时态语态 一般现在时 一般过去时 一般将来时
主动被动 doare done didwere done will dowill be done
现在进行时 过去进行时 将来进行时
主动被动 are doingare being done were doingwere being done will be doing
现在完成时 过去完成时 将来完成时
主动 被动 have donehave been done had donehad been done will have donewill have been done
主动 被动 have been doing
英语提示语：up to now， so far， for three years， since 1995， over past ten years， by the end of this week， by the year of 1995
e.g. We haven‘t met each other since last year.
By the end of this week， we‘ll have finished the task.
汉语提示语：一直、e.g. The water has been running the whole night.3） 过去完成时
a） said， reported， thought 等引导的间接引语中。
e.g. He missed the train. He said he had missed the train.
b） hardly…when， no sooner… than
e.g. No sooner had he got up than he received the call.
e.g. If I had tried harder， I would have won.
I wish I had done better in the exam.
1. Much of the carbon in the earth ___ （come） from things that once lived.
2. In the past two decades， research ___ （expand） our knowledge about sleep and dream.
3. Some proverbs ___ （be） in the language for 1，000 years， for example， A friend in need is a friend indeed.
4. ___ （stand） at the gate was a young man in green coat.
5. In 1991， after the Gulf War， Bush‘s approved rating reached 91 percent， the highest level recorded since polling ___ （begin） in the 19302.
6. Seeing violence on television or reading about it in the newspapers every day ___ （make） us tolerate crime more than we should.
7. So far， Irving ___ （live） in New York City for ten years.
8. The patient ___ （send） to another hospital before we got there.
9. The second half of the nineteenth century ___ （witness） the first extended translation into English of the writings of Eliphas Levi.
10. All the worries they might have felt for him ___ （drive） off by the sight of his cheerful face.
1. comes 一般现在时，主语为不可数名词，谓语用单数
2. has expanded 现在完成时
3. has been 现在完成时
4. Standing 过去进行时的倒装形式
5. began 一般过去时
6. makes 一般现在时，动名词做主语，谓语用单数
7. has been living 现在完成进行时
8. had been sent 过去完成时的被动形式
9. witnessed 一般过去时
10. were driven 一般过去时的被动