond to the specific instructions and support your analysis with relevant reasons and/or examples.

  GRE readers, who are college and university faculty, will read your analysis and evaluate its overall quality according to how well you do each of the following:

  o Respond to the specific instructions on the passage

  o Identify and analyze important features of the passage

  o Organize, develop, and express your analysis

  o Support your analysis with relevant reasons and/or examples

  o Control the elements of standard written English

  Before you begin writing, you may want to think for a few minutes about

  the passage and the instructions and then plan your response.  Be sure to develop your analysis fully and organize it coherently, but leave time

  to reread what you have written and make any revisions you think are necessary.

  Sample Argument Topic:

  The argument to be analyzed is as follows:

  Hospital statistics regarding people who go to the emergency room after roller-skating accidents indicate the need for more protective equipment. Within that group of people, 75 percent of those who had accidents in streets or parking lots had not been wearing any protective clothing (helmets, knee pads, etc.) or any light-reflecting material (clip-on lights, glow-in-the-dark wrist pads, etc.). Clearly, the statistics indicate that by investing in high-quality protective gear and reflective equipment, roller skaters will greatly reduce their risk of being severely injured in an accident.

  [end topic statement]

  Write a response in which you examine the argument's unstated assumptions, making sure to explain how the argument depends on the assumptions and what the implications are if the assumptions prove unwarranted.

  Sample Quantitative Reasoning Questions

  There are 25 Questions.

  An answer key will follow the questions.

  Important: The Quantitative Reasoning sample questions in this document are intended to be used with a figure supplement. A large-print (18 point) figure supplement will be available on the website where you obtained this script. A tactile (braille) figure supplement can be ordered free of charge from the ETS Disabilities Services Office, phone: 1-866-387-8602 in the United States, U.S. Territories, and Canada; 1-609-771-7780 all other locations. E-mail stassd@ets.org.

  Directions for questions 1 through 10

  Each of the following questions asks you to compare two quantities, Quantity A and Quantity B, and determine whether:

  Quantity A is greater;

  Quantity B is greater;

  The two quantities are equal; or

  The relationship cannot be determined from the information given.

  A question may have additional information given that concerns one or both of the quantities to be compared.

  A symbol that is used more than once in a question has the same meaning every time it is used in the question.

  Question 1

  Refer to the figure supplement

  The figure shows two right triangles.  One of the triangles has a leg of length 4 and a leg of length x, and a hypotenuse of length  8.  The other triangle has two legs, each of which is of length 4, and a hypotenuse of length y.

  Quantity A:  x.

  Quantity B:  y.

  Answer choice A - Quantity A is greater.

  Answer choice B - Quantity B is greater.

  Answer choice C - the two quantities are equal.

  Answer choice D - the relationship cannot be determined from the information given.

  From the answer choices given, select and indicate the one that describes the relationship between quantity A and quantity B.

  Question 2

  It is given that open parenthesis, x minus 2y, close parenthesis, times open parenthesis, x plus 2y, close parenthesis, is equal to 4.

  Quantity A:  x  squared minus, open parenthesis, 4 times the quantity y squared, close parenthesis

  Quantity B:  8

  Answer choice A - Quantity A is greater.

  Answer choice B - Quantity B is greater.

  Answer choice C - the two quantities are equal.

  Answer choice D - the relationship cannot be determined from the information given.

  From the answer choices given, select and indicate the one that describes the relationship between quantity A and quantity B.

  Question 3

  A certain recipe requires three-halves cups of sugar and makes two dozen cookies. Parenthetical note: One dozen equals 12.

  Quantity A: The amount of sugar required for the same recipe to make 30 cookies.

  Quantity B: 2 cups

  Answer choice A - Quantity A is greater.

  Answer choice B - Quantity B is greater.

  Answer choice C - the two quantities are equal.

  Answer choice D - the relationship cannot be determined from the information given.

  From the answer choices given, select and indicate the one that describes the relationship between quantity A and quantity B.

  Question 4

  It is given that a power station is located on the boundary of a square region that measures 10 miles on each side.  Three substations are located inside the square region.

  Quantity A: The sum of the distances from the power station to each of the substations

  Quantity B: 30 miles

  Answer choice A - Quantity A is greater.

  Answer choice B - Quantity B is greater.

  Answer choice C - the two quantities are equal.

  Answer choice D - the relationship cannot be determined from the information given.

  From the answer choices given, select and indicate the one that describes the relationship between quantity A and quantity B.

  Question 5

  It is given that 6 is less than x, which is less than 7. It is also given that y equals 8.

  Quantity A: the fraction x over y

  Quantity B: zero point eight five

  Answer choice A - Quantity A is greater.

  Answer choice B - Quantity B is greater.

  Answer choice C - the two quantities are equal.

  Answer choice D - the relationship cannot be determined from the information given.

  From the answer choices given, select and indicate the one that describes the relationship between quantity A and quantity B.

  Question 6

  Refer to the figure supplement

  The figure accompanying this question consists of a circle and triangle AOB, where O is the center of the circle and A and B are points that lie on the circle. In the triangle the measure of angle AOB is 60 degrees.

  In addition, it is given that the perimeter of triangle AOB is 6.

  Quantity A: The circumference of the circle

  Quantity B: 12

  Answer choice A - Quantity A is greater.

  Answer choice B - Quantity B is greater.

  Answer choice C - the two quantities are equal.

  Answer choice D - the relationship cannot be determined from the information given.

  From the answer choices given, select and indicate the one that describes the relationship between quantity A and quantity B.

  Question 7

  Quantity A: The standard deviation of a set of five different integers each of which is between zero and ten

  Quantity B: The standard deviation of a set of five different integers each of which is between ten and twenty

  Answer choice A - Quantity A is greater.

  Answer choice B - Quantity B is greater.

  Answer choice C - the two quantities are equal.

  Answer choice D - the relationship cannot be determined from the information given.

  From the answer choices given, select and indicate the one that describes the relationship between quantity A and quantity B.

  Question 8

  It is given that x is greater than 1.

  Quantity A:  x times, open parenthesis, x squared, close parenthesis, to the fourth power

  Quantity B: open parenthesis, x cubed, close parenthesis, to the third power

  Answer choice A - Quantity A is greater.

  Answer choice B - Quantity B is greater.

  Answer choice C - the two quantities are equal.

  Answer choice D - the relationship cannot be determined from the information given.

  From the answer choices given, select and indicate the one that describes the relationship between quantity A and quantity B.

  Question 9

  It is given that x is not equal to zero.

  Quantity A:  The absolute value of x, plus the absolute value of negative two

  Quantity B:  The absolute value of the quantity x minus two

  Answer choice A - Quantity A is greater.

  Answer choice B - Quantity B is greater.

  Answer choice C - the two quantities are equal.

  Answer choice D - the relationship cannot be determined from the information given.

  From the answer choices given, select and indicate the one that describes the relationship between quantity A and quantity B.

  Question 10

  It is given that 7x plus 3y is equal to 12, and (pause) 3x plus 7y is equal to 8

  Quantity A: x minus y

  Quantity B: 1

  Answer choice A - Quantity A is greater.

  Answer choice B - Quantity B is greater.

  Answer choice C - the two quantities are equal.

  Answer choice D - the relationship cannot be determined from the information given.

  From the answer choices given, select and indicate the one that describes the relationship between quantity A and quantity B.

  Question 11 has five answer choices, labeled A through E.  Select all of the  answer choices that are correct. The correct answer to a question of this type could consist of one, two, three, four, or all five of the answer choices.

  Question 11

  In triangle ABC, the measure of angle A is 25 degrees and the measure of angle B is greater than 90 degrees.  Which of the following could be the measure of angle C ?

  Indicate all possible values.

  A. 12 degrees

  B. 15 degrees

  C. 45 degrees

  D. 50 degrees

  E.  70 degrees

  Select and indicate all of the answer choices that are correct. The correct answer to a question of this type could consist of one, two, three, four, or all five of the answer choices.

  Question 12. In this question, you are given information, five answer choices, and a statement with two blanks. Select from among the five answer choices to "fill in the blanks" in the statement so that the resulting statement is true.

  A correct answer to this type of question must have a different answer choice in each of the two blanks. A question of this type can have more than one correct answer.  If a question of this type has more than one correct answer, you are required to give only one of the correct answers.

  Question 12

  Refer to the figure supplement

  The table accompanying this question shows the distribution of prices of 45 houses for sale in a certain region. The table consists of two columns.  The first column is labeled: "House Prices " and the second column is labeled "Number of Houses".

  You will be asked to fill in the following statement: If the highest price of the 45 houses is, BLANK ONE, then the range of the prices of the 45 houses is, BLANK TWO.

  The information in the table is as follows:

  For house prices from one-hundred thousand dollars to one-hundred-thirty-three thousand dollars, the number of houses is 12.

  For house prices from one-hundred-thirty-four thousand dollars to one-hundred-sixty-six thousand dollars, the number of houses is 25.

  For house prices from one-hundred-sixty-seven thousand dollars to one-hundred-ninety-nine thousand dollars, the number of houses is 8.

  Select two of the following answer choices and place them in the blanks so that the

  resulting statement is true.

  Answer choice A: one-hundred-seventy-five thousand dollars

  Answer choice B:  one-hundred-eighty-five thousand dollars

  Answer choice C:  one-hundred-ninety thousand dollars

  Answer choice D:   at most forty-two thousand dollars

  Answer Choice E:    at least fifty-seven thousand dollars

  Again, the statement to be filled in is: If the highest price of the 45 houses is, BLANK ONE,  then the range of the prices of the 45 houses is, BLANK TWO.

  Choose one answer choice to place in BLANK one and a different answer choice to place in BLANK 2 so that the blanks in the statement have been filled in and the resulting statement is true.

  Question 13 has five answer choices, labeled A through E.  Select the best one of the answer choices given.

  Question 13

  In the sunshine, the upright pole 12 feet tall is casting a shadow 8 feet long. At the same time, a nearby upright pole is casting a shadow 10 feet long. If the lengths of the shadows are proportional to the heights of the poles, what is the height, in feet, of the taller pole?

  A. 10

  B. 12

  C. 14

  D. 15

  E. 18

  Select and indicate the best one of the answer choices given.

  Question 14 has five answer choices, labeled A through E.  Select the best one of the answer choices given.

  Question 14

  If a is the smallest prime number greater than 21 and b is the largest prime number less than 16, then a times b is equal to

  A.   two hundred ninety nine

  B.   three hundred twenty three

  C.   three hundred thirty

  D.   three hundred forty five

  E.   three hundred fifty one

  Select and indicate the best one of the answer choices given.

  Question 15 does not have any answer choices. To answer this question enter an integer or a decimal in the answer space provided. A correct answer to a question of this type can be either an integer or a decimal, and can be positive, negative, or zero. A correct answer to this type of question can contain from one to eight digits, and can contain a negative sign and/or a decimal point.

  Question 15

  The total amount of Judy's water bill for the last quarter of the year was forty dollars and fifty cents.  The bill consisted of a fixed charge of thirteen dollars and fifty cents plus a charge of  zero point zero zero seven five dollar per gallon for the water used in the quarter.  For how many gallons of water was Judy charged for the quarter?

  The answer space is followed by the word "gallons".

  To answer this question enter an integer or a decimal in the answer space provided.  A correct answer to a question of this type can be either an integer or a decimal, and can be positive, negative, or zero. A correct answer to this type of question contains from one to eight digits, and may contain a negative sign and/or a decimal point.

  Question 16 has five answer choices, labeled A through E.  Select the best one of the answer choices given.

  Question 16

  It is given that Data Sets S and R are as follows:

  Data set  S:  28, 23, 30, 25, 27

  Data set R:   22, 19, 15, 17, 20

  The median of data set S is how much greater than the median of data set R ?

  A.    8

  B.  10

  C.  12

  D.  13

  E.  15

  Select and indicate the best one of the answer choices given.

  Questions 17 through 21 refer to the following graph.

  Refer to the figure supplement

  The graph shown is a bar graph.  The title of the graph is CORPORATE SUPPORT FOR THE ARTS BY SECTOR IN 1988 AND 1991.  Under the title are two statements: "Total for 1988 is six-hundred-thirty million dollars" and "Total for 1991 is five-hundred-twenty million dollars."

  There are six sectors listed along the horizontal axis of the graph. Horizontal gridlines are drawn at zero percent, 10 percent, 20 percent, 30 percent, and 40 percent.

  The bars in the graph are as follows:

  Financial Insurance, Real Estate sector in 1988, 5%; Financial Insurance, Real Estate sector in 1991, 26%.

  Services sector in 1988, 17%; Services Sector in 1991, 22%.

  Manufacturing sector in 1988, 31%; Manufacturing sector in 1991, 20%.

  Retail sector in 1988, 19%; Retail sector in 1991, 8%.

  Wholesale sector in 1988, 8%; Wholesale sector in 1991, 6%.

  Other sector in 1988, 20%; Other Sector in 1991, 18%.

  Questions 17 through 21 each have five answer choices, labeled A through E.  Select the best one of the answer choices given.

  Question 17

  The two corporate sectors that increased their support for the arts from 1988 to 1991

  made a total contribution in 1991 of approximately how many million dollars?

  A.  One hundred twelve

  B.  One hundred twenty five

  C.  Two hundred

  D.  Two hundred fifty

  E.  Three hundred fifteen

  Select and indicate the best one of the answer choices given. To review the graph description, search backwards for the phrase "refer to the figure supplement."

  Question 18

  How many of the six corporate sectors listed each contributed more than 60 million dollars

  to the arts in both 1988 and 1991 ?

  A.  One

  B.  Two

  C.  Three

  D.  Four

  E.  Five

  Select and indicate the best one of the answer choices given.

  Question 19

  Approximately how many million dollars more did the wholesale sector contribute to

  the arts in 1988 than in 1991 ?

  A. ten point four

  B. twelve point six

  C. fourteen point zero

  D. sixteen point five

  E. nineteen point two

  Select and indicate the best one of the answer choices given.

  Question 20

  From 1988 to 1991, which corporate sector decreased its support for the arts by the greatest dollar amount?

  A.  Services

  B.   Manufacturing

  C.  Retail

  D.  Wholesale

  E.  Other

  Select and indicate the best one of the answer choices given.

  Question 21

  Of the retail sector's 1991 contribution to the arts, one-fourth went to symphony orchestras

  and one-half of the remainder went to public television.  Approximately how many million

  dollars more did the retail sector contribute to public television that year than to symphony orchestras?

  A. five point two

  B. six point three

  C. ten point four

  D. thirteen point zero

  E. nineteen point five

  Select and indicate the best one of the answer choices given.

  Question 22. In this question you are given information and three equations.  For each of the equations you  are asked to determine whether the equation must be true, must be false, or could be either true or false.

  In this question, the symbol "star" denotes an operation on two numbers.

  Question 22

  It is given that the symbol star represents one of the four operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, and 3, star, one, equals 3.

  The first equation is 6, star, 2, equals 3.

  Answer choice A: the equation must be true,

  answer choice B: the equation must be false, and

  answer choice C: the equation could be either true or false.

  The second equation is 6, star, 2, equals 4.

  Answer choice A: the equation must be true,

  answer choice B: the equation must be false, and

  answer choice C: the equation could be either true or false.

  The third equation is 6, star, 2, equals 12.

  Answer choice A: the equation must be true,

  answer choice B: the equation must be false, and

  answer choice C: the equation could be either true or false.

  Choose one answer choice for each of the three equations.

  Question 23 does not have any answer choices. To answer this question enter an integer or a decimal in the answer space provided.  A correct answer to a question of this type can be either an integer or a decimal, and can be positive, negative, or zero. A correct answer to this type of question can contain from one to eight digits, and can contain a negative sign and/or a decimal point.

  Question 23

  The average (arithmetic mean) of the 11 numbers in a list is 14.  If the average of 9 of the numbers in the list is 9, what is the average of the other 2 numbers?

  To answer this question enter an integer or a decimal in the answer space provided.  A correct answer to a question of this type can be either an integer or a decimal, and can be positive, negative, or zero. A correct answer to this type of question contains from one to eight digits, and may contain a negative sign and/or a decimal point.

  Question 24 has five answer choices, labeled A through E.  Select the best one of the answer choices given.

  Question 24

  Of the seven-hundred-fifty participants in a professional meeting, four-hundred-fifty are females and one-half of the female and one-fourth of the male participants are less than thirty years old.  If one of the participants will be randomly selected to receive a book prize, what is the probability  that the person selected will be less than thirty years old?

  A.  one-eighth

  B.  one-third

  C.  three-eighths

  D.  two-fifths

  E.  three-fourths

  Select and indicate the best one of the answer choices given.

  Question 25 has five answer choices, labeled A through E.  Select the best one of the answer choices given.

  Question 25

  In the x y plane, what is the slope of the line whose equation is 3x minus 2y equals 8 ?

  A. negative 4

  B.  negative eight thirds

  C. two thirds

  D. three halves

  E. 2

  Select and indicate the best one of the answer choices given.

  End of questions. The Answer key follows.

  Answer Key: Sample Quantitative Reasoning Questions

  Question 1,  Answer A. Quantity A is greater.

  Question 2,  Answer B. Quantity B is greater.

  3,  B. Quantity B is greater.

  4,  D. The relationship cannot be determined from the information given.

  5,  D. The relationship cannot be determined from the information given.

  6,  A. Quantity A is greater.

  7,  D. The relationship cannot be determined from the information given.

  8,  C. The two quantities are equal.

  9,  D. The relationship cannot be determined from the information given.

  10,  C. The two quantities are equal.

  The answer to question 11 consists of four of the answer choices.  Answer choice A: 12 degrees, answer choice B: 15 degrees,  answer choice C: 45 degrees, and answer choice D: 50 degrees.

  In question 12 you were asked to fill in two blanks so that the resulting statement is true. The answer to question 12 is answer choice C: one-hundred-ninety-thousand dollars is placed in blank one and answer choice E: at least fifty-seven-thousand dollars is placed in blank 2.  The resulting true statement is: If the highest price of the 45 houses is one-hundred-ninety-thousand dollars   then the range of the prices of the 45 houses is at least fifty-seven-thousand dollars.

  Question 13,  Answer D: 15.

  Question 14,  Answer A: two-hundred-ninety-nine.

  In question 15 you were asked to enter either an integer or a decimal number. The answer to question 15 is three-thousand six-hundred.

  Question 16,  Answer A:  8.

  Question 17,  Answer D: two hundred fifty.

  Question 18,  Answer C: Three

  Question 19,  Answer E: nineteen point two.

  Question 20,  Answer B: Manufacturing.

  Question 21,  Answer A: five point two.

  In question 22 you were asked to determine whether each of three equations Must be True,  Must Be False,  or Could be True or False. The answer to question 22 is:

  For the first equation 6, star, 2, equals 3, answer C: the equation could be either true or false.

  For the  second equation 6, star, 2, equals 4,  answer B: the equation must be false.

  For the third equation 6, star, 2, equals 12, answer C: the equation could be either true or false.

  In question 23 you were asked to enter either an integer or a decimal. The answer to question 23 is thirty six point five.

  Question 24,  Answer D: two-fifths.

  Question 25,  Answer D: three-halves.

  Sample Verbal Reasoning Questions

  There are 28 questions.

  An answer key will follow the questions.

  You may prefer to skip some sections of this script, such as those that provide possible answers in context for questions that involve filling in blanks. These sections will be identified at their beginning by the phrase "Begin skippable content," and at their end by the phrase "End skippable content."

  Directions for Questions 1 through 5:

  Each of the following questions includes a sentence with a blank indicating that something has been omitted. Following the sentence will be a list of six words or phrases, each of which could be used to complete the sentence. Select the two answer choices that, when used to complete the sentence, fit the meaning of the sentence as a whole and produce complete sentences that are alike in meaning.

  Question 1.

  It is truly paradoxical that the Amazon, the lushest of all rainforests, is rooted in the most BLANK of all soils.

  Now consider the six answer choices, labeled A through F.

  A. acidic

  B. coarse

  C. stark

  D. impoverished

  E. infertile

  F. austere

  Indicate your two answer choices or go on to consider them in context.

  Begin skippable content

  Answer Choices in Context:

  A. . acidic: It is truly paradoxical that the Amazon, the lushest of all rainforests, is rooted in the most acidic of all soils.

  B.  . coarse: It is truly paradoxical that the Amazon, the lushest of all rainforests, is rooted in the most coarse of all soils.

  C.  . stark: It is truly paradoxical that the Amazon, the lushest of all rainforests, is rooted in the most stark of all soils.

  D. . impoverished: It is truly paradoxical that the Amazon, the lushest of all rainforests, is rooted in the most impoverished of all soils.

  E…… infertile: It is truly paradoxical that the Amazon, the lushest of all rainforests, is rooted in the most infertile of all soils.

  F.  . austere: It is truly paradoxical that the Amazon, the lushest of all rainforests, is rooted in the most austere of all soils.

  End skippable content

  Question 2.

  Cynics believe that people who BLANK compliments do so in order to be praised twice.

  Now consider the six answer choices, labeled A through F.

  A. conjure up

  B. covet

  C. deflect

  D. grasp

  E. shrug off

  F. understand

  Indicate your two answer choices or go on to consider them in context.

  Begin skippable content

  Answer Choices in Context:

  A. conjure up: Cynics believe that people who conjure up compliments do so in order to be praised twice.

  B. covet: Cynics believe that people who covet compliments do so in order to be praised twice.

  C. deflect: Cynics believe that people who deflect compliments do so in order to be praised twice.

  D. grasp: Cynics believe that people who grasp compliments do so in order to be praised twice.

  E. shrug off: Cynics believe that people who shrug off compliments do so in order to be praised twice.

  F understand: Cynics believe that people who understand compliments do so in order to be praised twice.

  End skippable content

  Indicate your two answer choices.

  Question 3.

  A restaurant's menu is generally reflected in its decor; however despite this restaurant's BLANK appearance it is pedestrian in the menu it offers.

  Now consider the six answer choices, labeled A through F.

  A. elegant

  B. tawdry

  C. modern

  D. traditional

  E. conventional

  F. chic

  Indicate your two answer choices or go on to consider them in context.

  Begin skippable content

  Answer Choices in Context:

  A. elegant: A restaurant's menu is generally reflected in its decor; however despite this restaurant's elegant appearance it is pedestrian in the menu it offers.

  B. tawdry: A restaurant's menu is generally reflected in its decor; however despite this restaurant's tawdry appearance it is pedestrian in the menu it offers.

  C. modern: A restaurant's menu is generally reflected in its decor; however despite this restaurant's modern appearance it is pedestrian in the menu it offers.

  D. traditional: A restaurant's menu is generally reflected in its decor; however despite this restaurant's traditional appearance it is pedestrian in the menu it offers.

  E. conventional: A restaurant's menu is generally reflected in its decor; however despite this restaurant's conventional appearance it is pedestrian in the menu it offers.

  F. chic: A restaurant's menu is generally reflected in its decor; however despite this restaurant's chic appearance it is pedestrian in the menu it offers.

  End skippable content

  Indicate your two answer choices.

  Question 4.

  International financial issues are typically BLANK by the United States media because they are too technical to make snappy headlines and too inaccessible to people who lack a background in economics.

  Now consider the six answer choices, labeled A through F.

  A. neglected

  B. slighted

  C. overrated

  D. hidden

  E. criticized

  F. repudiated

  Indicate your two answer choices or go on to consider them in context.

  Begin skippable content

  Answer Choices in Context:

  A. neglected:  International financial issues are typically neglected by the United States media because they are too technical to make snappy headlines and too inaccessible to people who lack a background in economics.

  B. slighted: International financial issues are typically slighted by the United States media because they are too technical to make snappy headlines and too inaccessible to people who lack a background in economics.

  C. overrated: International financial issues are typically overrated by the United States media because they are too technical to make snappy headlines and too inaccessible to people who lack a background in economics.

  D. hidden: International financial issues are typically hidden by the United States media because they are too technical to make snappy headlines and too inaccessible to people who lack a background in economics.

  E. criticized: International financial issues are typically criticized by the United States media because they are too technical to make snappy headlines and too inaccessible to people who lack a background in economics.

  F. repudiated: International financial issues are typically repudiated by the United States media because they are too technical to make snappy headlines and too inaccessible to people who lack a background in economics.

  End skippable content

  Indicate your two answer choices.

  Question 5.

  While in many ways their personalities could not have been more different-she was ebullient where he was glum, relaxed where he was awkward, garrulous where he was BLANK-they were surprisingly well suited.

  Now consider the six answer choices, labeled A through F.

  A. solicitous

  B. munificent

  C. irresolute

  D. laconic

  E. fastidious

  F. taciturn

  Indicate your two answer choices or go on to consider them in context.

  Begin skippable content

  Answer Choices in Context:

  A. solicitous: While in many ways their personalities could not have been more different-she was ebullient where he was glum, relaxed where he was awkward, garrulous where he was solicitous-they were surprisingly well suited.

  B. munificent: While in many ways their personalities could not have been more different-she was ebullient where he was glum, relaxed where he was awkward, garrulous where he was munificent-they were surprisingly well suited.

  C. irresolute: While in many ways their personalities could not have been more different  -she was ebullient where he was glum, relaxed where he was awkward, garrulous where he was irresolute-they were surprisingly well suited.

  D. ebullient: While in many ways their personalities could not have been more different-she was ebullient where he was glum, relaxed where he was awkward, garrulous where he was laconic-they were surprisingly well suited.

  E. fastidious: While in many ways their personalities could not have been more different-she was ebullient where he was glum, relaxed where he was awkward, garrulous where he was fastidious-they were surprisingly well suited.

  F. taciturn: While in many ways their personalities could not have been more different-she was ebullient where he was glum, relaxed where he was awkward, garrulous where he was taciturn-they were surprisingly well suited.

  End skippable content

  Indicate your two answer choices.

  Questions 6 through 8 are based on the following reading passage, which consists of two paragraphs.

  . Music critics have consistently defined James P. Johnson as a great early jazz pianist, originator of the 1920's Harlem "stride" style, and an important blues and jazz composer.  In addition, however, Johnson was an innovator in classical music, composing symphonic music that incorporated American, and especially African-American, traditions.

  Such a blend of musical elements was not entirely new: by 1924 both Milhaud and Gershwin had composed classical works that  incorporated elements of jazz.  Johnson, a serious musician more experienced than most classical composers with jazz, blues, spirituals, and popular music, was particularly suited to expand Milhaud's and Gershwin's experiments.  In 1927 he completed his first large-scale work, the blues- and jazz-inspired Yamekraw, which included borrowings from spirituals and Johnson's own popular songs.  Yamekraw, premiered successfully in Carnegie Hall, was a major achievement for Johnson, becoming his most frequently performed extended work.  It demonstrated vividly the possibility of assimilating contemporary popular music into the symphonic tradition.

  Question 6.

  This question has five answer choices, labeled A through E. Select and indicate the best answer from among these choices.

  The passage states that Johnson composed all of the following EXCEPT

  A. . jazz works

  B. . popular songs

  C. . symphonic music

  D. . spirituals

  E. . blues pieces

  Select and indicate one answer choice from among the choices provided.

  Question 7.

  This question has three answer choices, labeled A through C. Consider each of the three choices separately and select all that apply. The credited response may be one, two, or all three of the choices.

  The author suggests which of the following about most classical composers of the early 1920's?

  A. . They were strongly influenced by the musical experiments of Milhaud and Gershwin.

  B. . They had little working familiarity with such forms of American music as jazz, blues, and popular songs

  C. . They made few attempts to introduce innovations into the classical symphonic tradition

  Indicate your answer choice or choices.

  Question 8.

  This question has five answer choices, labeled A through E. Select and indicate the best answer from among these choices.

  The author suggests that most critics have

  A. . underrated the popularity of Yamekraw

  B. . undervalued Johnson's musical abilities

  C. . had little interest in Johnson's influence on jazz

  D. . had little regard for classical works that incorporate popular music

  E. . neglected Johnson's contribution to classical symphonic music

  Select and indicate one answer choice from among the choices provided.

  Questions 9 and 10 are based on the following reading passage.

  . Scholarship on political newspapers and their editors is dominated by the view that as the United States grew, the increasing influence of the press led, ultimately, to the neutral reporting from which we benefit today.  Pasley considers this view oversimplified, because neutrality was not a goal of early national newspaper editing, even when editors disingenuously stated that they aimed to tell all sides of a story. Rather, the intensely partisan ideologies represented in newspapers of the early republic led to a clear demarcation between traditional and republican values.  The editors responsible for the papers' content-especially those with republican agendas-began to see themselves as central figures in the development of political consciousness in the United States.

  Question 9.

  This question has three answer choices, labeled A through C. Consider each of the three choices separately and select all that apply. The credited response may be one, two, or all three of the choices.

  The passage suggests that Pasley would agree with which of the following statements about the political role of newspapers?

  A. . Newspapers today are in many cases much less neutral in their political reporting than is commonly held by scholars.

  B. . Newspapers in the early United States normally declared quite openly their refusal to tell all sides of most political stories.

  C. . The editorial policies of some early United States newspapers became a counterweight to proponents of traditional values.

  Indicate your answer choice or choices.

  Question 10.

  This question has five answer choices, labeled A through E. Select and indicate the best answer from among these choices.

  The word "disingenuously" appears in the second sentence of the passage. That sentence reads, "Pasley considers this view oversimplified, because neutrality was not a goal of early national newspaper editing, even when editors disingenuously stated that they aimed to tell all sides of a story." In the context in which it appears, "disingenuously" most nearly means:

  A. . insincerely

  B. . guilelessly

  C. . obliquely

  D. . resolutely

  E. . pertinaciously

  Indicate your answer choice.

  Directions for questions 11 and 12:

  Each of the following questions includes a short text with two or three blanks, each blank indicating that something has been omitted. You will be asked to select the word or phrase that best fits the corresponding blank in the text.  Fill all of the blanks in the way that best completes the text.

  For each question, first will come the text with the word "BLANK" in place of the omitted material. Next will come the text again, but in place of each blank, there will be three lettered options for completing that blank. Each option consists of a word or phrase. For questions containing two blanks, following the list of answer choices are nine readings of the text, one for each answer choice combination. Each reading consists of two option letters, the two words or phrases being combined, and the text with the combination of the words or phrases inserted into the blanks. The nine readings are marked as skippable content.

  For questions containing three blanks, the choices will not be read in context because it has been determined that replaying the question for all possible combinations of answer choices is not a useful way to present these questions.

  Question 11.

  This question has two blanks.

  The BLANK nature of classical tragedy in Athens belies the modern image of tragedy:  in the modern view tragedy is austere and stripped down, its representations of ideological and emotional conflicts so superbly compressed that there's nothing BLANK for time to erode.

  Now consider the text with the three options inserted in place of each blank.

  The (a. unadorned; b. harmonious; c. multifaceted) nature of classical tragedy in Athens belies the modern image of tragedy:  in the modern view tragedy is austere and stripped down, its representations of ideological and emotional conflicts so superbly compressed that there's nothing (d. inalienable; e. exigent; f. extraneous) for time to erode.

  Indicate your two answer choices or go on to consider them in context. Fill all the blanks in the way that best completes the text.

  Begin skippable content

  Answer Choices in Context:

  A, D. unadorned, inalienable: The unadorned nature of classical tragedy in Athens belies the modern image of tragedy:  in the modern view tragedy is austere and stripped down, its representations of ideological and emotional conflicts so superbly compressed that there's nothing inalienable for time to erode.

  A, E. unadorned, exigent: The unadorned nature of classical tragedy in Athens belies the modern image of tragedy:  in the modern view tragedy is austere and stripped down, its representations of ideological and emotional conflicts so superbly compressed that there's nothing exigent for time to erode.

  A, F. unadorned, extraneous: The unadorned nature of classical tragedy in Athens belies the modern image of tragedy:  in the modern view tragedy is austere and stripped down, its representations of ideological and emotional conflicts so superbly compressed that there's nothing extraneous for time to erode.

  B, D. harmonious, inalienable: The harmonious nature of classical tragedy in Athens belies the modern image of tragedy:  in the modern view tragedy is austere and stripped down, its representations of ideological and emotional conflicts so superbly compressed that there's nothing inalienable for time to erode.

  B, E. harmonious, exigent: The harmonious nature of classical tragedy in Athens belies the modern image of tragedy:  in the modern view tragedy is austere and stripped down, its representations of ideological and emotional conflicts so superbly compressed that there's nothing exigent for time to erode.

  B, F. harmonious, extraneous: The harmonious nature of classical tragedy in Athens belies the modern image of tragedy:  in the modern view tragedy is austere and stripped down, its representations of ideological and emotional conflicts so superbly compressed that there's nothing extraneous for time to erode.

  C, D. multifaceted, inalienable: The multifaceted nature of classical tragedy in Athens belies the modern image of tragedy:  in the modern view tragedy is austere and stripped down, its representations of ideological and emotional conflicts so superbly compressed that there's nothing inalienable for time to erode.

  C, E. multifaceted, exigent: The multifaceted nature of classical tragedy in Athens belies the modern image of tragedy:  in the modern view tragedy is austere and stripped down, its representations of ideological and emotional conflicts so superbly compressed that there's nothing exigent for time to erode.

  C, F. multifaceted, extraneous: The multifaceted nature of classical tragedy in Athens belies the modern image of tragedy:  in the modern view tragedy is austere and stripped down, its representations of ideological and emotional conflicts so superbly compressed that there's nothing extraneous for time to erode.

  End skippable content

  Indicate your two answer choices. Fill all blanks in the way that best completes the text.

  Question 12.

  This question has three blanks.

  Murray, whose show of recent paintings and drawings is her best in many years, has been eminent hereabouts for a quarter century, although often regarded with BLANK, but the most BLANK of these paintings BLANK all doubts.

  Now consider the text with the three options inserted in place of each blank.

  Murray, whose show of recent paintings and drawings is her best in many years, has been eminent hereabouts for a quarter century, although often regarded with (a. partiality; b. credulity; c. ambivalence) but the most (d. problematic; e. successful; f. disparaged) of these paintings (g. exculpate; h. assuage; i. whet) all doubts.

  Indicate your three answer choices. Fill all blanks in the way that best competes the text.

  Directions for questions 13 through 16:

  Each of the following questions includes a short text with a blank, indicating that something has been omitted. Select the word or phrase that best fits the corresponding blank in the text.

  For each question, first will be the text with the word "BLANK" indicating that a word or phrase is omitted. There are five answer choices, each consisting of a word or phrase, for filling in the blank.  Next will be the five lettered options for filling in the blank. You may then go on to the options in context, or skip that material (labeled as skippable content) and select your answer.

  Question 13.

  Far from viewing Jefferson as a skeptical but enlightened intellectual, historians of the 1960's portrayed him as BLANK thinker, eager to fill the young with his political orthodoxy while censoring ideas he did not like.

  A. an adventurous

  B. a doctrinaire

  C. an eclectic

  D. a judicious

  E. a cynical

  Begin skippable content

  Answer Choices in Context:

  A. an adventurous: Far from viewing Jefferson as a skeptical but enlightened intellectual, historians of the 1960's portrayed him as an adventurous thinker, eager to fill the young with his political orthodoxy while censoring ideas he did not like.

  B. a doctrinaire: Far from viewing Jefferson as a skeptical but enlightened intellectual, historians of the 1960's portrayed him as a doctrinaire thinker, eager to fill the young with his political orthodoxy while censoring ideas he did not like.

  C. an eclectic: Far from viewing Jefferson as a skeptical but enlightened intellectual, historians of the 1960's portrayed him as an eclectic thinker, eager to fill the young with his political orthodoxy while censoring ideas he did not like.

  D. a judicious: Far from viewing Jefferson as a skeptical but enlightened intellectual, historians of the 1960's portrayed him as a judicious thinker, eager to fill the young with his political orthodoxy while censoring ideas he did not like.

  E. a cynical: Far from viewing Jefferson as a skeptical but enlightened intellectual, historians of the 1960's portrayed him as a cynical thinker, eager to fill the young with his political orthodoxy while censoring ideas he did not like.

  End skippable content

  Indicate one answer choice.

  Question 14.

  Dramatic literature often BLANK the history of a culture in that it takes as its subject matter the important events that have shaped and guided the culture.

  A. confounds

  B. repudiates

  C. recapitulates

  D. anticipates

  E. polarizes

  Begin skippable content

  Answer Choices in Context:

  A. confounds: Dramatic literature often confounds the history of a culture in that it takes as its subject matter the important events that have shaped and guided the culture.

  B. repudiates: Dramatic literature often repudiates the history of a culture in that it takes as its subject matter the important events that have shaped and guided the culture.

  C. recapitulates: Dramatic literature often recapitulates the history of a culture in that it takes as its subject matter the important events that have shaped and guided the culture.

  D. anticipates: Dramatic literature often anticipates the history of a culture in that it takes as its subject matter the important events that have shaped and guided the culture.

  E. polarizes: Dramatic literature often polarizes the history of a culture in that it takes as its subject matter the important events that have shaped and guided the culture.

  End skippable content

  Indicate one answer choice.

  Question 15.

  Although the movement to preserve historic buildings is not usually thought of as BLANK phenomenon, it deserves mention in the history of ideas because it launched the critique of the ideology of progress.

  A…… an economic

  B…… an intellectual

  C…… an inconsequential

  D…… a comprehensible

  E…… a philanthropic

  Begin skippable content

  Answer Choices in Context:

  A…… an economic.   Although the movement to preserve historic buildings is not usually thought of as an economic phenomenon, it deserves mention in the history of ideas because it launched the critique of the ideology of progress.

  B…… an intellectual.  Although the movement to preserve historic buildings is not usually thought of as an intellectual phenomenon, it deserves mention in the history of ideas because it launched the critique of the ideology of progress.

  C…… an inconsequential.  Although the movement to preserve historic buildings is not usually thought of as an inconsequential phenomenon, it deserves mention in the history of ideas because it launched the critique of the ideology of progress.

  D…… a comprehensible.  Although the movement to preserve historic buildings is not usually thought of as a comprehensible phenomenon, it deserves mention in the history of ideas because it launched the critique of the ideology of progress.

  E…… a philanthropic.  Although the movement to preserve historic buildings is not usually thought of as a philanthropic phenomenon, it deserves mention in the history of ideas because it launched the critique of the ideology of progress.

  End skippable content

  Indicate one answer choice.

  Question 16.

  Personal sacrifice without the promise of immediate gain is an anomaly in this era when a sense of BLANK  is the most powerful predisposition shaping individual actions.

  A…… fairness

  B. . humanitarianism

  C…… causality

  D…… ambiguity

  E…… entitlement

  Begin skippable content

  Answer Choices in Context:

  A…… fairness.  Personal sacrifice without the promise of immediate gain is an anomaly in this era when a sense of fairness is the most powerful predisposition shaping individual actions.

  B. . humanitarianism.  Personal sacrifice without the promise of immediate gain is an anomaly in this era when a sense of humanitarianism is the most powerful predisposition shaping individual actions.

  C…… causality.  Personal sacrifice without the promise of immediate gain is an anomaly in this era when a sense of causality is the most powerful predisposition shaping individual actions.

  D…… ambiguity. Personal sacrifice without the promise of immediate gain is an anomaly in this era when a sense of ambiguity is the most powerful predisposition shaping individual actions.

  E…… entitlement. Personal sacrifice without the promise of immediate gain is an anomaly in this era when a sense of entitlement is the most powerful predisposition shaping individual actions.

  End skippable content

  Indicate one answer choice.

  Questions 17 through 19 are based on the following reading passage. Some of the questions based on this passage refer to specific sentences in the passage. The passage contains five sentences.

  In Raisin in the Sun, Lorraine Hansberry does not reject integration or the economic and moral promise of the American dream; rather, she remains loyal to this dream while looking, realistically, at its incomplete realization. Once we recognize this dual vision, we can accept the play's ironic nuances as deliberate social commentaries by Hansberry rather than as the "unintentional" irony that Bigsby attributes to the work. Indeed, a curiously persistent refusal to credit Hansberry with a capacity for intentional irony has led some critics to interpret the play's thematic conflicts as mere confusion, contradiction, or eclecticism. Isaacs, for example, cannot easily reconcile Hansberry's intense concern for her race with her ideal of human reconciliation. But the play's complex view of Black self-esteem and human solidarity as compatible is no more "contradictory" than Du Bois's famous, well-considered ideal of ethnic self-awareness coexisting with human unity, or Fanon's emphasis on an ideal internationalism that also accommodates national identities and roles.

  Question 17 .

  This question has five answer choices, labeled A through E. Select and indicate the best answer from among these choices.

  The author's primary purpose in the passage is to

  A……  . explain some critics' refusal to consider Raisin in the Sun a deliberately ironic play

  B……  . suggest that ironic nuances ally Raisin in the Sun with Du Bois's and Fanon's writings

  C……  . analyze the fundamental dramatic conflicts in Raisin in the Sun

  D……  . emphasize the inclusion of contradictory elements in Raisin in the Sun

  E……  . affirm the thematic coherence underlying Raisin in the Sun

  Select and indicate one answer choice from among the choices provided.

  Question 18.

  This question has five answer choices, labeled A through E. Select and indicate the best answer from among these choices.

  This question refers to the third sentence of the passage, which reads as follows: Indeed, a curiously persistent refusal to credit Hansberry with a capacity for intentional irony has led some critics to interpret the play's thematic conflicts as mere confusion, contradiction, or eclecticism.

  The author of the passage would probably consider which of the following judgments to be most similar to the reasoning of the critics described in the third sentence?

  A……  . The world is certainly flat; therefore, the person proposing to sail around it is unquestionably foolhardy.

  B……  . Radioactivity cannot be directly perceived; therefore, a scientist could not possibly control it in a laboratory.

  C……  . The painter of this picture could not intend it to be funny; therefore, its humor must result from a lack of skill.

  D……  . Traditional social mores are beneficial to culture; therefore, anyone who deviates from them acts destructively.

  E……  . Filmmakers who produce documentaries deal exclusively with facts; therefore, a filmmaker who reinterprets particular events is misleading us.

  Select and indicate one answer choice from among the choices provided.

  Question 19.

  Select and indicate a sentence in the passage in which the author provides examples that reinforce an argument against a critical response cited earlier in the passage.

  Question 20 has five answer choices, labeled A through E, and is based on the following text.

  As an example of the devastation wrought on music publishers by the photocopier, one executive noted that for a recent choral festival with 1,200 singers, the festival's organizing committee purchased only 12 copies of the music published by her company that was performed as part of the festival.

  Question 20.

  Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the support the example lends to the executive's contention that music publishers have been devastated by the photocopier?

  A……  Only a third of the 1,200 singers were involved in performing the music published by the executive's company.

  B……  Half of the singers at the festival had already heard the music they were to perform before they began to practice for the festival.

  C……  Because of shortages in funding, the organizing committee of the choral festival required singers to purchase their own copies of the music performed at the festival.

  D……  Each copy of music that was performed at the festival was shared by two singers.

  E. As a result of publicity generated by its performance at the festival, the type of music performed at the festival became more widely known.

  Select and indicate one answer choice from among the choices provided.

  Directions for questions 21 through 23:

  Each of the following questions includes a short text with two or three blanks, each blank indicating that something has been omitted. You will be asked to select the word or phrase that best fits the corresponding blank in the text.  Fill all of the blanks in the way that best completes the text.

  Question 21.

  This question has two blanks.

  New technologies often begin by BLANK what has gone before, and they change the world later.  Think how long it took power-using companies to recognize that with electricity they did not need to cluster their machinery around the power source, as in the days of steam.  Instead, power could be BLANK their processes.  In that sense, many of today's computer networks are still in the steam age.  Their full potential remains unrealized.

  Now consider the text with the three options inserted in place of each blank.

  New technologies often begin by (a. uprooting, b. dismissing, c. mimicking) what has gone before, and they change the world later.  Think how long it took power-using companies to recognize that with electricity they did not need to cluster their machinery around the power source, as in the days of steam.  Instead, power could be (d. transmitted to, e. consolidated around, f. incorporated into) their processes.  In that sense, many of today's computer networks are still in the steam age.  Their full potential remains unrealized.

  Begin skippable content

  Answer Choices in Context:

  A, D…… uprooting, transmitted to

  New technologies often begin by uprooting what has gone before, and they change the world later.  Think how long it took power-using companies to recognize that with electricity they did not need to cluster their machinery around the power source, as in the days of steam.  Instead, power could be transmitted to their processes.  In that sense, many of today's computer networks are still in the steam age.  Their full potential remains unrealized.

  A, E…… uprooting,  consolidated around

  New technologies often begin by uprooting what has gone before, and they change the world later.  Think how long it took power-using companies to recognize that with electricity they did not need to cluster their machinery around the power source, as in the days of steam.  Instead, power could be consolidated around their processes.  In that sense, many of today's computer networks are still in the steam age.  Their full potential remains unrealized.

  A, F…… uprooting, incorporated into

  New technologies often begin by uprooting what has gone before, and they change the world later.  Think how long it took power-using companies to recognize that with electricity they did not need to cluster their machinery around the power source, as in the days of steam.  Instead, power could be incorporated into their processes.  In that sense, many of today's computer networks are still in the steam age.  Their full potential remains unrealized.

  B, D…… dismissing, transmitted to

  New technologies often begin by dismissing what has gone before, and they change the world later.  Think how long it took power-using companies to recognize that with electricity they did not need to cluster their machinery around the power source, as in the days of steam.  Instead, power could be transmitted to their processes.  In that sense, many of today's computer networks are still in the steam age.  Their full potential remains unrealized.

  B, E…… dismissing, consolidated around

  New technologies often begin by dismissing what has gone before, and they change the world later.  Think how long it took power-using companies to recognize that with electricity they did not need to cluster their machinery around the power source, as in the days of steam.  Instead, power could be consolidated around their processes.  In that sense, many of today's computer networks are still in the steam age.  Their full potential remains unrealized.

  B, F…… dismissing, incorporated into

  New technologies often begin by dismissing what has gone before, and they change the world later.  Think how long it took power-using companies to recognize that with electricity they did not need to cluster their machinery around the power source, as in the days of steam.  Instead, power could be incorporated into their processes.  In that sense, many of today's computer networks are still in the steam age.  Their full potential remains unrealized.

  C, D…… mimicking, transmitted to

  New technologies often begin by mimicking what has gone before, and they change the world later.  Think how long it took power-using companies to recognize that with electricity they did not need to cluster their machinery around the power source, as in the days of steam.  Instead, power could be transmitted to their processes.  In that sense, many of today's computer networks are still in the steam age.  Their full potential remains unrealized.

  C, E…… mimicking, consolidated around

  New technologies often begin by mimicking what has gone before, and they change the world later.  Think how long it took power-using companies to recognize that with electricity they did not need to cluster their machinery around the power source, as in the days of steam.  Instead, power could be consolidated around their processes.  In that sense, many of today's computer networks are still in the steam age.  Their full potential remains unrealized.

  C, F…… . mimicking, incorporated into

  New technologies often begin by mimicking what has gone before, and they change the world later.  Think how long it took power-using companies to recognize that with electricity they did not need to cluster their machinery around the power source, as in the days of steam.  Instead, power could be incorporated into their processes.  In that sense, many of today's computer networks are still in the steam age.  Their full potential remains unrealized.

  End skippable content

  Indicate your two  answer choices.

  Question 22.

  This question has two blanks.

  There has been much hand-wringing about how unprepared American students are for college.  Graff reverses this perspective, suggesting that colleges are unprepared for students.  In his analysis, the university culture is largely BLANK entering students because academic culture fails to make connections to the kinds of arguments and cultural references that students grasp.  Understandably, many students view academic life as BLANK ritual.

  Now consider the text with the three options inserted in place of each blank.

  There has been much hand-wringing about how unprepared American students are for college.  Graff reverses this perspective, suggesting that colleges are unprepared for students.  In his analysis, the university culture is largely (a. primed for, b. opaque to, c. essential for) entering students because academic culture fails to make connections to the kinds of arguments and cultural references that students grasp.  Understandably, many students view academic life as (d. an arcane, e. a laudable, f. a painstaking) ritual.

  Begin skippable content

  Answer Choices in Context:

  A, D…… primed for, an arcane.

  . There has been much hand-wringing about how unprepared American students are for college.  Graff reverses this perspective, suggesting that colleges are unprepared for students.  In his analysis, the university culture is largely primed for entering students because academic culture fails to make connections to the kinds of arguments and cultural references that students grasp.  Understandably, many students view academic life as an arcane ritual.

  A, E…… . primed for, a laudable.

  . There has been much hand-wringing about how unprepared American students are for college.  Graff reverses this perspective, suggesting that colleges are unprepared for students.  In his analysis, the university culture is largely primed for entering students because academic culture fails to make connections to the kinds of arguments and cultural references that students grasp.  Understandably, many students view academic life as a laudable ritual.

  A, F…… . primed for, a painstaking.

  . There has been much hand-wringing about how unprepared American students are for college.  Graff reverses this perspective, suggesting that colleges are unprepared for students.  In his analysis, the university culture is largely primed for entering students because academic culture fails to make connections to the kinds of arguments and cultural references that students grasp.  Understandably, many students view academic life as  a painstaking ritual.

  B, D…… . opaque to, an arcane.

  . There has been much hand-wringing about how unprepared American students are for college.  Graff reverses this perspective, suggesting that colleges are unprepared for students.  In his analysis, the university culture is largely opaque to entering students because academic culture fails to make connections to the kinds of arguments and cultural references that students grasp.  Understandably, many students view academic life as an arcane ritual.

  B, E…… . opaque to, a laudable.

  . There has been much hand-wringing about how unprepared American students are for college.  Graff reverses this perspective, suggesting that colleges are unprepared for students.  In his analysis, the university culture is largely opaque to entering students because academic culture fails to make connections to the kinds of arguments and cultural references that students grasp.  Understandably, many students view academic life as a laudable ritual.

  B, F…… . opaque to, a painstaking.

  . There has been much hand-wringing about how unprepared American students are for college.  Graff reverses this perspective, suggesting that colleges are unprepared for students.  In his analysis, the university culture is largely opaque to entering students because academic culture fails to make connections to the kinds of arguments and cultural references that students grasp.  Understandably, many students view academic life as a painstaking ritual.

  C, D…… . essential for, an arcane.

  There has been much hand-wringing about how unprepared American students are for college.  Graff reverses this perspective, suggesting that colleges are unprepared for students.  In his analysis, the university culture is largely essential for entering students because academic culture fails to make connections to the kinds of arguments and cultural references that students grasp.  Understandably, many students view academic life as an arcane ritual.

  C, E…… . essential for, a laudable.

  There has been much hand-wringing about how unprepared American students are for college.  Graff reverses this perspective, suggesting that colleges are unprepared for students.  In his analysis, the university culture is largely essential for entering students because academic culture fails to make connections to the kinds of arguments and cultural references that students grasp.  Understandably, many students view academic life as a laudable ritual.

  C, F…… . essential for, a painstaking.

  There has been much hand-wringing about how unprepared American students are for college.  Graff reverses this perspective, suggesting that colleges are unprepared for students.  In his analysis, the university culture is largely essential for entering students because academic culture fails to make connections to the kinds of arguments and cultural references that students grasp.  Understandably, many students view academic life as a painstaking ritual.

  End skippable content

  Indicate your two answer choices. Fill all blanks in the way that best completes the text.

  Question 23.

  This question has two blanks.

  Of course anyone who has ever perused an unmodernized text of Captain Clark's journals knows that the Captain was one of the most BLANK spellers ever to write in English, but despite this BLANK orthographical rules, Clark is never unclear.

  Now consider the text with the three options inserted in place of each blank.

  Of course anyone who has ever perused an unmodernized text of Captain Clark's journals knows that the Captain was one of the most (a. indefatigable, b. fastidious, c. defiant) spellers ever to write in English, but despite this (d. disregard for, e. partiality toward, f. unpretentiousness about) orthographical rules, Clark is never unclear.

  Begin skippable content

  Answer Choices in Context

  A, D…… indefatigable, disregard for

  Of course anyone who has ever perused an unmodernized text of Captain Clark's journals knows that the Captain was one of the most indefatigable spellers ever to write in English, but despite this disregard for orthographical rules, Clark is never unclear.

  A, E…… indefatigable, partiality toward

  Of course anyone who has ever perused an unmodernized text of Captain Clark's journals knows that the Captain was one of the most indefatigable spellers ever to write in English, but despite this partiality toward orthographical rules, Clark is never unclear.

  A, F…… indefatigable, unpretentiousness about

  Of course anyone who has ever perused an unmodernized text of Captain Clark's journals knows that the Captain was one of the most indefatigable spellers ever to write in English, but despite this unpretentiousness about orthographical rules, Clark is never unclear.

  B, D…… fastidious, disregard for

  Of course anyone who has ever perused an unmodernized text of Captain Clark's journals knows that the Captain was one of the most fastidious spellers ever to write in English, but despite this disregard for orthographical rules, Clark is never unclear.

  B. E…… fastidious, partiality toward

  Of course anyone who has ever perused an unmodernized text of Captain Clark's journals knows that the Captain was one of the most fastidious spellers ever to write in English, but despite this partiality toward orthographical rules, Clark is never unclear.

  B, F…… fastidious, unpretentiousness about

  Of course anyone who has ever perused an unmodernized text of Captain Clark's journals knows that the Captain was one of the most fastidious spellers ever to write in English, but despite this unpretentiousness about orthographical rules, Clark is never unclear.

  C, D. . defiant, disregard for

  Of course anyone who has ever perused an unmodernized text of Captain Clark's journals knows that the Captain was one of the most defiant spellers ever to write in English, but despite this disregard for orthographical rules, Clark is never unclear.

  C, E…… defiant, partiality toward

  Of course anyone who has ever perused an unmodernized text of Captain Clark's journals knows that the Captain was one of the most defiant spellers ever to write in English, but despite this partiality toward orthographical rules, Clark is never unclear.

  C, F…… defiant, unpretentiousness about

  Of course anyone who has ever perused an unmodernized text of Captain Clark's journals knows that the Captain was one of the most defiant spellers ever to write in English, but despite this unpretentiousness about orthographical rules, Clark is never unclear.

  End skippable content

  Indicate your two  answer choices. Fill all blanks in the way that best completes the text.

  Question 24 has five answer choices, labeled A through E, and is based on the following text.

  For the past two years at FasCorp, there has been a policy to advertise any job opening to current employees and to give no job to an applicant from outside the company if a FasCorp employee applies who is qualified for the job.  This policy has been strictly followed, yet even though numerous employees of FasCorp have been qualified for any given entry-level position, some entry-level jobs have been filled with people from outside the company.

  Question 24.

  If the information provided is true, which of the following must on the basis of it also be true about FasCorp during the past two years?

  A……  . There have been some open jobs for which no qualified FasCorp employee applied.

  B……  . Some entry-level job openings have not been advertised to FasCorp employees.

  C……  . The total number of employees has increased.

  D……  . FasCorp has hired some people for jobs for which they were not qualified.

  E……  . All the job openings have been for entry-level jobs.

  Select and indicate one answer choice from among the choices provided.

  Questions 25 through 27 are based on the following reading passage.

  A tall tree can transport a hundred gallons of water a day from its roots deep underground to the treetop.  Is this movement propelled by pulling the water from above or pushing it from below?  The pull mechanism has long been favored by most scientists.  First proposed in the late 1800's, the theory relies on a property of water not commonly associated with fluids:  its tensile strength.  Instead of making a clean break, water evaporating from treetops tugs on the remaining water molecules, with that tug extending from molecule to molecule all the way down to the roots.  The tree itself does not actually push or pull; all the energy for lifting water comes from the sun's evaporative power.

  Question 25.

  This question has five answer choices, labeled A through E. Select and indicate the best answer from among these choices.

  The passage is primarily concerned with

  A……  . refuting a hypothesis advanced by scientists

  B……  . discussing the importance of a phenomenon

  C……  . presenting a possible explanation of a phenomenon

  D……  . contrasting two schools of thought

  E……  . discussing the origins of a theory

  Select and indicate one answer choice from among the choices provided.

  Question 26.

  This question has three answer choices, labeled A through C. Consider each of the three choices separately and select all that apply.  The credited response may be one, two, or all three of the choices.

  Which of the following statements is supported by the passage?

  A……  . The pull theory is not universally accepted by scientists.

  B……  . The pull theory depends on one of water's physical properties.

  C……  . The pull theory originated earlier than did the push theory.

  Indicate your answer choice or choices.

  Question 27.

  This question has five answer choices, labeled A through E. Select and indicate the best answer from among these choices.

  The passage provides information on each of the following EXCEPT

  A……  . when the pull theory originated

  B……  . the amount of water a tall tree can transport

  C……  . the significance of water's tensile strength in the pull theory

  D……  . the role of the sun in the pull theory

  E……  . the mechanism underlying water's tensile strength

  Select and indicate one answer choice from among the choices provided.

  Question 28  has five answer choices, labeled A through E, and is based on the following text.

  Producing and using biodiesel, a fuel derived from cultivated rapeseed, causes 35 percent less air pollution per gallon than does producing and using regular diesel fuel.  The government plans to reduce diesel-related air pollution over the next decade by 25 percent, so replacing regular diesel with biodiesel would seem to be the obvious solution.  Unfortunately, the greatest possible production of biodiesel would amount to only one percent of all diesel fuel to be produced during the next 15 years.

  Question 28.

  The passage is structured to lead to which of the following as a conclusion?

  A…… . The use of biodiesel will increase by less than one percent over the next 15 years.

  B…… . During the next 15 years, the production of biodiesel will be increased as fast as it is possible to increase it.

  C…… . During the next 15 years, it will be impossible, just by switching to biodiesel, to meet the government's stated goal with respect to reducing air pollution.

  D…… . Fifteen years from now, the air pollution caused by the production and use of one gallon of regular diesel fuel will be far less than it currently is.

  E. . . There will be no significant year-to-year increase in the amount of regular diesel fuel used during the next 15 years.

  Select and indicate one answer choice from among the choices provided.

  This is the end of the sample GRE Verbal questions. An answer key follows.

  Answer Key: Sample Verbal Reasoning Questions

  1. Sentence to be completed:  It is truly paradoxical that the Amazon, the lushest of all rainforests, is rooted in the most BLANK of all soils.

  Answer: D-impoverished, E-infertile

  2. Sentence to be completed:  Cynics believe that people who BLANK compliments do so in order to be praised twice.

  Answer: C-deflect, E-shrug off

  3. Sentence to be completed: A restaurant's menu is generally reflected in its decor; however despite this restaurant's BLANK appearance it is pedestrian in the menu it offers.

  Answer: A-elegant,  F-chic

  4. Sentence to be completed:  International financial issues are typically BLANK by the United States media because they are too technical to make snappy headlines and too inaccessible to people who lack a background in economics.

  Answer: A-neglected, B-slighted

  5. Sentence to be completed:  While in many ways their personalities could not have been more different-she was ebullient where he was glum, relaxed where he was awkward, garrulous where he was BLANK-they were surprisingly well suited.

  Answer: D-laconic, F-taciturn

  6. D-spirituals

  7. B-They had little working familiarity with such forms of American music as jazz, blues, and popular songs.

  8. E-neglected Johnson's contribution to classical symphonic music

  9. C-The editorial policies of some early United States newspapers became a counterweight to proponents of traditional values.

  10. A-insincerely

  11. Blank (i)  C-multifaceted

  Blank (ii)  F-extraneous

  . Answer in Context:  The multifaceted nature of classical tragedy in Athens belies the modern image of tragedy:  in the modern view tragedy is austere and stripped down, its representations of ideological and emotional conflicts so superbly compressed that there's nothing extraneous for time to erode.

  12. Blank (i)  C-ambivalence

  Blank (ii)  E-successful

  Blank (iii)  H-assuage

  . Answer in Context: Murray, whose show of recent paintings and drawings is her best in many years, has been eminent hereabouts for a quarter century, although often regarded with ambivalence, but the most  successful of these paintings assuage all doubts.

  13. B-a doctrinaire

  . Answer in Context: Far from viewing Jefferson as a skeptical but enlightened intellectual, historians of the 1960's portrayed him as a doctrinaire thinker, eager to fill the young with his political orthodoxy while censoring ideas he did not like.

  14. C-recapitulates

  . Answer in Context:  Dramatic literature often recapitulates the history of a culture in that it takes as its subject matter the important events that have shaped and guided the culture.

  15. B-an intellectual

  . Answer in Context:  Although the movement to preserve historic buildings is not usually thought of as an intellectual phenomenon, it deserves mention in the history of ideas because it launched the critique of the ideology of progress.

  16. . E-entitlement.

  . Answer in Context:  Personal sacrifice without the promise of immediate gain is an anomaly in this era when a sense of entitlement is the most powerful predisposition shaping individual actions.

  17. E-affirm the thematic coherence underlying Raisin in the Sun

  18. C-The painter of this picture could not intend it to be funny; therefore, its humor must result from a lack of skill.

  19. Sentence 5-But the play's complex view of Black self-esteem and human solidarity as compatible is no more "contradictory" than Du Bois's famous, well-considered ideal of ethnic self-awareness coexisting with human unity, or Fanon's emphasis on an ideal internationalism that also accommodates national identities and roles.

  20. C-Because of shortages in funding, the organizing committee of the choral festival required singers to purchase their own copies of the music performed at the festival.

  21. Blank (i)  C-mimicking

  Blank (ii)  D- transmitted to

  . . Answer in context:  New technologies often begin by mimicking what has gone before, and they change the world later.  Think how long it took power-using companies to recognize that with electricity they did not need to cluster their machinery around the power source, as in the days of steam.  Instead, power could be transmitted to their processes.  In that sense, many of today's computer networks are still in the steam age.  Their full potential remains unrealized.

  22. Blank (i)  B-opaque to,

  . Blank (ii)  D-an arcane

  . Answer in context:  There has been much hand-wringing about how unprepared American students are for college.  Graff reverses this perspective, suggesting that colleges are unprepared for students.  In his analysis, the university culture is largely opaque to entering students because academic culture fails to make connections to the kinds of arguments and cultural references that students grasp.  Understandably, many students view academic life as an arcane ritual.

  23. Blank (i)  C. defiant

  Blank (ii)  D. disregard for

  . Answer in context:  Of course anyone who has ever perused an unmodernized text of Captain Clark's journals knows that the Captain was one of the most defiant spellers ever to write in English, but despite this disregard for orthographical rules, Clark is never unclear.

  24. A-There have been some open jobs for which no qualified FasCorp employee applied.

  25. C-presenting a possible explanation of a phenomenon

  26. A-The pull theory is not universally accepted by scientists.

  B-The pull theory depends on one of water's physical properties.

  27. E-the mechanism underlying water's tensile strength

  28. C-During the next 15 years, it will be impossible, just by switching to biodiesel, to meet the government's stated goal with respect to reducing air pollution.

  [End of Material]

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