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支票法统一规则

2006-05-28 16:26   我要纠错 | 打印 | 收藏 | | |

  支票法统一规则

  第一章 支票的发行及款式

  第一条

  支票应记载下列事项:

  1.表明其为支票的文字。

  2.支付一定金额的无条件委托。

  3.付款人的姓名。

  4.付款地。

  5.发票地及发票年月日。

  6.发票人的签名。

  第二条

  欠缺前条所载要项之一者,不生支票效力,但有下列情形者,不在此限。

  未载付款地者,以票上所载付款人的所在地,视为付款地。如载付款人的所在地有数处时,以其第一处为付款地。

  未载付款地付款人所在地及其他标识者,付款人主要商号所在地,视为付款地。

  未载发票地者,在发票人姓名旁的地址,视为发票地。

  第三条

  支票必须对于持有发票人存款的银行发出。发票人对于此款,必须(按明文或暗示的合同)有用支票任意处置之权。但如与本条各规定有不符时,所发的支票,仍为有效。

  第四条

  支票不得经承兑。有承兑记载者,视为无记载。

  第五条

  支票得为;

  载有由确定人或其所指示的人取款者;

  载有由确定人本人取款者;

  载有由执票人取款者。

  凡载有确定人或执票人取款者,视为执票人支票。

  凡未载受款人者,视为执票人支票。

  第六条

  支票得记载由发票人自己取款。

  支票得为第三者发出。

  支票不得对发票人自身发出,但如两行号同属发票人,则此行号得对彼行号发出支票。

  第七条

  支票有任何利息的记载者,视为无记载。

  第八条

  支票得于第三人的住所付款,此第三人的住所,或为付款人所在地或其他地点均可。但此第三人必须为银行业者。

  第九条

  支票金额,以文字与数字记载。彼此如有不符,以文字记载的金额为准。

  支票金额以文字记载不止一次而彼此不相符时,以数额较小者为准。以数字记载者亦然。

  第十条

  支票上有无行为能力人签名,或伪造的签名,或捏造的签名,或任何不能使之负责的人签名,不影响其他签名者的义务。

  第十一条

  无代理权而以代理人名义的签名于支票者,应自负该支票上的义务,但代理人一经付款时,即享有与被代理人同一的权利。代理人逾越权限时,亦同。

  第十二条

  发票人有担保支票支付之责,任何免除担保支付的记载,视为无效。

  第十三条

  假如一支票发行时不完全,其后经补全而与协定的条件不符者,不得因其不符而持以对抗执票人。但执票人以恶意或重大过失取得支票者,不在此限。

  第二章 转让

  第十四条

  载有确定人成其所指示的人取款的支票,得依背书方法转让。

  载有确定人本人取款的支票,仅能按照民法上通常债权方式与效力转让。

  支票得依背书让与发票人,或支票上任何一方,前项受让人,得再以背书转让。

  第十五条

  背书必为无条件,凡附记条件者,视为无记载。

  一部分的背书无效。

  付款人背书无效。

  让与执票人的背书,视为空白背书。

  对于付款人为背书,视为收讫,但付款人如有数处支号而其背书系对非付款的支号为背书时,则不在此限。

  第十六条

  背书须由背书人在支票或其粘单上为之,并由该背书人签名。

  背书人得不记载被背书人仅签名于支票而为空白背书,此项空白背书,须于支票的背面或其粘单上为之。

  第十七条

  由支票而发生的一切权利,因背书而转让。

  如为空白背书,执票人得:

  1.于空白内记载自己或他人为被背书人。

  2.再为空白背书或转让他人。

  3.不填入姓名或背书,仅以支票转让与第三人。

  第十八条

  无相反的记载者,背书人担保支票的支付。

  背书人得于票上禁止再背书。禁止再背书者,对于禁止后再由背书而取得支票的人,不予担保。

  第十九条

  一支票执票人如以背书的连续获得其权利,即使其最后一背书为空白背书,应即为该支票的合法执票人。

  关于此点,背书有涂销时,视为无记载。

  但于空白背书后再有一背书时,签名于最后背书者,应视为因此空白背书,而得到支票者。

  第二十条

  让与执票人的背书,背书人应依追索权各条的规定负责。但不因此将支票改为指示人取款式。

  第二十一条

  无论以何方式,执票人失去其支票(不论为载有执票人取款的支票或一背书支票由执票人依照第十九条规定的方法成立其权利者)的所有权,其次的执票,无须放弃该支票。但其取得系以不正当方法,或于其取得时曾有重大过失者,不在此限。

  第二十二条

  因支票诉讼的人,不得以自己与发票人或与以前的执票人私人关系的抗辩,对抗现执票人。但现执票人于取得支票时,系明知其伤害债务人而取得者,不在此限。

  第二十三条

  凡背书载有“收款有效”“为收款用”“委托代收”与其他类似的字句,以表示一单纯委托者,执票人得行使支票上所发生的一切权利,但仅得以代理人资格背书之。

  在此种情形下,支票负责各方,仅得以可对抗背书者的理由对抗执票人。

  背书内的委托,不因委托人的死亡或丧失法律权利而中止。

  第二十四条

  在作成拒绝证书后,或在同等声明后,或于规定的呈示时限已满后所为的背书,仅有通常债权转让的效力。

  如无反证时,凡未记日期的背书,视为在作成拒绝证书以前,或在同声明以前,或在规定呈示时限以前,所为者。

  第三章 保证

  第二十五条

  支票之付款全部或一部,得由保证人保证之。

  前项保证人,除支票付款外,不问何人,均得为之。

  第二十六条

  保证应在支票或其粘单上为之。

  保证应记载“为保证事”或其他相类的字句,由保证人签名。

  除发票人签名外,在支票正面签名者,应视为保证。

  保证当载明为何人保证,未载明时,视为发票人保证。

  第二十七条

  保证人与被保证人负同样责任。

  被保证人的债务,纵为无效,保证人的债务,仍然有效。但被保证人的债务,乃因方式之缺而为无效者,不在此限。

  保证人清偿债务后,得行使执票人对被保证人及其前手的追索权。

  第四章 提示与付款

  第二十八条

  支票限于见票即付时,有相反的记载者,视为无记载。

  在发行日期前为付款提示的支票,应于提示日付款。

  第二十九条

  在发票国付款的支票,应于8日内付款提示。

  不在发票国付款的支票,应于20日内或70日内为付款提示,其限期长短,依据发出地与付款地是否在同一大陆或两大陆为定。

  为实行本条的目的起见,凡在欧洲的一国发出,而在沿地中海的一国付款的支票,或在沿地中海一国发出,而在欧洲的一国付款的支票,即视为在同一大陆发出与付款的支票。

  以上所述期限,依票上所载发票日期起算。

  第三十条

  向日历不同地发出的支票,其发出日,应视为依据付款地的日历。

  第三十一条

  向票据交换所提示支票,与付款提示,有同一的效力。

  第三十二条

  撤销支票付款的委托,仅于提示期限满后行之,始为有效。

  发票人不为撤销付款的委托时,付款人即于提示期限满后,仍得付款。

  第三十三条

  支票发出后,发票人的死亡或无行为能力,均不得对支票发生任何影响。

  第三十四条

  付款人付款时,得要求执票人在票上记载收讫字样,并交出支票。

  一部分的付款,执票人不得拒绝。

  付款人为部分的付款时,得要求执票人在票上记载所收金额,并另给收据。

  第三十五条

  付款人对于背书支票的付款,应负识别背书连续之责,但对于背书签名,不负识别真伪之责。

  第三十六条

  表示支票金额的货币,如为付款地不通用者,得于提示限期内依付款日行市,用付款地(国)通用的货币支付。如未于提示时付款者,执票人得依其意旨,要求付款人,按提示日行市或付款日行市,用付款地通用的货币支付。外国货币的价值,应依付款地的行情定之。但发票人得订明该项金额,应依票上载明的折算率折算。

  发票人已指定必须用某种外国货币付方有效者,不适用前述各规定。

  表示支票金额的货币,如在发票地与付款地名同价异者,应以付款地的货币价为准。

  第五章 划线支票与付帐支票

  第三十七条

  发票人或执票人得于支票上划线,使发生下条所述的效力。

  划线方式为于支票正面划平行线两道,并得分为普通与特别两种。

  普通划线为仅于票面上划平行线两道,或于该两道线内记载“银行业者”,或

  其他同意义的文字者。如于其中载有特定银钱业者的商号,则为特别划线。

  普通划线得改换为特别划线,但特别划线,不得改换为普通划线。

  涂消平行线或线内所载银钱业者的商号,视为未涂消。

  第三十八条

  普通划线支票,付款人仅得对银钱业者或对付款人的主顾支付之。特别划线支票,付款仅得对平行线内特定的银钱业者,或付款人即为后指的银钱业者时,对付款人的主顾支付之。但特定银钱业者,得委托其他银钱业者取款。

  银钱业者,除由其主顾及其他银钱业者之手,不得取得一划线支票。除其主顾及其他银钱业者外,并不得代任何人兑取款项。

  支票上具有数处特别划线者,除其上只有两处,而两处中之一为票据交换所收款者外,付款人不得支付之。

  凡违反以上规定而付款的付款人或银钱业者,应负赔偿损失之责。但赔偿金额,以付票上的金额为限。

  第三十九条

  发票人或执票人得于支票正面横写“付帐”或同样意义字句,禁止用现金支付。

  在此种情形下,付款人仅能以记入贷方或转帐或抵消帐或清算票据交换所帐等方法支付。

  凡涂消“付帐”等字句者,视为未涂消。

  凡违反以上规定而付款的付款人,应负赔偿损害之责。但赔偿金额,以支票金额为限。

  第六章 拒绝付款时的追索权

  第四十条

  支票于限期内提示而不获付款者,若对于被拒绝付款得有下列三项证明时,执票人对于背书人发票人及支票上其他债务人,得行使追索权。

  (1)付款拒绝证书,或

  (2)付款人在支票上记载具有日期的付款拒绝声明及提示日期,或

  (3)票据交换所在支票记载具有日期的声明,声明该支票已于限期内提示而不获付款的情形。

  第四十一条

  拒绝付款证书或同等声明,应于提示期内作成。

  如提示日为提示限期的最后日,则拒绝证书或同等声明,得于其后的第一营业日作成。

  第四十二条

  执票人应于拒绝证书或同等声明作成后四营业日内,对于背书与出票人,将拒绝付款事由通知之。其记有“无费用偿还”字样者,应于提示日为前项的通知。第一背书人应于收到前项通知日后两营业日内,将收到前项通知事由,并列举已为前项通知的各人姓名及住址,通知其前手背书人,以次推及发票人。上述的期间自收到前一通知之日起算。

  照前项规定应通知各个曾在支票上签名者,则对其保证付款人,亦应于同期限内为同样通知。

  背书人未于票据上记载住所,或者记载不明,此项通知,得对于其前手背书人为之。

  应为通知的人,得以任何方法为之,虽仅将支票退还,亦得认为已通知者。

  为通知的人,应举证其已于所定限期内为之,凡于所定限期内将通知书付邮者,即认为遵守期限。

  不于上述限期为通知者,不因此而丧失其追索权。但因其怠于通知的过失发生损害时,应负赔偿之责,而其赔偿金额,以不超过支票金额为限。

  第四十三条

  发票人背书人或保证人于票上记载“无费用偿还”“免用拒绝证书”或其他意义相同的文字,并经签字时,执票人得不请求作成拒绝证书,或同等声明,以行使其追索权。

  前项文字,并不免除执票人于规定限期内为支票的提示,或发必要的通知的义务。证明其为未遵守规定限期之责,应由欲以此对抗执票人者负担。

  前项文字,倘系由发票人在支票上所记载,则对于一切在票上签字者,均发生效力。倘系由一背书人或一保证人在支票上所记载,则仅对此背书人或此保证人发生效力。倘票上虽载有由发票人所为的前项文字,而执票人仍请求作成拒绝证书或同等声明时,应自负担其费用。倘前项文字记载系出于一背书人或一保证人,如执票人请求作成拒绝证书,其费用得向其他在支票上签字者追偿。

  第四十四条

  发票人背书人及其他票据债务人,对于执票人连带并各自负责。执票人得不依负担债务的先后,对于前债务人之一人或全体,行使追索权。

  任何签字于支票的债务人,因被追索而已为清偿时,与执票人享有同一权利。

  执票人对于债务人之一人已追索,其他债务人,虽在已被追索者之后,执票人仍得对其行使追索权。

  第四十五条

  执票人得向被追索人要求下列金额:

  1.未支付的支票金额。

  2.自提示日起依利率6厘计算的利息。

  3.作成拒绝证书,或同等声明与通知及其他必要费用。

  第四十六条

  因被追索而清偿支票的金额者,得向其债务人要求下列金额:

  1.所支付的金额。

  2.前项金额的利息,即自支付日起按利率6厘计算的利息。

  3.所支出的任何必要费用。

  第四十七条

  每一被追索或得向其行使追索权的债务人为清偿时,得要求执票人交出支票及附有拒绝证书或同等声明,与收清的帐单。

  背书人为清偿时,得取消自己及其后手的背书。

  第四十八条

  倘于所定限期内提示支票,或作成拒绝证书,或同等声明,被不可抵抗的事变(如国家法定的禁止或其他天灾事变之类)所阻时,前项限期,应予延长。

  执票人应即将此项事变通知其背书人,此项通知,应注明日期,并签名,亦应于支票或其粘单上照样载明此项通知。其他事项,均适用第四十二条的规定。

  事变终止后,执票人应急速为支票的提示,或遇必要时作成拒绝证书,或同等声明。

  如事变延至由执票人为事变的通知日之后15日以外时,即使此项通知系在提示期限满期前,执票人得径自行使追索权,无须为提示,亦无须作成拒绝证书或同等声明。

  仅限于执票者个人或其委托代为提示或代为请示作成拒绝证书或同等声明个人的事故,不得认为天灾事变。

  第七章 复本

  第四十九条

  除执票人式的支票外,任何支票凡发于此国而支付于彼国或此国的海外部分,或发生于他国或此国的海外部分而支付于此国,或发于此国的海外部分而支付于此国的海外部分,均得发行两份或两份以上同样的复本。

  第五十条

  就复本之一付款时,虽未载明因付款而其他复本失效者,即为债务人义务的解除。

  背书人将复本分别转让于两人以上时,该背书人及其后手的背书人对于经其背书而未收回的各复本,应负其责。

  第八章 变造

  第五十一条

  支票文义经变造时签名在变造前者,依原有文义负责,签名在变造后者,依变造文义负责。

  第九章 时效

  第五十二条

  执票人对背书人发票人及其他债务人的追索权,自规定的提示限期满期日起6个月内不行使者,因失时效而消灭。

  支票的债务人对于其他债务人的追索权,自为清偿之日或被诉之日起算6全月内不行使,因失时效而消灭。

  第五十三条

  时效中断,仅得对于与时效中断有关系者为有效。

  第十章 通则

  第五十四条

  本规则所称之“银钱业者”包括银行法上所视为营银行业的人及团体。

  第五十五条

  支票的提示或将其作成拒绝证书,仅得于营业日为之。

  倘关于作成支票的一切行为的期限,尤以提示及作成拒绝证书及同等声明的期限已至末1日,而此日又为放假日时,该期限应延长至期满后第1营业日。期限中的放假日,即算入期限中。

  第五十六条

  本规则所称的期限,其首日不算入。

  第五十七条

  宽限日无论为法定或判定,均不承认。

  UNIFORM LAW ON CHEQUES

  CHAPTER I. - THE DRAWING AND FORM OF A CHEQUE.

  Article 1.

  A cheque contains:

  1. the term "cheque" inserted in the body of the instrument and expressed in the language employed in drawing up the instrument;

  2. an unconditional order to pay a determinate sum of money;

  3. the name of the person who is to pay (drawee);

  4. a statement of the place where payment is to be made;

  5. a statement of the date when and the place where the cheque is drawn;

  6. the signature of the person who draws the cheque (drawer)。

  Article 2.

  An instrument in which any of the requirements mentioned in the preceding article is wanting is invalid as a cheque, except in the cases specified in the following paragraphs:

  In the absence of special mention, the place specified beside the name of the drawee is deemed to be the place of payment. If several places are named beside the name of the drawee, the cheque is payable at the first place named.

  In the absence of these statements, and of any other indication, the cheque is payable at the place where the drawee has his principal establishment.

  A cheque which does not specify the place at which it was drawn is deemed to have been drawn in the place specified beside the name of the drawer.

  Article 3.

  A cheque must be drawn on a banker holding funds at the disposal of the drawer and in conformity with an agreement, express or implied, whereby the drawer is entitled to dispose of those funds by cheque. Nevertheless, if these provisions are not complied with, the instrument is still valid as a cheque.

  Article 4.

  A cheque cannot be accepted. A statement of acceptance on a cheque shall be disregarded.

  Article 5.

  A cheque may be made payable:

  to a specified person with or without the express clause "to order", or to a specified person, with the words "not to order" or equivalent words, or to bearer.

  A cheque made payable to a specified person with the words "or to bearer", or any equivalent words, is deemed to be a cheque to bearer.

  A cheque which does not specify the payee is deemed to be a cheque to bearer.

  Article 6.

  A cheque may be drawn to the drawer's own order.

  A cheque may be drawn for account of a third person.

  A cheque may not be drawn on the drawer himself unless it is drawn by one establishment on another establishment belonging to the same drawer.

  Article 7.

  Any stipulation concerning interest which may be embodied in the cheque shall be disregarded.

  Article 8.

  A cheque may be payable at the domicile of a third person either in the locality where the drawee has his domicile or in another locality provided always that such third person is a banker.

  Article 9.

  Where the sum payable by a cheque is expressed in words and also in figures, and there is any discrepancy, the sum denoted by the words is the amount payable.

  Where the sum payable by a cheque is expressed more than once in words or more than once in figures, and there is any discrepancy, the smaller sum is the sum payable.

  Article 10.

  If a cheque bears signatures of persons incapable of binding themselves by a cheque, or forged signatures, or signatures of fictitious persons, or signatures which for any other reason cannot bind the persons who signed the cheque or on whose behalf it was signed, the obligations of the other persons who have signed it are none the less valid.

  Article 11.

  Whose over puts his signature on a cheque as representing a person for whom he had no power to act is bound himself as a party to the cheque and, if he pays, has the same rights as the person for whom he purported to act. The same rule applies to a representative who has exceeded his powers.

  Article 12.

  The drawer guarantees payment. Any stipulation by which the drawer releases himself from this guarantee shall be disregarded.

  Article 13.

  If a cheque which was incomplete when issued has been completed otherwise than in accordance with the agreements entered into, the non-observance of such agreements may not be set up against the holder unless he has acquired the cheque in bad faith or, in acquiring it, has been guilty of gross negligence.

  CHAPTER II. - NEGOTIATION.

  Article 14.

  A cheque made payable to a specified person, with or without the express clause "to order",may be transferred by means of endorsement.

  A cheque made payable to a specified person, in which the words "not to order" or any equivalent expression have been inserted, can only be transferred according to the form and

  with the effects of an ordinary assignment.

  A cheque may be endorsed even to the drawer or to any other party to the cheque. These persons may re-endorse the cheque.

  Article 15.

  An endorsement must be unconditional. Any condition to which it is made subject shall be disregarded.

  A partial endorsement is null and void.

  An endorsement by the drawee is also null and void.

  An endorsement "to bearer" is equivalent to an endorsement in blank.

  An endorsement to the drawee has the effect only of a receipt, except in the case where the drawee has several establishments and the endorsement is made in favour of an establishment other than that on which the cheque has been drawn.

  Article 16.

  An endorsement must be written on the cheque or on a slip affixed thereto (allonge)。 It must be signed by the endorser.

  The endorsement may leave the beneficiary unspecified or may consist simply of the signature of the endorser (endorsement in blank)。 In the latter case the endorsement, to be valid, must be written on the back of the cheque to on the slip attached thereto (allonge)。

  Article 17.

  An endorsement transfers all the rights arising out of a cheque.

  If the endorsement is in blank, the holder may:

  (1) fill up the blank either with his own name or with the name of some other person;

  (2) re-endorse the cheque in blank or to some other person;

  (3) transfer the cheque to a third person without filling up the blank and without endorsing it.

  Article 18.

  In the absence of any contrary stipulation, the endorser guarantees payment.

  He may prohibit any further endorsement; in this case he gives no guarantee to the persons to whom the cheque is subsequently endorsed.

  Article 19.

  The possessor of an endorsable cheque is deemed to be the lawful holder if he establishes his title to the cheque through an uninterrupted series of endorsements, even if the last endorsement is in blank. In this connection cancelled endorsements shall be disregarded. When an endorsement in blank is followed by another endorsement, the person who signed this last endorsement is deemed to have acquired the cheque by the endorsement in blank.

  Article 20.

  An endorsement on a cheque to bearer renders the endorser liable in accordance with the provisions governing the right of recourse; but it does not convert the instrument into a

  cheque to order.

  Article 21.

  Where a person has, in any manner whatsoever, been dispossessed of a cheque (whether it is a cheque to bearer or an endorsable cheque to which the holder establishes his right in the manner mentioned in Article 19), the holder into whose possession the cheque has come is not bound to give up the cheque unless he has acquired it in bad faith or unless in acquiring it he has been guilty of gross negligence.

  Article 22.

  Persons sued on a cheque cannot set up against the holder defences founded on their personal relations with the drawer or with previous holders, unless the holder in acquiring the cheque has knowingly acted to the detriment of the debtor.

  Article 23.

  When an endorsement contains the statement "value in collection" ("valeur en recouvrement"),"for collection" ("pour encaissement"), "by procuration" ("par procuration"), or any other phrase implying a simple mandate, the holder may exercise all rights arising out of the cheque, but he can endorse it only in his capacity as agent.

  In this case the parties liable can only set up against the holder defences which could be set up against the endorser.

  The mandate contained in an endorsement by procuration does not terminate by reason of the death of the party giving the mandate or by reason of his becoming legally incapable.

  Article 24.

  An endorsement after protest or after an equivalent declaration or after the expiration of the limit of time for presentment operates only as an ordinary assignment.

  Failing proof to the contrary, an undated endorsement is deemed to have been placed on the cheque prior to the protest or equivalent declaration or prior to the expiration of the limit of time referred to in the preceding paragraph.

  CHAPTER III. - "AVALS".

  Article 25.

  Payment of a cheque may be guaranteed by an "aval" as to the whole or part of its amount.

  This guarantee may be given by a third person other than the drawee, or even by a person who has signed the cheque.

  Article 26.

  An "aval" is given either on the cheque itself or on an "allonge".

  It is expressed by the words "good as aval", or by any other equivalent formula. It is signed by the giver of the "aval".

  It is deemed to be constituted by the mere signature of the giver of the "aval", placed on the face of the cheque, except in the case of the signature of the drawer.

  An "aval" must specify for whose account it is given. In default of this, it is deemed to be given for the drawer.

  Article 27.

  The giver of an "aval" is bound in the same manner as the person for whom he has become guarantor.

  His undertaking is valid even when the liability which he has guaranteed is inoperative for any reason other than defect of form.

  He has, when he pays the cheque, the rights arising out of the cheque against the person guaranteed and against those who are liable to the latter on the cheque.

  CHAPTER IV. - PRESENTMENT AND PAYMENT.

  Article 28.

  A cheque is payable at sight. Any contrary stipulation shall be disregarded.

  A cheque presented for payment before the date stated as the date of issue is payable on the day of presentment.

  Article 29.

  A cheque payable in the country in which it was issued must be presented for payment within eight days.

  A cheque issued in a country other than that in which it is payable must be presented within a period of twenty days or of seventy days, according as to whether the place of issue and the place of payment are situated respectively in the same continent or in different continents.

  For the purposes of this article cheques issued in a European country and payable in a country bordering on the Mediterranean or vice versa are regarded as issued and payable in the same continent.

  The date from which the above mentioned periods of time shall begin to run shall be the date stated on the cheque as the date of issue.

  Article 30.

  Where a cheque is drawn in one place and is payable in another having a different calendar,the day of issue shall be construed as being the corresponding day of the calendar of the place of payment.

  Article 31.

  Presentment of a cheque at a clearing house is equivalent to presentment for payment.

  Article 32.

  The countermand of a cheque only takes effect after the expiration of the limit of time for presentment.

  If a cheque has not been countermanded, the drawee may pay it even after the expiration of the time limit.

  Article 33.

  Neither the death of the drawer nor his incapacity taking place after the issue of the cheque shall have any effect as regards the cheque.

  Article 34.

  The drawee who pays a cheque may require that it shall be given up to him receipted by the holder.

  The holder may not refuse partial payment.

  In case of partial payment the drawee may require that the partial payment shall be mentioned on the cheque and that a receipt shall be given to him.

  Article 35.

  The sable cheque is bound to verify the regularity of the series of endorsements, but not the signature of the endorsers.

  Article 36.

  When a cheque in a currency which is not that of the place of payment, the sum payable may,within the limit of time for the presentment of the cheque, be paid in the currency of the country according to its value on the date of payment. If payment has not been made on presentment, the holder may at his option demand that payment of the amount of the cheque in the currency of the country shall be made according to the rate on the day of presentment or on the day of payment.

  The usages of the e applied in determining the value of foreign currency. Nevertheless, the drawer may stipulate that the sum payable shall be calculated according to a rate expressed in the cheque.

  The foregoing rule case in which the drawer has stipulated that payment must be made in a certain specified currency (stipulation for effective payment in a foreign currency)。

  If the amount of the cheque is specified in a currency having the same denomination but a different value in the country of issue and the country of payment, reference is deemed to be

  made to the currency of the place of payment.

  CHAPTER V.- CROSSED CHEQUES AND CHEQUES PAYABLE IN ACCOUNT.

  Article 37.

  The drawer or holders of a cheque may cross it with the effects stated in the next article hereof.

  A crossing takes the form of two parallel lines drawn on the fact of the cheque. The crossing may be general or special.

  The crossing is general if it consists of the two lines only or if between the lines the term "banker" or some equivalent is inserted; it is special if the name of a banker is written between the lines.

  A general crossing special crossing, but a special crossing may not be converted into a general crossing.

  The obliteration either of a crossing or of the name of the banker shall be regarded as not having taken place.

  Article 38.

  A cheque which is crossed generally can be paid by the drawee only to a banker or to a customer of the drawee.

  A cheque which is crossed specially can paid by the drawee only to the named banker, or if the latter is the drawee, to his customer. Nevertheless the named banker may procure the cheque to be collected by another banker.

  A banker may not acquire a crossed cheque except from one of his customers or from another banker. He may not collect it for the account of other persons than the foregoing.

  A cheque bearing s may not be paid by the drawee except in a case where there are two crossings, one of which is for collection through a clearing-house.

  The drawee or banker who fails to observe the above provisions is liable for resulting damage up to the amount of the cheque.

  Article 39.

  The drawer or the holder of a cheque may forbid its payment in case by writing transversally across the face of the cheque the words "payable in account" ("a porter en compte") or a similar expression.

  In such a case the cheque can only be settle by the drawee by means of book-entry (credit in account, transfer from one account to another, set off or clearing-house settlement)。

  Settlement by book-entry is equivalent to payment.

  Any obliteration of the words "payable in account" shall be deemed not to have taken place.

  The drawee who does not observe the foregoing provisions is liable for resulting damage up to the amount of the cheque.

  CHAPTER VI. - RECOURSE FOR NON-PAYMENT.

  Article 40.

  The holders may exercise his right of recourse against the endorsers, the drawer and the other parties liable if the cheque on presentment in due time is not paid, and if the refusal to pay is evidenced:

  (1) by a formal instrument (protest), or

  (2) by a declaration dated and written by the drawee on the cheque and specifying the day of presentment, or

  (3) by a dated declaration made by a clearing-house, stating that the cheque has been delivered in due time and has not been paid.

  Article 41.

  The protest or equivalent declaration must be made before the expiration of the limit of time for presentment.

  If the cheque is presented on the last day of the limit of time, the protest may be drawn up or the equivalent declaration made on the first business day following.

  Article 42.

  The holder must give notice of non-payment to his endorser and to the drawer within the four business days which follow the day on which the protest is drawn up or the equivalent declaration is made or, in case of a stipulation "retour sans frais", the day of presentment. Every endorser must, within the two business days following the day on which he receives

  notice, inform his endorser of the notice which he has received, mentioning the names and addresses of those who have given the previous notices and so on through the series until the drawer is reached.

  The periods mentioned above run from the receipt of the preceding notice.

  When, in conformity with the preceding paragraph, notice is given to a person who has signed a cheque, the same notice must be given within the same limit of time to his avaliseur.

  Where an endorser either has not specified his address or has specified it in an illegible manner, it is sufficient if notice is given to the endorser preceding him.

  The person who must give notice may give it in any form whatever, even by simply returning the cheque.

  He must prove that he has given notice within the limit of time prescribed. This time-limit shall be regarded as having been observed if a letter giving the notice has been posted within the said time.

  A person who does not give notice within the limit of time prescribed above does not forfeit his rights. He is liable for the damage, if any, caused by his negligence, but the amount of his liability shall not exceed the amount of the cheque.

  Article 43.

  The drawer, an endorser, or an avaliseur may, by the stipulation "retour sans frais", "sans protet", or any other equivalent expression written on the instrument and signed, release the holder from having a protest drawn up or an equivalent declaration made in order to exercise

  his right of recourse.

  This stipulation does not release the holder from presenting the cheque within the prescribed limit of time, or from giving the requisite notices. The burden of proving the non-observance of the limit of time lies on the person who seeks to set it up against the holder.

  If the stipulation is written by the drawer, it is operative in respect of all persons who have signed the cheque; if it is written by an endorser or an avaliseur, it is operative only in respect of such endorser or avaliseur. If, in spite of the stipulation written by the drawer, the holder has the protest drawn up or the equivalent declaration made, he must bear the expenses thereof. When the stipulation emanates from an endorser or avaliseur, the costs of the protest or equivalent declaration, if drawn up or made, may be recovered from all the persons who have signed the cheque.

  Article 44.

  All the persons liable on a cheque are jointly and severally bound to the holder.

  The holder has the right to proceed against all these persons individually or collectively without being compelled to observe the order in which they have become bound.

  The same right is possessed by any person signing the cheque who has taken it up and paid it.

  Proceedings against one of the parties liable do not prevent proceedings against the others,even though such other parties may be subsequent to the party first proceeded against.

  Article 45.

  The holder may claim from the party against whom he exercises his right of recourse:

  (1) the unpaid amount of the cheque;

  (2) interest at the rate of six per cent as from the date of presentment;

  (3) the expenses of the protest or equivalent declaration, and of the notices given as well as other expenses.

  Article 46.

  A party who takes up and pays a cheque can recover from the parties liable to him:

  (1) the entire sum which he has paid;

  (2) interest on the said sum calculated at the rate of six per cent, as from the day on which he made payment;

  (3) any expenses which he has incurred.

  Article 47.

  Every party liable against whom a right of recourse is, or may be, exercised, can require against payment, that the cheque shall be given up to him with the protest or equivalent declaration and a receipted account.

  Every endorser who has taken up and paid a cheque may cancel his own endorsement and those of subsequent endorsers.

  Article 48.

  Should the presentment of the cheque or the drawing up of the protest or the making of the equivalent declaration within the prescrbved limit of time be prevented by an insurmountable obstacle (legal prohibition (prescription légal) by any State or other case of vis major),these limits of time shall be extended.

  The holder is bound to give notice without delay of the case of vis major to his endorser and to make a dated and signed declaration of theis notice, on the cheque or on an allonge ; in other respects the provisions of Article 42 shall apply,

  When vis major has terminated, the holder must without delay present the cheque for payment and, if need be, procure a protest to be drawn up or an equivalent declaration made.

  If vis major continues to operate beyond 15 days after the date on which the holder, even before the expiration of the time limit for the presentment, has given notice of vis major for his endorser, recourse may be exercised and neither presentment nor a protest nor an equivalent declaration shall be necessary.

  Facts which are purely personal to the holder or to the person whom he has entrusted with the presentment of the cheque or the drawing up of the protest or the making of the equivalent declaration are not deemed to constitute cases of vis major.

  CHAPTER VII. - PART OF A SET.

  Article 49.

  With the exception of bearer cheques, any cheque issued in one country and payable in another or payable in a separate part overseas of the same country or vice versa, or issued and payable in the same or in different parts overseas of the same country, may be drawn in a set of identical part. When a cheque is in a set of parts, each part must be numbered in the body of the instrument, failing which each part is deemed to be a separate cheque.

  Article 50.

  Payment made on one part operates as a discharge, even though there is no stipulation that such payment shall render the other parts of no effect.

  An endorser who has negotiated parts to different persons and also the endorsers subsequent to him are liable on all the parts bearing their signatures, which have not been given up.

  CHAPTER VIII. - ALTERATIONS.

  Article 51.

  In case of alteration of the text of a cheque, parties who have signed subsequent to the alteration are bound according to the terms off the altered text; parties who have signed

  before the alteration are bound according to the terms of the original text.

  CHAPTER IX. - LIMITATION OF ACTIONS.

  Article 52.

  Actions of recourse by the holder against the endorsers, the drawer and the other parties liable are barred after six month as from the expiration of the limit of time fixed for

  presentment.

  Actions of recourse by the different parties liable for the payment of a cheque against other such parties are barred after six month as from the day on which the party liable has paid the cheque or the day on which he was sued thereon.

  Article 53.

  Interruption of the period of limitation is only effective against the person in respect of whom the period has been interrupted.

  CHAPTER X. - GENERAL PROVISIONS.

  Article 54.

  In the present law the word "banker" include the persons or institutions assimilated by the law to bankers.

  Article 55.

  The presentment of protest of a cheque may only take place on a business day.

  When the last day of the limit of time prescribed by the law for performing act relating to a cheque, and particularly for presentment or for the drawing up of a protest or the making of an equivalent declaration, is a legal holiday, the limit of time is extended until the first business day which follows the expiration of that time. Intermediate holidays are included in computing limit of time.

  Article 56.

  The limits of time stipulated in the present law shall not include the day on which the period commences.

  Article 57.

  No days of grace, whether legal or judicial, are permitted.

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