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2006四级听力考前冲刺讲座

2006-05-27 12:41   来源:李波       我要纠错 | 打印 | 收藏 | | |

2006四级听力考前冲刺讲座

  (一)应试要求按照新的教学大纲的要求,四级学生在学完1~4级基础阶段的英语课程后,对所给的英语口头材料应达到一定的理解程度。对题材熟悉、浅于课文,基本上无生词、语速每分钟为130个词的材料,一遍可以听懂,准确率不低于70%.六级学生对语速每分钟为150个词的材料,一遍可以听懂,准确率不低于70%.大学英语四六级考试中听力理解是为了测试考生理解英语口头材料,获得口头信息的能力。学生听力水平的高低取决于多种因素,因此,考生应注意以下几个因素,不断培养和提高自己的听力能力。

  1) 掌握一定的词汇量,打好扎实的语言基础听力理解部分所用的词汇不超过大纲词汇表四级规定的范围,在平时的学习中,要注意正确的发音、语调及连读、弱读和重音。熟练掌握并运用语法知识。

  2) 学会用英语思维3) 加强听力训练4) 培养良好的学习方法5) 丰富的文化背景知识(二)选材原则1) 对话部分为日常生活,特别是校园生活中的一般对话,句子结构和内容不太复杂。

  2) 短文部分的材料是题材熟情节不太复杂的故事、讲话或叙述等。

  3) 所用词汇不超过教学大纲词汇表四六级规定的范围。

  (三)对话常考题型分类1)时间地点题时间地点题非常容易判断,四个选项都是时间或地点。每次考试都有一道左右。如果是时间题,最重要的是注意对话中肯定提到不止一个时间,要听清楚问题。并且有的时候还要做相应的加减法。如果是地点题,就要注意对话中的关键词了。一旦听到了关键词,题目就迎刃而解了。

  例1:A) At 10:25 B) At 10:30 C) At 10:45 D) At 10:40听力原文:M: So, when are the other guys going to get here? The train is leaving in 10 minutes. We can't wait here forever!

  W: It's 10:30 already? They are supposed to be here by now! I told everybody to meet here by 10:15. Q: When is the train leaving? (04年6月四级对话第3题)

  例2:。 A) An art museum. B) A beautiful park. C) A college campus D) An architectural exhibition (05年6月四级对话第9题)

  听力原文:例3 W: Wow, I do like this campus. All the big trees, the green lawns, and the old buildings with tall columns. It‘s really beautiful. M: It sure is. The architecture of these buildings is in the Greek style. It was popular in the 18th century here. Q: What are the speakers talking about?

  常考地点高频信号词Airport: airline, arrival, arrive at, board, aisle, an aisle seat, a window seat, passenger, departure, depart from, flight 911, seat-belt, safety belt, take off, land, emergency landing, luggage, baggage, ticket office, fill in the form, go through a security check, declare (Do you have anything to declare?), duty, duty-free, first class, business class, economy class, single ticket, return ticket, passport, air hostess, stewardess, crew, pilot School: teacher, professor, student, text, textbook, class, lesson, period, lecture, course, grade, mark, presentation, exam, test, oral exam, written exam, pass, fail, semester, term, credit, homework, assignment, scholarship, school record, registration, paper, term paper, campus Restaurant: menu, order, cafeteria, bar, buffet, soft drink, go Dutch, waiter/waitress, bartender, meal, tip, apple pie, hot dog, hamburger, sandwich, toast, pizza, whiskey, alcohol, wine, beer, reserve, soup, napkin Office: secretary, CEO, resume, CV (curriculum vitae), employ, employee, qualifications, typewriter, typist, telephone, printer (ink, laser), photocopier (copier), fax machine, computer, LAN (local area network), file, arrange the file Telephone: hold the line, hang up, hold on, pay phone, cut the line, put … through, area code, directory, operator, extension, exchange, The number you dialed is powered off/not in service, The line is busy /engaged now, May I leave/take a message?

  Library: library card, journal, magazine, periodical, catalog, book shelf, due, overdue, renew, stacks, author, writer, fine, novel, reading room, Keep quiet Meeting: for, against, proposal, report, speech, suggest, disagree, agree, decide, point out,argue, chairman, conclusion Bank: draw on one's account, pay interest on……, open account, interest rate, fixed deposit,current, account, bank clerk Store: size, color, style, price, cost, cheap, What can I do for you? How much does it cost?

  Fashion, expensive, counter, department, check out, brand, fresh, cash, pay, shop girl, assistant, counter, fashion Barber's: haircut, hairstyle, hairdresser, shave, moustache, beard, spray, shampoo Camera: take a picture, photo, pose for a photo with sb., smile, frame, group photo, camera lens, zoom lens (变焦镜头), wide-angle lens, shot, close-up, photo studio, foolproof camera The Customs: pay duty on……, duty free, free of charge, fill in the form Dance: disco, dance with, have a ball, party, May I have the pleasure of next dance?

  Hospital: pain, cough, fever, vomit, headache, stomachache, temperature, heart, lung, pills,blood-pressure, take medicine, tablets, insomnia, indigestion, physician, surgeon, wards,operating room, pharmacy,emergency

  2)人物关系题人物关系题的判断标准就是四个选项都是身份,有的时候是问某一个人的身份,有时候是问两者之间的关系。人物关系题也比较容易解答,还是根据选项提供的线索去听关键词,听到了答案也就出来了。

  例4 :A) Teacher and student. B) Doctor and patient. . C) Manager and office worker. D) Travel agent and customer (05年6月四级对话第7题)

  听力原文:W: Mr. Watson, I wonder whether it‘s possible for me to take a vacation early next month. M: Did you fill out a request form?

  Q: What is the probable relationship between the two speakers?

  常见身份关系及高频信息词老师与学生(Teacher and student):examination, midterm, exam, test, quiz, homework, assignment, pass, arts courses, engineering courses, school campus, teaching building, teacher's office图书馆工作人员与学生(Librarian and student): borrow, return, renew, on time, magazine, reference book, author, writer, shelves, check out, loan desk, library/card, cash or charge? Are you done?

  店员与顾客(Shop-assistant and customer): Can I help you? but, sell, expensive, cheap, department, store, Lady's department, coat, shoes, hat, jacket, sweater, sale price, on sale, price, cut down, discount, cashier, auction, high-heeled shoes, underwear, leather, plastic fabric, silk, jeans, pajama医生和病人(Doctor and patient):What's the matter with you? a sore throat, headache, flu, fever, what's your trouble, take one's temperature, give sb. an injection, take medicine, surgery侍者与顾客(Waiter (Waitress) and customer): Anything to drink? What kind of wine do you want? Is that all? Finished? Anything else? order, menu, brandy, whisky, check, dessert, sandwiches

  3)细节题观察近两年的考题,对话部分大部分题目还是细节题,或叫综合理解题。05年6月四级对话部分有7道是细节题。05年6月六级对话部分有8道是细节题。解答细节题需要有良好的听力基础和准确的判断力,再加上一点技巧,会取得事半功倍的效果。

  例1:A) Give the ring to a policeman. B) Wait for the owner of the ring in the rest room. C) Hand in the ring to the security office. D) Take the ring to the administration building.(05年6月四级对话第2题)

  听力原文:W: I found an expensive diamond ring in the restroom this morning. M: If I were you, I would turn it in to the security office. It is behind the administration building. Q: What does the man suggest the woman do?

  涉及技巧:??z 同义变换:turn in=hand in??z 常用表达:If I were you, …

  例2:A) It was burned down. B) It was closed down. 5 C) It was robbed. D) It was blown up. (05年6月六级对话第7题)

  听力原文:W: Did you hear that the convenience store next to the gas station was held up last night?

  M: Yes, I heard it on the radio this morning. Q: What happened to the convenience store?

  涉及技巧:??z 同义变换:be held up=be robbed??z 词组:be held up

  4)推断题推断题每次考试至少考一题,是近年来的趋势。要做好推断题,不仅要有良好的听力,还要有合理的推理能力。

  例:A) The man can ask the department store for help. B) She doesn‘t have the hotel’s phone number. C) The hotel is just around the corner. D) The man should phone the hotel for directions.

  听力原文:M: Excuse me, but could you tell me how to get to the Friendship Hotel? I thought it was on this corner, but I seem to have made a mistake. W: I am sorry, but I am a stranger here myself. Maybe you can try calling them. There is a phone over there outside the department store. Q: What does the woman mean?

  这道题中女士并没有直接说酒店会告诉男士然后去,但是从黑体部分可以推导出这个结论。

  (四)对话解题攻略1)语音知识听力不同于阅读,要求同学们必须具备准确辨音的能力,这是口头交际的基础。在正确掌握每个单词的发音的同时,必须注意以下几个方面:(1)英语中最小对立体的发音,如ship——sheep, cheap —— chip, pig ——peg, sack ——sock等,有针对性地进行发音训练,比如绕口令之类的练习,如She sells sea cells by the seashore. If she sells sea cells by the seashore, then she sells seashore cells.适当加强一些针对性的听力练习。

  (2)连读:连读时语速加快,连读的单词之间没有了间隔,会给理解带来困难。如:in ˇor ˇout, yearˇ in and year ˇout, for ˇan ˇhour,tell him the story(3)意群:听力时不能一个单词一个单词地去理解,应该注意意群,因为意群之间间隔之处正是停顿之处,注意下列语句朗读时停顿的差别:John said, “ My father is here.”“John,” said my father, “is here.”(4)语调:语调是说话者表达情感的一种手段,同样一个句子如果语调不同,则意思就有可能发生变化,如:Open the door, will you?↗ Open the door, won't you?↘——Mary.——Yes.↗↘ 6测试中同样有可能考查语调的作用,如:① W: Where do you want to eat?

  M: Is there anything wrong with the↘ coffee shop?

  Q: What does the man mean?

  A. He wonders if anything happened at the coffee shop. B. He doesn't know why the coffee tastes bad. C. He only wants coffee because he isn't happy. D. He thinks that they ought to go to the coffee shop.一般疑问句,却用了降调,表示出说话者愿意去咖啡馆的肯定态度,答案应是D.② M: I'm terribly sorry I'm late, but I just couldn't help it. I got there as soon as I could. W: Well, it's not soon enough, ↘is it?

  Q: What does the woman mean?

  A. It's soon enough to get here. B. It's not soon enough to get here. C. It's not late to get here. D. It's early enough to get here.降调的使用,说明说话人坚信第一部分说的是事实,由此可以判断答案为B. 2) 词汇和语法(1)注意扩充词汇量:研究发现,词汇量是影响听力的主要因素之一,词汇量的匮乏往往是造成听力能力提高的首要因素。因此,同学们在训练听力技巧的同时,应注意词汇量的扩充。

  (2)加强同义表达方式的听力训练:在听力选择中,相当一部分情况下,答案就是对话信息的同义表达方式。如:①W: The speech the blind girl gave this evening was extremely touching. M: I think everybody felt the same. Q: How did the man feel about the girl's speech?

  A. It was boring. B. It was entertaining. C. It was moving. D. It was encouraging. Moving与touching意思相近,答案为C.(3)加强语法概念的单句理解练习:听力测试中有相当一部分情况下,有对语法结构表意功能的考查,如虚拟语气的含义,建议的表达方式等。如:① W: I am going to Martha‘s house. I have a paper to complete. And I need to use her computer. M: Why don’t you buy one yourself? Think how much time you could save. Q: What does the man suggest the woman do? (05年6月四级)

  A. Save time by using a computer. B. Buy her own computer. C. Borrow Martha‘s computer. D. Stay home and complete her paper.如果考生清楚why don’t you do用来提出建议,就可以判断答案为B.总结:四六级常考建议的表达方法:Why don‘t you do…?

  What/How about doing …?

  Do you think we should…?

  If I were you, I would…

  Let‘s do…

  3)解题原则(1) 相似性原则a. 如果2个选项相似性过高则皆不可能是正确选项,,至少其中一个选项不是答案。例如:A) horse,B) white horse,如果B)是答案,那么A)也对,但一道题不可能有两个答案,所以B)一定不对。

  b. 如果2个或3个选项有较高的相似点,则正确答案在其中的可能性较高。即选项中出现频率越高的信息,越有可能是对话中会提及的信息,包含这些信息的选项也是正确答案最可能存在的选项。

  (2) 否定/转折原则对话常以问答(Question/Answer)形式出现,在编制对话中出题人一般倾向于考虑用一人否定另一人的话语以增加考试的难度,因为这种否定可以形成思维的转折点,而转折点越多,考生要掌握的信息点也越多,可考的点也越多。所以,对于对话中的But、However等转义词要特别关注。

  (3) 转换原则为了增加判断的难度,几乎没有一道题的正确答案可从对话中直接得出,一般都有一个转换,如前面提到的第2个原则――否定/转折原则即是一个例子,其他主要转换方式是词型、词义的转换。如:predict ???? prediction / anticipation,go over ???? review, noisy ???? better to be quiet等等。

  (4) 特殊性原则对话的话题、内容往往都有其特殊性,太普通、太空泛的内容就无谈论的必要,因此在进行选择判断时对过于普通和空泛的选项可不予考虑。

  (5) 信息对称原则明显错误的答案往往对应着正确的答案,出题人一般倾向于将正确答案的对立面作为一个备选项。

  (五)短文短文的考题分三类:主题题,细节题和推断题。细节题考的最多,10道中有7至8道都是细节题。最典型的就是05年6月四级三篇文章10道通通是细节题。

  真题演练(2005.6四级Passage 1)

  第一步:审题。听前阅读选项,增加听的目的性和针对性。

  11. A) synthetic fuel B) solar energy C) alcohol D) electricity 12. A) air traffic conditions B) traffic jams on highways C) road conditions D) new traffic rules 13. A) go through a health check B) carry little luggage C) arrive early for boarding D) undergo security checks第二步:文章的主题一般出现在文章的首句,在听时一定要注意首句的理解。注意把握首尾句,从整体上理解全文,这同样有利于主题题的解答。

  8第三步:听时记笔记,以掌握文章的主要细节内容。边听文章边看选项,按照听到的顺序给选项标号。

  11. A) synthetic fuel B) solar energy C) alcohol D) electricity 1 12. A) air traffic conditions 4 B) traffic jams on highways 3 C) road conditions 2 D) new traffic rules 13. A) go through a health check B) carry little luggage 5 C) arrive early for boarding D) undergo security checks听力文本:In the next few decades, people are going to travel very differently from the way they do today.(11) Everyone is going to drive electrically-powered cars, so in the few years, people won‘t worry about running out of gas. Some of the large automobile companies are really moving ahead with this new technology. F&C Motors, a major auto company, for example, is holding a press conference next week. After the press conference, the company will present its new electronically-operated models. Transportation in the future won’t be limited to the ground, many people predict that traffic will quickly move to the sky. In the coming years, instead of radio reports about road conditions and highway traffic, news reports will talk about traffic jams in the sky.(12) But the sky isn‘t the limit. In the future, you will probably even be able to take a trip to the moon. Instead of listening to regular airplane announcements, you will hear someone say: the spacecraft to the moon leaves in 10 minutes. Please check your equipment. And remember no more than 10 ounces of carry-on baggage are allowed.(13)

  11. What will be used to power cars in the next few decades?

  12. What will future news reports focus on when talking about transportation?

  13. What will passengers be asked to do when they travel to the moon?

  听力训练注意事项:1. 切忌鸵鸟式听法2. 多而不精3. 从不大声跟读磁带4. 训练时间安排不得当四六级听力考场注意事项:1. 先看短文,后看对话2. 保持良好的心态3. 涂答题卡:做一题涂一题;做一个部分涂一个部分;全部做完再

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