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英语三原则自然学习法

2007-12-14 00:00   来源:搜狐教育社区       我要纠错 | 打印 | 收藏 | | |

  我所提倡的自然学习法只有三条基本原则。

  I advocate this natural learning method with three basic principles.

  第一、学习英语应该遵循由简入繁、由易到难、由粗至细的原则

  I. Learning English should follow the principle from simple to complex, from easy to difficult, and from rough to subtle.

  千里之行,始于足下。

  学习英语切忌好高骛远,学习的开始就挑选难、繁、细的材料进行攻坚战,以为学习效果更好,实践证明这是一种错误的态度。如果学习材料远远超出学习者的语言水平,这样的挑战就失去了乐趣,而只是让人感到丧气和痛苦,材料不恰当,破坏了学习者的兴趣和信心,这是最糟糕的事情。

  A journey of a thousand li starts beneath one's feet. We should try to avoid pursuing what's beyond our reach in English learning. If we choose and study some difficult, complex, subtle materials at the very beginning with the hope of having better effect, it's proved to be a wrong attitude by practice. If learning materials go far beyond learners' actual language level, such challenges aren't desirable and just make learners frustrated and painful. It's the worst thing that learners' interest and confidence are destroyed by unsuitable materials.

  人的思维要受到精神状态的影响,情绪饱满和信心十足的时候,思维敏捷而且记忆轻松,在这样良好的精神状态下学习英语,就会收到事半功倍的效果。所以,学习英语应该一步一步地提高自己的水平,千万不要抱着十天可以速成的错误心理。语言的学习是一个终生发展的过程,千万不要以为通过一段时间的刻苦努力就能完全掌握英语,要知道对语言是学无止境的。

  Your thinking will be affected by your mental state. You'll think quickly and memorize easily if you're in high spirit and full of confidence, then you'll get twice the result with half the effort in such a good mental state. Therefore, you should improve your English step by step in your English learning without the wrong thoughts of cracking English within ten days. Language learning is a lifelong developmental process, so don't think you can master English thoroughly only through a period of great effort, and you should know there's no end for language learning.

  只要生命在不断变化,作为表现工具的语言,就会自然而然不断地经历表征重述,从而使语言表达水平越来越高,越来越炉火纯青,学习语言的乐趣就会越来越强烈。

  So long as your life keeps changing, your language, as a rendering tool, will constantly undergo representational redescription, which makes your language expressive level higher and higher. It's natural that you'll attain high degree of professional proficiency and enjoy more and more fun in your language learning.

  有一点必须指出,有些英文作品对我们如果显得太困难、繁杂或者微妙,除了语言本身(词汇和语法)的障碍之外,更重要的在于我们没有经历过类似的事情,我们的生命层次太低,思想太肤浅,自然无法领悟文章的奥妙。

  If some English works seem too difficult, complex and subtle to us, I must point out, it lies in our lack of similar life experiences apart from the obstacles of language itself (vocabulary and grammar). Because we're in too low life levels with too superficial thoughts, it's natural we fail to understand the profound meaning of those articles.

  有句话,我印象很深,你要学写诗,功夫在诗外。其实,学习英语的道理又何尝不是如此,要提高英语表达水平,功夫应该花在英语外,没有足够的学识修养,英语技巧掌握得再好,也不过是一个中看不中用的绣花枕头而已。

  I've been impressed by a statement, "You must learn more things beyond poems if you want to learn writing them." Actually, English learning isn't different at all. You must learn more things beyond English if you want to improve your English expressive level. You're just an outwardly attractive but actually worthless person without enough knowledge no matter how well you've mastered those English language skills.

  其实大家可以想象一下金字塔的形状,或许可以受到一点启发。金字塔稳稳当当地矗立着,那是因为下大上小,我们学习英语也应该借鉴金字塔,简单的作为繁杂的基础,容易的作为困难的基础,粗略的作为精细的基础。简单、容易和粗略就是金字塔庞大的基底,繁杂、困难和精细就是金字塔的顶部。我们按照这样的过程学习英语,就一定能达到金字塔光辉的顶端!

  Actually you can get enlightened by imagining the pyramid shape. The pyramid stands firmly with a big bottom but a small top, and we should use it for reference in our English learning. Complex materials base on simple materials, difficult materials base on easy materials, and subtle materials base on rough materials. The simple, easy and rough materials serve as the big base of pyramid, while the complex, difficult and subtle materials serve as the top of pyramid. We can reach the glorious summit of pyramid if we learn English in this way.

  第二、学习英语应该遵循先听后说、先读后写、先积累后运用的自然顺序

  II. Learning English should follow the natural sequence of listening prior to speaking, reading prior to writing, accumulating prior to applying.

  古人有句经验之谈:熟读唐诗三百首,不会写诗也会吟。这个经验完全符合学习的逻辑规律。

  There's an ancient saying: After reading up three hundred Tang poems, you can at least intone poems even you can't write them. This experience completely accords with the logical law of learning.

  学习英语,应该根据自己的实际水平和兴趣爱好多多吸收语言材料,敞开头脑,充分吸收,积累尽可能多的丰富语言材料,如英文歌、英文小说、报刊杂志、英文电影等等。

  Absorb more language materials according to your actual level and interest in your English learning. With your open mind, absorb as much as you can, and accumulate rich language materials as many as possible, such as English songs, novels, newspapers, magazines, movies, etc.

  应该持一种来者不拒的态度,一种海纳百川的气势,要知道人脑具有对语言材料的自动加工处理功能,材料积累到一定时候,人脑就会加工处理出一些有用的语言信息。听多了,自然想说,读多了,自然想写,一切都顺其自然,完全是水到渠成的事情。

  Hold an attitude of embracing everything just like ocean containing hundreds of rivers. Because human brain has such a function of processing language materials automatically, it can produce some useful language information when materials have been accumulated to a certain extent. It's natural you want to speak when you've heard a lot, and also natural you want to write when you've read a lot. Everything has been done in a natural way, then success will come when conditions are ripe.

  听和读,是输入和积累,也可以说是基于观察的学习。应该尽力模仿,每个音调和语调,每个字词和句子,从粗到细地模仿和吸收,要抱着一种不求甚解、顺其自然的态度才好。究竟什么时候该休息一段时间,让输入的语言材料在大脑内部按照个人的特点进行加工处理,这完全是因人而异的事情。

  As input and accumulation, listening and reading function as observation-based learning. Try to imitate very pronunciation and intonation, every word and sentence from the rough to the subtle with a natural attitude. It varies with each individual when to rest for a period of time and let those input language materials processed in the brain according to the individual character.

  当你觉得你的头脑被很多语言材料充满,就像茶杯已经倒满了水,如果再继续往茶杯里倒水,只会溢出来,好了,抓住那个临界点,开始休息。所谓休息,我是指,完全把所吸收的语言材料统统忘掉,把它们抛入潜意识得到加工处理。

  When you feel your head is stuffed with many language materials just like a teacup full of water, it'll overflow if you continue pouring water into it. Well, seize that critical point, then start your rest. So-called rest, I mean you forget all those absorbed language materials and throw them into your subconscious mind.

  积极的休息方法是去做跟英语完全无关的事情,不要担心自己学的英语会忘记,心理学研究指出,人会自然记住自己感兴趣的东西,遗忘自己不感兴趣的东西。你感兴趣的东西,无需你时时刻刻想着,也会深深印在你心底深处。正是由于这个原因,我特别建议,选择英语材料应该因人而异,选择自己感兴趣的英文材料才行,否则吸收的效果肯定不好。

  The active method of rest is to do anything irrelevant to English without worrying you would really forget them. Psychology research points out a human can remember what he's interested in and forget what he isn't interested in. What attracts your interest will be kept in your mind deeply without thinking of them all the time. Just for this reason, I particularly suggest that choosing English materials should be different for each individual. You must choose what you have interest in, otherwise there won't be any good absorbing effect.

  在我看来,对材料有兴趣,表明大脑的那扇门对这个材料是打开的,否则,门是关闭的,所以尽管听了或者看了不少材料,因为不感兴趣,被大脑拒之门外,相当于没有吸收任何原材料。

  In my view, your interest in materials shows the door of your mind is open to them, otherwise, the door is closed. Even you've read a lot of materials, but if you have no interest in them and your brain rejects them, it means you've absorbed nothing at all.

  说和写,是输出和释放,也可以说是基于反馈的学习。应该积极勇敢地实践,不要怕说错,不要怕写错。只有在大胆的实践中,才能发挥大脑的语言自我纠错功能。在成功与失败中,慢慢地提高英语表达水平。

  As output and release, speaking and writing function as feedback-based learning. Try to practice bravely without being afraid of making mistakes in your speaking and writhing. Only in brave practice can you exert your brain's function of self-repairs in language. And your English expressive level will be improved little by little in the process of success and failure.

  听和读,是圆的一半,说和写,是圆的另一半,两者不可偏废,共同构成一个完整的圆,而且这个圆要不断地循环,才能不断地提高英语的听说读写能力。

  Listening and reading is half of a full circle, complemented by speaking and writing as the other half, and with both given the same attention. Keep Circulating around the circle so that you can constantly improve your ability in English listening, reading, speaking and writing.

  第三、学习英语应该尊重从错误到正确、从简陋到完美的渐进过程

  III. English learning should cover the gradual process from wrong to right and from rough to perfect.

  很多英语教师持这样一种观念,我认为是错误的。他们认为一开始就要让学生说一口绝对正确的英语,每字每句讲得非常认真仔细,对学生出现的错误是孜孜不倦地加以批评和指正,这种急功近利的态度危害很大。

  Many English teachers hold such an idea which is wrong in my view. They require students to speak absolutely correct English at the very beginning, so they explain every word and sentence very carefully, and persevere in criticizing and correcting students' mistakes. This eagerness for quick success and instant benefit will do great harm.

  太在乎结果而轻视过程,这是一种非常普遍的心理。用之于英语学习,我个人认为,老师很轻松地代劳了学生从错误到正确、从简陋到完美的渐进过程,几乎是剥夺了学生从错误自然成长的大好机会。学习的效果大致是这样,暂时效果好,长远效果差,说明学生没有经历一个漫长的由错误到正确的渐进过程,印象不深,很容易遗忘。

  It's very common to care more about the result than about the process. When it comes to English learning, in my opinion, teachers do too much for students in the gradual process from wrong to correct and from rough to perfect, which almost deprives students of good chances for growth from mistakes. It's natural the temporary effect is good, but the long-term effect is opposite. Students don't have deep impression on what they've learned and forget them easily because they don't experience a long process from wrong to right.

  有句诗是这样讲的:书上得来终觉浅,绝知此事要躬行。学习英语,教师应该给学生犯错误的自由空间,让学生慢慢体会,自觉纠正,这样印象深,效果好。教师千万不能心急,希望快速看到教学效果,这其实是一种非常自私的态度,应该尊重学习语言的客观规律,一步一个脚印地前进,这样才是真正对学生负责的好教师。

  A poem says, knowledge from books isn't enough, only through practice can you really understand it. In English learning, teachers should create free space for students to make mistakes and develop their self-repairs in language with deep impression and good effect. It's a very selfish attitude that teachers are too eager to see the teaching effect. A good and responsible teacher should respect the objective law of language learning and lead students to advance step by step.

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