1643 - Four-year-old Louis XIV becomes King of France upon the death of his father, Louis XIII.
Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715), reigned as King of France and of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death at the age of 77. He acceded to the throne a few months before his fifth birthday, but did not assume actual personal control of the government until the death of his First Minister ("Premier Ministre"), Jules Cardinal Mazarin, in 1661. Louis XIV, known as The Sun King (in French Le Roi Soleil) or as Louis the Great (in French Louis le Grand, or simply Le Grand Monarque, "the Great Monarch"), ruled France for seventy-two years—the longest reign of any French or other major European monarch. Louis XIV increased the power and influence of France in Europe, fighting three major wars—the Franco-Dutch War, the War of the League of Augsburg, and the War of the Spanish Succession—and two minor ones—the War of Devolution, and the War of the Reunions. Under his reign, France achieved not only political and military pre-eminence, but also cultural pre-dominance with various figures such as Molière, Racine, Boileau, La Fontaine, Lully, Rigaud, Le Brun and Le Nôtre. These cultural achievements contributed to the prestige of France, her people, her language and her king. One of France's greatest kings, Louis XIV worked successfully to create an absolutist and centralized state. Louis XIV became the archetype of an absolute monarch. The phrase "L'État, c'est moi" ("I am the state") is frequently attributed to him, though this is considered by historians to be a historical inaccuracy and is more likely to have been conceived by political opponents as a way of confirming the stereotypical view of the absolutism he represented. Quite contrary to that apocryphal quote, Louis XIV is actually reported to have said on his death bed: "Je m'en vais, mais l'État demeurera toujours." ("I am going, but the State shall always remain").
路易十四（Louis XIV，1638年9月5日—1715年9月1日，在凡尔赛逝世），法国国王，他的执政期是从1643年至1715年。他也被称为太阳王（Roi Soleil）。路易十四是法王路易十三的长子，出生于法国圣日耳曼昂莱。他的弟弟奥尔良公爵菲利普一世是1640年出生的。他的母亲奥地利的安娜代他执政，直到1661年红衣主教茹尔·马萨林死后他才真正开始亲政。他的执政期是欧洲君主专政制的典型和榜样。