1 The high-speed trains can have a major impact on travel preferences.
A influence B force C surprise D power
2 Can you follow the plot?
A change B investigate C understand D write
3 Even in a highly modernized country, manual work is still needed.
A mental B physical C natural D hard
4 In the latter case the outcome can be serious indeed.
A judgment B result C decision D event
5 Norman Blamey is an artist of deep convictions.
A beliefs B statements C suggestions D claims
6 Up to now, the work has been easy.
A So B So long C So far D So that
7 The report advocated setting up day training colleges.
A supposed B excited C discussed D suggested
8 Accordingly, a number of other methods have been employed.
A Afterwards B Therefore C However D Furthermore
9 The outlook from the top of the mountain is breathtaking.
A sight B view C look D point
10 Our lives are intimately bound up with theirs.
A tensely B nearly C closely D carefully
11 The union representative put across her argument very effectively.
A invented B explained C considered D accepted
12 He talks tough but has a tender heart.
A heavy B strong C wild D kind
13 It is no use debating the relative merits of this policy
A making B taking C expecting D discussing
14 Our statistics show that we consume all that we are capable of producing.
A waste B buy C sell D use
15 The fuel tanks had a capacity of 140 liters.
A function B ability C volume D power
Using HIV Virus to Cure Cancer
Scientists are planning to use human immunodeficiency(免疫缺陷)virus(HIV), one of mankind's most feared viruses, as a carrier of genes which can fight cancer and a range of diseases that cannot be cured. The experts say HIV has an almost perfect ability to avoid the body's immune(免疫的)defenses, making it ideal for carrying replacement genes into patients' bodies, according to the Observer.
A team at the California-based Salk Institute, one of the world's leading research centers on biological sciences, has created a special new breed of HIV and has started negotiations with the U>S> Food and Drug Administration(FDA)to begin clinical gene therapy(治疗) trials this year. The first trials are expected to involve patients suffering from cancers that cannot be cured by surgery although project leader Professor Inder Verma said the HIV technique would have" far wider applications".
The plan remains very likely to cause controversy since it involves making use of a virus which has caused more than 22 million deaths around the world in the past two decades. Verma said that the idea of using HIV for a beneficial purpose was "shocking" but the fierce nature of HIV had disappeared by having all six of the potentially deadly genes removed.
Illnesses such as various cancers are caused when a gene in a patient's body fails to work properly. In the past two years, breakthroughs in genetics(遗传学)have led gene therapy scientists to try and replace the genes that do not function normally.
Unfortunately, the body's immune defenses have been known to attack the modified genes and make them lose their effects before they can start their task and progress in the field has been held up by the lack of a suitable carrier.
The HIV virus has the ability to escape from, and then destroy, the immune defense cells designed to protect our bodies and this makes it attractive to scientists as a way of secretly conveying replacement genes into patients' bodies.
16 FDA has approved the plan of using HIV to cure cancer in humans.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
17 The idea of using HIV for a beneficial purpose has been widely accepted.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
18 HIV can be safely used to cure cancer only if the deadly genes have been removed.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
19 The HIV virus is an excellent warrior to fight the body's immune cells.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
20 Other countries are also expected to begin clinical gene therapy trials soon.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
21 It is the lack of money that has held up the progress in using replacement genes to cure cancer.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
22 The HIV virus has caused more deaths in developed countries.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
Friendly Relations with the People Around
You depend on all the people closely around you to give you the warm feeling of belongingness （归属）that you must have to feel secure. But, in fact, the members of all the groups to which you belong also depend on you to give that feeling to them, a person who shows that he wants everything for himself is bound (一定的) to be a lonely wolf.
The need for companionship is closely related to the need for a sense of belongingness. How sad and lonely your life would be if you had no one to share your feelings and experiences. You may take it for granted that there always will be people around to talk to and to do things with you and for you. The important point, however, is that keeping emotionally healthy does not depend so much on having people around you as upon your ability to establish relationships that are satisfying both to you and to them.
Suppose you are in a crowd watching a football game. You don't know them. when the game is over, you will go your separate ways. But just for a while you had a feeling of companionship, of sharing the feeling of others who were cheering for the team you wanted to win.
An experience of this kind gives the clue(线索) to what companionship really is. It depends upon emotional ties of sympathy, understanding, trust, and affection. Companionships become friends when these ties are formed.
When you are thrown in a new circle of acquaintance(熟人), you may not know with whom you will make friends, but you can be sure that you will be able to establish friendships if you show that you really like people.
23. Paragraph 2_____.
24. Paragraph 3_____.
25. Paragraph 4_____.
26. Paragraph 5_____.
A. Close link between companionship and belongingness
B. How to satisfy other people's needs
C. An example of a satisfying relationship
D. Difficulties in establishing friendships
E. What companionship really is
F. Making friends with new acquaintances
27. If you had no one to share your feelings, your life would be____.
28. The warm feelings of belongingness may give you ____.
29. The ability to establish fine relations with others will keep you ____.
30. You will find it hard to make friends with people ____.
A. sad and lonely
B. emotionally health
C. without real love for them
D. a sense of security
E. a lonely wolf
F. without pity
第一篇 Giving Up Smoking
A number of devices are available to help a person quit smoking. Nicotine(尼古丁) patches are small, nicotine-containing adhesive(粘着性的) discs applied to the skin. The nicotine is slowly absorbed through the skin and enters the bloodstream. Over time, the nicotine dose is reduced and eventually the desire for nicotine is eased. Nicotine gum works in a similar manner, providing small doses of nicotine when chewed.
The benefits of giving up smoking include the immediate reduction of harm to the health of the smoking and easily admission to social activities and institutions that ban smoking. In a 1988 report, the U.S. Surgeon General declared cigarette smoking to be more harmful and expensive than the use of cocaine (可卡因), alcohol, or heroin. Recent evidence supports this claim.
The United States government has collected a special tax on cigarettes for several decades. The rate rose from 8 cents per pack of 20 cigarettes in 1951 to 24 cents per pack in 1993. In other developed countries, the cigarette tax rate is much higher, ranging from 50 percent in Switzerland to 85 percent in Denmark.
In the United States, the first direct action to check smoking was the regulation of a warming on cigarette packages by the Federal Trade Commission. This warning took effect in 1964 and was strengthened in 1969 to read:"Warning: The Surgeon General Has Determined That Cigarette Smoking Is Dangerous to Your Health."In 1971 all cigarette advertising was banned from radio and television, and cities and states passed laws requiring nonsmoking sections in public places and workplaces.
31．Which of the following can help a person quit smoking?
A. Using nicotine patches.
B. Reading cigarette advertisements.
C. Chewing ordinary gum.
D. Participating in social activities.
32. Nicotine gum is used to help a smoker
A. stop smoking
B. reduce weight
C. clean his teeth
D. absorb nicotine immediately
33. The benefits of giving up smoking include all the following EXCEPT
A. the reduction of expenses.
B. the formation of a good habit.
C. the reduction of harm to one's health.
D. easier access to institutions that ban smoking.
34. Which of the following is said to be the most expensive and harmful?
A. Consuming alcohol.
B. Using heroin.
C. Smoking cigarettes.
D. Taking cocaine.
35. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a step to control smoking?
A. Collecting a special tax on cigarettes.
B. Forbidding smoking in all public places.
C. Banning cigarette advertising from radio and TV.
D. Requiring a warning on each cigarette package.
第二篇 Effects of Exercise on Elderly Diabetics(糖尿病人)
Most older people with so-called type II diabetes(糖尿病) could stop taking insulin(胰岛素) if they would do brisk exercise for 30 minutes just there times a week , according to new medical research results reported in a Copenhagen newspaper, Results from tests conducted on diabetics at the Copenhagen central hospital Rigshospitalet's Center for Muscle Research showed that physical exercise can boost the body's ability to make use of insulin by 30 per cent. This is equal to the effect most elderly diabetics get from their insulin medication(药物治疗) today.
Researchers had a group of non-diabetic men and a group of men with type II diabetes, all more than 60 years of age, exercise on bicycles six times a week for three months. After the three months the doctors measured how much sugar the test subjects' muscles could make use of as a measure for how well their insulin worked.
Associate Professor Dr Flemming Dela of the Muscle Research Center said the tests demonstrated that the exercising diabetics had made as good use of insulin as the healthy non-diabetic persons. "This means that the insulin works just as well for both group. Physical exercise cannot cure people of diabetes, but it can eliminate almost all their symptoms. At the same time it can put off the point at which they have to begin taking insulin," Dela said.
Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas(胰腺) , controlling sugar in the body and is used against diabetes.
Dela said that to achieve the desired effect diabetics need only exercise to the point where they begin to sweat, but that the activity has to be maintained since it wears off after five days without sufficient exercise.
Most diabetics realize that they have to watch their diet while remaining unaware of the importance of exercise, Dela added.
36. What is the effect of exercise on elderly people with type II diabetes?
A. It can worsen their symptoms.
B. It can help the body make better use of insulin.
C. It can help them to eat more.
D. It can cure them of the disease.
37. The exercise that the researchers tried on their test subjects was
A. cycling six times a week for three months.
B. walking briskly for thirty minutes three times a week.
C. swimming twice a day.
D. running once a day.
38. The researchers checked how well the test subjects' insulin worked by measuring
A. the blood sugar level in their bodies.
B. the length of time they could cycle in one breath.
C. the amount of sugar their muscles could make use of.
D. the amount of insulin they took.
39. It is recommended that diabetics maintain sufficient exercise since otherwise
A. their symptoms will get worse.
B. the blood sugar level will go up.
C. their condition will be out of control.
D. the desired effect cannot be achieved.
40. It can be seen from the passage that most diabetics are ignorant of
A. the significance of regular exercise.
B. the necessity of watching their diet.
C. the need to control their weight.
D. the consequences of taking too much insulin.
第三篇 First Aid
First aid is emergency care for a victim of sudden illness or injury until more skillful medical treatment is available. It may save a life or improve certain vital signs including pulse, temperature, a clear airway（气道）,and breathing , in minor emergencies, first aid may prevent a victim's condition form turning worse and provide relief from pain. First aid must be administered as quickly as possible. In the case of the critically injured, a few minutes can make the difference between complete recovery and loss of life.
First-aid measures depend upon a victim's needs and the provider's level of knowledge and skill. Knowing what not to do in an emergency is as important as knowing what to do. Improperly moving a person with a neck injury, for example, can lead to permanent spinal(脊柱的) injury and paralysis(瘫痪).
Despite the variety of injuries possible, several principles of first aid apply to all emergencies. The first step is to call for professional medical help. The victim, if conscious, should be reassured that medical aid has been requested, and asked for permission to provide any first aid. Next, assess, the scene, asking other people or the injured person's family or friends about details of the injury or illness, any care that may have already been given ,and preexisting conditions such as diabetes(糖尿病) or heart trouble. The victim should be checked for a medical bracelet(手镯)or card that describes special medical conditions. Unless the accident scene becomes unsafe or the victim may suffer further injury, do not move the victim.
First aid requires rapid assessment of victims to determine whether life-threatening conditions exist. One method for evaluating a victim's condition is known by the acronym(首字母缩写词)ABC, which stands for:
A——Airway: Is it open and clear?
B——Breathing: Is the person breathing? Look, listen, and feel for breathing.
C——Circulation: Is there a pulse? Is the person bleeding externally? Check skin color and temperature for additional indications of circulation problems.
41 First aid may bring about all the following results EXCEPT
A saving a victim's life.
B preventing a victim's condition from getting worse.
C relieving a victim from pain.
D helping a person avoid sudden illness or injury
42 Before we administer first aid to a victim, it is very important for us
A to make sure what to do and what not to do
B to refer to all kinds of handbooks on first aid.
C to remove the ring or bracelet he may be wearing.
D to take him to a hospital at once
43 In administering first aid to a victim, you should first of all
A remove him from the accident scene.
B turn him over
C call for professional medical help
D examine him care fully
44 You may assess a victim's condition by all the following EXCEPT
A checking whether there is a pulse.
B looking, listening and feeling for breathing.
C replacing his medical bracelet or card.
D examining whether the airway is open and clear.
45 The purpose of the passage is to tell the reader
A the importance of protecting the accident scene.
B some basic facts about first aid
C what professional medical help is
D who ca administer first aid.
Lowering the Risk of Heart Disease
Like millions of other Americans, I come from a family with a history of the heart disease. My father had his first three heart attacks when he was only thirty-one. _____________(46) I grew up with heart disease. It was there, but I didn't take it seriously.
When I was thirty-one, my blood cholesterol（胆固醇）level was measured for the first time. It was 311 mg/dl, the doctor told me- an extremely high level that put me at a very high high risk of heart disease, especially with my family history. He sent me to the National Institutes of Health（NIH）to be screened for participation in a clinical trial._____________(47)
At NIH, physicians explained the degree of risk associated with my blood cholesterol level and the nature of the experiment. This test involves putting a tube through a leg artery（动脉） up to the heart._____________（48）
Learning about the risks of the experiment as well as the risk associated with my raised blood cholesterol level scared the life out of me. Although I was excluded from participating in the study, the experience may well have saved my life.
For the first time, I began to realize the seriousness of high blood cholesterol.___________(49) But equally important, I got a taste of what it is like to be a patient, to have tests done on me and to think of myself as sick. This was hard to take.
This experience taught me two lifesaving lessons. First, although I felt fit and strong, I was actually at high risk for heart disease because of my high blood cholesterol level. And with my family history, it could not be ignored.________________(50)
A Second, I could lower my blood cholesterol level simply by changing what I ate.
B I was three years old at that time.
C There is not enough oxygen in the blood.
D It was a heart attack just waiting to happen
E The trial was designed to test the effect of lowering blood cholesterol on the risk of heart disease.
F The death rate for the test was only 1 in 100, I was assured.
A Special Clock
Every living thing has what scientists call a biological clock that controls behavior. The biological clock________(51) plants when to form flowers and when the flowers should open. It tells insects when to __________(52) the protective cocoon (防护卵袋) and fly away, and it tells animals and human beings when to eat, sleep and wake.
Events outside the plant and animal__________(53) the actions of some biological clocks . Scientists recently found, for example, that a tiny animal changes the color of its fur because of the __________(54) of hours of daylight. In the short_________(55) of winter, its fur becomes white. The fur becomes gray brown in _________(56) in the longer hours of daylight in summer.
Inner signals control other _________(57) clocks. German scientists found that some kind of internal clock seems to order birds to begin their long migration_________(58) twice each year. Birds _________(59) from flying become restless when it is time for the trip, _________(60) they become calm again when the time of the flight has ended.
Scientists say they are beginning to learn which _________(61) of the brain contain biological clocks. An American researcher, Martin Moorhead, said a small group of cells near the front of the brain__________(62) to control the timing of some of our actions. These __________(63) tell a person when to wake, when to _________(64) and when to seek food. Scientists say there probably are other biological clock cells that __________(65) other body activities.
51 A says B asks C talks D tells
52 A reach B leave C escape D enter
53 A affect B adopt C avoid D express
54 A time B value C amount D number
55 A days B months C minutes D weeks
56 A shape B type C form D color
57 A physical B biological C mental D portable
58 A operation B flight C movement D transportation
59 A derived B prevented C originated D protected
60 A but B unless C therefore D if
61 A parts B ideas C sorts D images
62 A tries B likes C seems D wants
63 A functions B places C actions D cells
64 A lie B sleep C stand D walk
65 A build B demand C reflect D control
1A 2C 3B 4B 5A 6C 7D 8B 9B 10C 11B 12D 13D 14D 15C
16B 17B 18A 19A 20C 21B 22C 23A 24C 25E 26F 27A 28D 29B 30C
31A 32A 33B 34C 35B 36B 37A 38C 39D 40A 41D 42A 43C 44C 45B
46B 47E 48 F 49D 50A
51D 52 B 53A 54D 55A 56D 57B 58B 59B 60A 61A 62C 63D 64B 65D