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2006年高考英语书面表达题技巧突破指南

2006-05-15 18:45山东省宁津一中英语组 黎桂华

  ㈠对高考英语书面表达题的基本认识

  书面表达题旨在测试考生的英语表达能力,看其是否能够运用学过的英语知识和掌握的技能进行思想交流。从历年高考试卷来看,书面表达是指导性写作,即按照题目所给的目的、时间、对象、地点、内容、长度等条件去完成写作。它不同于命题作文,可以随意发挥;也不是简单的句子翻译。必须做到行文切题,紧扣中心思想,不漏要点,并且意思连贯,文理通顺,语言准确、得当。

  ㈡书面表达题的题型特征

  从近些年的高考英语书面表达题来看,我们基本上可以将书面表达题大致归纳为两种写作类型:一类是文字性提示/表格提示写作;另一类是看图作文。

  ⑴文字提示/表格提示写作

  对于文字提示的写作,要注意根据表达的需要选择恰当的时态。如:1996年的书面表达题目要求根据表中的文字性提示写一篇自我介绍,叙述求学过程的句子要用一般过去时,介绍个人爱好的句子应用一般现在时;2001年写信介绍学生减轻学业负担后的课外活动情况,写作时也要将一般现在时和一般过去时相结合;2005年山东高考假设你是新华中学的学生李华,得知某英文报招聘兼职记者,你有意应聘,请按所给要点给报社写一封自荐信,这种作文除介绍工作经历的句子用一般过去时态外,其他均应使用现在时态。

  对于表格提示的写作,特别要注意重新组织所给的材料,不能依据表格逐条地翻译。

  ⑵看图写作

  看图写作比文字提示写作更能考察学生的思维能力和语言组织能力。大致可分为三种类型:①写信。如,2005年全国高考大部分省的英语书面表达几乎都是要求写书信,运用的时态多是一般现在时态,间或使用一般过去时。2003年为朋友介绍所租房屋的位置和大体结构,文中的时态也以一般现在时为主。②写日记。写日记一般是叙述过去的事件,所以句子的时态多是一般过去时,如1998年的记叙到农场的参观活动的书面表达。③写一篇短文,记叙一件事的发生过程。如2000年的描绘一起交通事故的过程, 写作时多运用一般过去时。

  看图作文须注意的问题:①仔细观察几幅图画,弄清故事的开头和结尾,理清事件的发展过程; ②确定好表达要点, 要点不仅仅体现在图画中,还体现在所给题目要求的文字中。

  ㈢解书面表达题的基本技巧及范例

  ⒈基本技巧:

  ⑴首先要认真审题。读懂题目所给信息,初步确定要点内容,并可用序号标出以免遗忘。

  ⑵列题纲使用要点条理化,序化,统筹安排布局。

  ⑶勿要直译,需意译。尤其对看图情景作文要构建完整故事结构,不可逐句罗列了事。

  ⑷要刻意把好语言关。要用自己最熟悉的句型结构和词语,力求文理通顺,语言准确。没有把握的词句不要写,确有把握的的可以锦上添花。

  ⑸遇到一时想不起的词语,需变通。可以用同义近义词代替,也可以用否定词加反义词来表达,亦可变换句式。不可钻牛角尖,更不能生造词语,汉化表达。

  ⑹注意文章的长度。看具体内容而定,如果内容多,应多用复杂句式,如果内容不多,为了达到词的限数应多用简单句式,并适当增补合理内容。

  ⑺注意保持卷面整洁,书写工整清楚,书写的好坏会直接影响阅卷老师的情绪。

  ⑻最后应注意复查全文。看内容要点有无遗漏,标点、格式、大小写是否规范,是否有语病等。

  ⒉经典范例:

  (NMET2001)假设你是李华,你的澳大利亚朋友Dick听说中国的中小学正在减轻学生的学习负担,来信询问有关情况。请你根据下表提供的信息,写一封回信,谈一谈减负给你的学习和生活带来的变化。

周末活动(减负前)  周末活动(减负后) 
白天:上课、做作业  白天:参观博物馆,学习电脑、绘画等 
晚上:做作业  晚上:看新闻、读书、看报 
就寝时间:11:30  就寝时间:10:30 

  注意:1.词数100左右。2.开头已为你写好。

  生词:reduce learning load减轻学习负担

  Dear Dick,

  How nice to hear from you again.

  Best wishes,

  Li Hua

  解析

  NMET2001年高考书面表达试题要求考生根据以表格的形式提供的情景用英语写一篇100个单词左右的书信,给澳大利亚朋友Dick介绍减负给自己学习和生活带来的变化。写作过程中所需要的生词已给出,短文的开头也已经为考生写好。

  写作过程:

  ⑴认真审题,明确要求。

  ①由汉语提示可知,应用第一人称完成短文;

  ②在写作过程中,要突出减负给学习生活带来的便利;

  ③在写作过程中,要根据表格中的中文提示,写成一篇行文连贯、条理清楚的文章而不宜将表格中的中文直译成英语。

  ⑵审视表格,列出要点。

  ①过去忙于上课、做作业;

  ②现在有时间看新闻、参观博物馆等;

  ③现在有时间看新闻、读报纸;

  ④不必再熬夜。

  ⑶依据要点,编拟提纲。

  ①     I used to have to do endless homework and attend classes even at weekends.

  ②Now I have more free time to read books, visit museums even and so on.

  ③In the evenings I can watch news on TV or read newspapers.④I can go to bed earlier.

  ⑷按照文体,组织语篇。

  One possible version:

  Dear Dick,

  How nice to hear from you again. You want to known what is going on in schools in China? In short, things have begun to improve since schools were called on to reduce learning load. I don't know about others, but I used to have to work even at weekends doing endless homework and attending classes as well. Now I have more free time, I can follow my own interests such as reading books, visiting museums, and taking computer lessons. In the evenings I can watch news on TV or read newspapers. What's more, I can go to bed earlier.

  As far as I know, everyone is happy about this new arrangement of things.

  Best wishes,

  Li Hua

  ㈣解书面表达题必要的知识储备

  从知识储备的角度来说,我认为解书面表达题除了具备必要的词汇量、一定的语法知识和语言组织能力外,还要着重注意以下两点:

  ⒈掌握下面几种常用的英文文体的格式

  ⑴书信格式示例 :

  25 Tianshui Road

  Lanzhou, China

  January 3rd, 2003

  208 Hope Road

  Sydney, Australia

  Dear Laura,

  How are you getting on now?____________________________________________

  Yours,

  Zhou Lan

  ⑵通知格式示例:

  ①书面通知格式示例

  NOTICE

  In order to arouse the students' interest in learning English, the Student Union has decided to set up an English Club with the help of the teachers of English.

  __________________

  Student Union

  November 9, 2004

  ②口头通知格式示例

  Boys and girls,

  May I  have your attention, please? I have an announcement to make.

  The Students' Union is going to hold a party on Sunday evening, November 12th, to welcome our friends from the United States.

  _____________________________________

  That's all . Thank you!

  ⑶致词(speech)格式示例:

  ①欢迎词格式示例

  Ladies and gentlemen/ Mr President/etc,

  Welcome to——

  That's all. Thank you.

  ②欢送词格式示例

  Dear friends,

  ________________________

  Good luck to ——/ Goodbye, dear friends.

  ⒉了解下面一些可能在英语书面表达中使用到的重要句型

  1)以形式主语it引导的有关句型。

  (1)“It is / was+被强调的部分+that(who)+剩余的部分.”例如:

  ①It wasn't until he came back that I went to bed.“直到他回来我才睡觉”(一定要注意被强调句型谓语动词否定的转移及形式)。

  ②It was because he was ill that he didn't come to school today.“只因为他有病了今天没有来上学”(只能用because而不能用for, as 或since)

  ③It is I who am a student. “我确实是个学生”。

  (2)“It happened(chanced)that +clause. = sb. happened /chanced sth. =sb.did sth. by chance.”  例如:

  It happened that he was out when I got there.“当我到那儿时,碰巧他不在”=He happened to be out when I got there.= It chanced that he was out when I got there= He was out by chance when I got there.

  (3)“It seems that sb. do/ be doing/ have done/ had done= Sb. seems to do/ be doing/ have done/ had done”(还有动词appear可这样使用)例如:

  It seemed that he had been to Beijing before.“好像你以去过北京”=He seemed to have been Beijing before.

  (4)“It is high time (time/ about time) (that) 主语+should do / did+其它”(注意从句中的谓语动词用的是虚拟语气)  例如:

  It is high time that we should go / went home.我们该回家了。

  (5)“It is / was said ( reported…)+that+从句.”  例如:

  It was said that he had read this novel.“据说他读过这篇小说”=He was said to have read this novel.

  (6)“It is impossible / necessary/ strange…that clause.”(从句中的谓语用should+do / should have done,其形式是虚拟语气) 例如:

  It is strange that he should have failed in this exam.真奇怪,他这次考试没有及格。

  (7)“It is + a pity/ a shame…that clause.” (注意从句中的谓语动词用should do或should have done的形式,但should可以省略)   例如:

  He didn't come back until the film ended. It was a pity that he should have missed this film. “他直到电影结束才回来。他没有看到这部电影真可惜”

  (8)“It is suggested / ordered/ commanded /…that +clause.” (从句的谓语动词用should do, 但should可以省略) 例如:

  It is suggested that the meeting should be put off.“有人建议推迟会议”。

  (9)“It is/was+表示地点的名词+where+从句” (注意本句不是强调句型,而是以where引导的定语从句)  例如:

  It was this house where I was born.请比较:It was in this house that I was born.(后一句是强调句型。)

  (10)“It is / was +表示时间的名词+when+从句” (注意本句型也不是强调句型,而是以when引导的定语从句)  例如:

  It was 1999 when he came back from the United States. 请比较:It was in 1999 that he came back from the United States.

  (11)“It is well-known that+从句”  例如:

  It is well-known that she is a learned woman.“众所周知,她是个知识渊博的妇女”。

  (12)“It is +段时间+since+主语+did.” // “It was +段时间+since+主语+had done.”  例如:

  ①It is five years since he left here.“他已经离开这儿五年了”。

  ②It was five years since he left here.(同上)

  (14)“It +谓语+段时间+before+主语+谓语”(before引导的是时间状语从句)  例如:

  ①It wasn't long before the people in that country rose up.“没有多久那个国家的人民就起义了”

  ②It will be three hours before he comes back.“三个小时之后他才能回来”

  (15)“It is +形容词+for+ sb.+ to do.”  例如:

  It is impossible for me to finish this work before tomorrow.“我明天之前完成此工作是不可能的”

  (16)“It is +(心理品质方面的)形容词+of + sb. +to do.”= “主语+ be +形容词+to do.”(常用的形容词有:kind, stupid; foolish, good, wise等)   例如:

  It is kind of you to help me.=You are kind to help me.“你真好给我提供了帮助”

  2)定语从句中的有关句型:

  (1)由as引导的非限定性的定语从句。例如:

  As we have known, he is a most good student.“众所周知,他是个很好的学生”请比较:It is well-known that he is a most good student.(前一个是定语从句,而后者是个主语从句)

  (2)由which引导的非限定性的定语从句。例如:

  He is a professor, which I have been looking forward to becoming.“他是个教授,那是我一直盼望的职业”(因为先行词professor是表示职业的名词,因此引导词用which,而不用who。(注意:关于which和as之间的比较请看语法的定语从句部分。)

  (3)由where, when引导的定语从句(其中包括限定性的或非限定性的) 例如:

  ①This is the house where I used to come.请比较:This is the house which / that I used to come to.

  ②This is the day when I joined the Party.请比较:This is the day which / that I joined the Party on.

  [说明]:关于that与which之间的区别,请看语法中的定语从句。

  3)让步状语从句中的有关句型:

  “No matter what / which / who / where / when / whose+从句,+主句”(注意从句中的时态一般情况用一般现在时态)  例如:

  ①No matter what you do, you must do it well.请比较:Whatever you do, you must do it well. “无论你做什么,一定要做好”

  ②No matter where you go, please let me know.请比较:Wherever you go, please let me know.“你无论去哪儿,请通知我”

  [说明]:这两种句型形式不同,而意义完全相同。

  注意:I will tell whoever would like to read it.句中的whoever不能用whomever来代替,因为它既作动词tell的宾语,又作后面从句的主语。

  4)条件状语从句的有关句型:

  (1)“When / So long as / As long as / Once +从句,+主句”(从句也可以放在主句之后)例如:

  ①As long as you give me some money, I will let you go.“只要你给我一些钱,我就让你走”

  ②Once you have begun to learn English, you should learn it well. “一旦你开始学习英语,你应该把它学好”

  (2)“主句+on condition that+从句”  例如:

  I will go with you on condition that you give me some money.“我和你一起去的条件是你给我一些钱”

  (3)“主句+unless+从句.”(注意:由于unless本身是否定词,所引导的从句的谓语动词用肯定)   例如:

  I will go there tomorrow unless it rains.“我明天去那儿除非下雨”

  (4)“祈使句,+and/ and then+主句”(注意:祈使句也可用一个名词短语)  例如:

  ①Use your head, and you will find a good idea.“动脑筋想一想,你就会想出一个好主意”

  ②Another word, and I will beat you.“你再说一句,我就揍你”

  (5)“If +necessary / impossible/ important等,+主句”  例如:

  If necessary, I will do it. “如果有必要的话,我来做此事。”

  5)原因状语从句的有关句型

  (1)“主句+in case+从句”(in case表示以免)   例如:

  I will take my raincoat in case it rains.我要把雨衣带上以免下雨。

  (2)“主句+due to / because of / owning to / + the fact that +从句”   例如:

  He did not come to school because of the fact that he was ill.“由于他有病了,所以没有来上学”

  6)时间状语从句中的有关句型

  (1)“When / While / As +从句,+主句”(关于它们之间的区别请看语法)   例如:

  When I was in the country, I used to carry some water for you.“当我在农村时,我常常给你打水”

  (2)“主句+after / before +从句.”   例如:

  ①They hadn't been married four months before they were devoiced.“他们绘结婚不到四个月就离婚了”

  ②We went home after we had finished the work.“我们做完此工作就回家了”

  (3)“主语+肯定谓语+until+从句(或时间)” // “主语+否定谓语+until+从句”

  例如:

  ①I worked until he came back.“我一直工作到他回来”

  ②I didn't worked until he came back.“他回来我才开始工作”

  (4)“As soon as / Immediately / Directly / Instantly / The moment / The instant / The minute +从句,+主句.”  例如:

  My father went out immediately I got home.“我一到家,我父亲就出去了”

  (5)“No sooner +had + 主语+done…than +主语+did.” // “主语+had + no sooner +done…than +主语+did.”  例如:

  ①No sooner had I got to Beijing than I called you.“我一到北京就给你打电话了”

  ②I had no sooner got to Beijing than I called you. (同上)

  (6)“Hardly +had +主语+done…when / before + 主语+did.” // “主语+had +hardly + done…when / before +主语+did.”  例如:

  ①Hardly had she had supper when she went out. “她一吃完晚饭就出去了”

  ②She had hardly had supper when she went out. (同上)

  (7)“By the time+从句,+主句.”(注意时态的变化)   例如:

  ①By the time you came back, I had finished this book.“到你回来时,我已经写完了这本书”

  ②By the time you come back, I will have finished this book.“到你回来时,我将写完这本书”

  (8)“each / every time +从句,+主句.”(这时相当于whenever 或no matter when引导的从句。从句也可放在主句之后)   例如:

  Each time he comes to Harbin, he always drops in on me.“每当他来哈尔滨,总是随便来看看我”

  7)地点状语从句的有关句型:

  (1)“Where +从句,+主句.”  例如:

  Where there is no rain, farming is difficult or impossible.“哪里没有雨水,种庄稼是很难的或者是不可能的”

  (2)“Anywhere / wherever+从句,+主句.”  例如:

  ①Anywhere I go, my wife goes too.“无论我去哪儿,我的妻子也去哪儿”

  ②I will go wherever you suggest.“你建议我去哪儿,我就去哪儿 ”

  8)目的状语从句的有关句型:

  (1)“主句+in order that / so that +从句.”   例如:

  I got up early in order that I could catch the first bus.“我起得很早,以便能赶上早班车”

  (2)“主句+for+sb. +to do.”(注意动词不定式复合结构在这儿作目的状语)  例如:

  He came here for me to work out this problem.“他来这儿叫我帮他解出这道难题 ”

  9)结果状语从句的有关句型:

  (1)“主句+so that+从句.”  例如:

  It was very cold, so that the river froze.“天气很泠,因此河水结冰了”

  (2)“So+形容词/ 副词+特定动词+主语+…+that+从句.”  例如:

  So interesting is this book that I would like to read it again.“这本书那么有趣,我想再读一遍”

  (3)“主语+谓语+such+名词+that+从句.”  例如:

  He made such rapid progress that he was praised by the teacher.“他进步很快,老师表扬了他”

  (4)“Such was + 主语+that +从句.”(这是个完全倒装句)   例如:

  Such was the force of the explosion that all the windows were broken.“爆炸力这么大,所有的窗户都被震碎了”

  10)比较状语从句的有关句型:

  (1)“The +形容词比较级……,(主句)the +形容词比较级+……”  例如:

  The sooner you do it, the better it will be.“越早越好”

  (2)“主语+谓语+as +形容词原级+as +被比较的对象.”  例如:

  He is as busy as a bee.“他非常忙”

  (3)“主语+谓语+the+形容词比较级+of / between …”  例如:

  He is the taller of the two.“他们俩人中他高”

  (4)“主语+谓语+倍数+as+形容词原级+as+被比较的对象.”  例如:

  This room is three times as large as that one.“这个房间是那个房间的三倍大”(这个房间比那个房间大两倍。)

  (5)“主语+谓语+百分数/倍数+形容词比较级+than+被比较的对象.”  例如:

  ①This city is twice larger than ours.“这个城市比我们城市大两倍”

  ②The early rice output in that commune was 200% more than that of 2000.“那个公社的早稻产量是2000年的两倍”

  (6)“主语+谓语+the size / length/ width/ height +of +被比较的对象.”  例如:

  Our building is twice the height of yours.“我们的大楼比你们的高两倍”

  11)其它句型

  (1)“It doesn't matter wh-+从句”  例如:

  ①It doesn't matter to me what you will do tomorrow.“你明天做什么与我无关”

  ②It doesn't matter whether you will come or not.“你来不来无关紧要”

  (2)“形容词/ 副词 / 名词(可数单数)+as / though +主语+谓语,+主句.”  例如:

  ①Young as he is, he knows a lot.“虽然他很小,但他知道得很多”

  ②Hard he works, I am sure that he can't pass this exam.“虽然他学习很努力,这次考试他肯定不能及格”

  ③Child as he is, he knows a lot.“虽然他是个孩子,但他懂得很多”

  (3)“Were / Should / Had +主语+谓语,+主句.”  例如

  Were I you, I would have gone there yesterday.“如果我是你的话,昨天我就去那儿了”

  (4)“Only +状语+特定动词+主语+谓语…”  例如:

  ①Only by this means can I do this work well.“只有用那种方式我才能做好此工作”

  ②Only because he was ill did he not come to school.“只因为他有病了才没有来上学”

  ③Only then did I realize that I had been wrong.“只有那时,我才认识到我错了”

  (5)“Not only +特定动词+主语+谓语…but also+主语+谓语…”  例如:

  Not only did he learned English well but also he spoke French very well.“他不但英语学得好,而且法语讲得很流利”

  (6)whether….or…, neither…nor…, either…or…

  (7)“主语+doubt+whether + 从句.”// “主语+特定否定词+doubt+that+从句.”  例如:

  I don't doubt that he will come this afternoon.“我确信他下午一定能来”

  ㈤平时学生书面表达中常见的错误类型及应对策略

  ⒈常见错误:

  ⑴格式错误

  有的考生不能正确地运用书信或日记的格式。A)书信常有五部分:①信头:右上角写上收信人的地址和写信日期; ②称谓; ③正文; ④结束语, 常用的有Yours sincerely/Yours truly/Yours faithfully…; ⑤签名。B)日记格式:顶格写上月、日、年和星期,右边写上天气情况。

  ⑵词序错误

  ①并列的人称代词做主语时,I没有放在最后。例如:I, you and he are all League members.

  ②没弄清英语中真正的主语。例如:Without a friend will feel lonely.

  ③修饰语错位。例如:He very likes dancing.

  ⑶时态错误

  动词时态的错误是高考英语书面表达中最常见的错误之一,也是考生运用语言的能力差的显著标志之一。如2002关于公园收不收门票的讨论的介绍,陈述讨论的语句通常用一般现在时:Sixty of the students of our school think it is unnecessary to charge an entrance fee. They think that……不少考生表达为Some people thought that……

  ⑷句子不完整

  在口语中,交际双方可借助手势、语气等来理解不完整的句子,可是书面语就不同了,句子结构不完整会令意思表达不清,这种情况常常发生在主句写完以后,又想加些补充说明时发生.例如: There are many ways to know the society. For example by TV ,radio ,newspaper and so on .应改为:There are many ways to know society, for example, by TV ,radio ,and newspaper.

  ⑸内容表达错误

  这种错误一般说来是审题不清所致。如2003年的书面表达,正确内容是:I've found a flat for you. It's a small one of 25 square meters with a bedroom, a bathroom and a kitchen. The house is near No 11 bus stop on Fang Cao Street and the school is at the next stop.有不少考生表达为:“I've found a flat of 25 square kilometers. It's in No.11 Fang Cao Street.”

  ⑹句子与句子之间缺少衔接造成意思过渡不平稳

  例如:把He worked hard. He failed the exam.改为He worked hard. However, he failed the exam.就比较好。

  ⑺习惯用语使用错误

  如:将 to my surprise 表达为 to my surprised;将in my spare time 表达成 at my spare time; 将He didn't lose heart though he failed.表达为He didn't lose his heart though he failed.

  ⑻没有利用恰当的代词,给人于重复的感觉

  例如:把My father is a worker. My father works in a big company. 改为My father is a worker. He works in a big company. 就比较好。

  ⑼单词运用错误

  写作中常见考生因分不清单词的词性而产生错误。大致有:

  a.将vi.用成vt.如:come the city/return the place

  b.将adj.用成vt.如:Please present on time. Don't absent!

  c.将u.n.用成c.n.如:a good news/many informations

  d.将adj./adv.使用错误.如:in the recently years/study hardly;

  e.将prep.用成v.如:Many overpasses arounded the city.   The road throughed the city.

  f.将名词的单/复数使用不当。如:There are lots of high building. // Most of the people have private car.  句中building应改为buildings;句中car应改为cars。

  g.句子的主谓不一致:如:A large number of beautiful buildings has been built.  句中has应改正为have。

  h.常用词拼写错误:如:beautiful写成beautful; believe写成belive; money写成moneny…

  i.在叙事文中通常会运用一般过去时态,所以就出现了动词的过去式,尤其是不规则动词的过去式的拼写错误很普遍的现象。如:visitted/ hurted/ writed/………

  j.不定冠词的使用错误:如:send a e-mail to you(an)/ Even a overpass has been built…(an)/ He graduated from an university.(a)

  k.虚词错误:①冠词的漏用和误用, 如:My father is worker.  ②缺必要的连结词或连结词多余, 如:He likes swimming, I like climbing.

  ⑽不间断句子,即几个句子连在一起,看起来似乎是一个句子

  例如:There are many ways we get to know the outside world.应改为:There are many ways for us to learn about the outside world.或 There are many ways through which we can become acquainted with the outside world.

  ⒉应对策略:

  我们知道,英语书面表达是对英语语言知识的积极运用。它包括两大方面:一是内容,即写什么;二是表述,即如何用语言把内容表述出来。为了避免所存在的问题并提高英语书面表达能力,宜从以下几方面去努力。

  ⑴强化英语基本句型。句子是文章的基本框架,在文章中起着桥梁的作用。对学生来说,英语书面表达最基础的还是选词造句,使句子正确通顺,符合英语表达习惯。

  ⑵分析并诵读课文。课文是句型的延伸与扩展,分析课文的选词造句、连接手段、篇章结构等,并有意识地诵读课文,这有利于学生对基本句型的巩固与运用,有利于他们提高语言组织能力以及写作素材的积累和语感的形成。

  ⑶加强听说训练。听力与口语训练能促进学生用英语进行思维,为学生写出地道的英语打下坚实的思维基础。

  ⑷参加英语兴趣小组活动。英语兴趣小组能为学生提供运用英语的机会,丰富写作素材,从中也可以培养对英语的兴趣,而兴趣是学习的最好的老师,它能帮助你学好英语,当然也包括书面表达。

  ⑸坚持用英语写日记。把自己当天的所见所闻、所感所悟用英语记下来,坚持不懈,这样熟能生巧,必有利于英语书面表达的提高。

  ㈥如何提高书面表达的档次,争取得高分甚至满分?

  不少同学们可能很不理解:考试时,写出的书面表达要点齐全,表达也正确,可就是不知道为什么打不上高分。是啊,为什么呢?今天,我们就来研究如何解决这个问题。

  首先让我们来看近年来全国高考英语书面表达的评分标准:第五档(很好):“覆盖所有主要内容;应用了较多的语法结构和词汇;语法结构或词汇方面有些许错误,但为尽力使用较复杂结构或较高级词汇所致;应用简单的语句间的连接成分,使全文结构紧凑;达到了预期的写作目的。”

  可见,高考书面表达评分标准在语言的运用上对考生提出了更高的要求。也就是说在考查考生语言准确性的基础上,进一步强调了用词的得体性、表达方式的多样性。如果同学们仅运用基础的词汇和基本的句型,不能体现出较强的语言运用能力,即使要点齐全,表达没有语法错误,也不能给人一种含金量高的审美享受,因此很难在考试的评分中得到较高档次。评分标准给我们传递了另外一个信息,如果有意识地使用较高级词汇或复杂结构,即使有些错误,也不扣分,仍属于最高档次。

  因此要使一个平淡的文章变得丰富起来,从而提高书面表达的档次。我认为同学们应着力于从以下三个方面来增强书面表达的效果。

  ⒈学会使用较高级的词汇

  词汇反映你知识贮存量的多少,也是衡量英语水平的一个重要标志。从评分标准可知,运用高级的词汇对提高书面表达的分数至关重要。大家先来看下面这些句子:

  ⑴Because the weather was good, our journey was comfortable.

  Thanks to the good weather, our journey was comfortable.

  ⑵We all think he is a great man.

  think highly of him.

  ⑶Suddenly I thought out a good idea.  …came upon …

  A good idea occurred to me. /A good idea suddenly struck me.

  ⑷The students there needn't pay for their books.

  Books are free for the students there.

  ⑸As a result the plan was a failure.

  The plan turned out (to be) a failure.

  ⑹When she heard he had died, she went pale with sorrow.

  At the news of his death, she went pale with sorrow.

  ⑺She went to Austria in order to study music.

  She went to Austria for/with the purpose of studying music.

  ⑻When he spoke, he felt more and more excited.

  The more he spoke, the more excited he felt.

  ⑼In our school, there are twenty–six classrooms.

  Our school is made up of twenty–six classrooms./Twenty–six classrooms make up our school.

  ⑽You can find my house easily.

  You'll have no trouble/difficulty finding my house.

  ⒉学会使用较丰富的句式

  在整篇文章中,避免只使用一两个句型,要灵活运用各种语法结构,运用得当的句子结构可以给文章增色不少,从而使整篇文章因此而生辉。例如:

  ⑴When he arrives, please give me an e-mail.(使用V-ing形式)

  →On his arriving/ arrival, please give me an e-mail.

  ⑵To his surprise, the little girl knows so many things.(使用名词性从句)

  →What surprises him is that the little girl knows so many things.

  (That the littler girl knows so many things surprises him./It surprises him that the littler girl knows so many things .)

  ⑶Though I'm weak, I'll make the effort. (使用倒装句)

  →Weak as I am, I'll make the effort.

  ⑷He did not know what had happened until he had read the news in the newspaper.(使用强调句型   ①.It was… ②.not until…)

  →①It was not until he had read the news in the newspaper that he knew what had happened.

  →②Not until he had read the news in the newspaper did he know what had happened.

  ⑸I passed the physics exam because of your help.(使用虚拟语气)

  →①I could not have passed the physics exam but for your help.

  →②If you had not helped me, I could not have passed the physics exam.

  ⑹She walked out of the lab and many students followed her. (用过去分词)

  →Followed by many students, she walked out of the lab.

  ⑺They sang and laughed as they went back to school.( 使用V-ing形式)

  →Singing and laughing, they went back to school.

  ⑻I won't believe what he says. (使用状语从句)

  →No matter what he says, I won't believe.

  ⑼If you study hard, you will make rapid progress. (使用并列句)

  →Study hard and you'll make rapid progress.

  ⑽He had no sooner come back from Beijing than he was sent abroad. (使用倒装句)

  →No sooner had he come back from Beijing than he was sent abroad.

  ⒊学会使用恰当的连接词

  使用恰当连接词,对写出一篇有“英语味”的文章很重要,能使整篇文章上下衔接自然、紧凑,使文章有一定的流畅性,以使文章层次清晰,行文连贯。下面表格中是写作中经常用到的一些连接词。

逻辑角度  合适的过渡性词汇 
时间顺序  first, second, then, finally/at last, immediately, suddenly , soon 
空间顺序  here, there, on one sideon the other side, in front of, at the back of, next to 
对称顺序  for one thing, for another thing, on one hand, on the other hand 
转折顺序  but, however, while, though, otherwise 
因果顺序  because, since, as, thanks to, as a result (of) 
条件顺序  as long as, so long as, on condition that, if, unless 
让步顺序  though, as, even if/though, whether, who(what, when, where)-ever 
递进顺序  what's more, besides, to make the matter worse, what's worse 
过渡性插入语  I think, I'm afraid, you know, As we all know 

  例如:

  ①On one side of the road there is a new classroom building. On the other side, where the playground used to be now stands another new building—our library. (NMET99范文)

  ②As far as I know, everyone is happy about this new arrangement of things.(NMET01范文)

  ③What's more, I can go to bed earlier. (NMET01范文)

  运用以上讲解的三点增强书面表达效果的技巧,我们来看下面这样一篇书面表达:

  联合国教科文组织某考察团正在我国某乡村参观考察。假定你是接待人员,请根据下列提示以发言稿的形式简要介绍这个村的情况:

  1)      大小:近100户人家,约500口人。

  2)      变化:过去很穷,78年后变化很大。人们生活比以前好多了。现已旧貌换新颜。

  3)      教育:原来的学校很小,现已经过改建。新建的教学楼有4层,是村里最美的建筑物。村所有学龄儿童在此免费就读。

  注意:(1)要点齐全,前后连贯。(2)词数:100-120之间。

  [解析]:

  ⑴依据要点,草拟提纲,将所需要的语言材料准备好。可以只列出主要的词、词组、短语及句型。暂不考虑动词的时态、语态、单数第三人称等词形变化。

  ①100 families and 500 people/

  ②used to be very poor/ change a lot/ richer than before/ take on a new look

  ③was very small/ have been rebuilt

  ④newly-built/have 4 storeys/ most beautiful building

  ⑤school-age children/ enjoy free education

  ⑵扩展成句,连句成篇。本文为一篇发言稿,其格式与口头通知大体相同。因此,短文应有称呼、开场及结束语。既然介绍的是小村,所使用的人称应为it.应注意时态、语态的正确运用,并适当使用一些连接成分将所列的语句连成完整的语篇。全文应结构紧凑,前后连贯。

  Ladies and gentlemen,

  Welcome to our village! ①This village is very small. It has nearly 100 families and about 500 people. It used to be very poor.②It has changed a lot since 1978 ③. People here ④are richer than before. Now it is taking on a new look.

  In the past, the school here was very small⑤. ⑥Now it has been rebuilt. ⑦The newly built teaching building⑧has 4 storeys and it is the most beautiful building in the village. All the school-age children can study here.⑨They enjoy free education in it.⑩Thank you.

  大家看,这篇书面表达要点齐全,表达也没语法错误,但语言平淡,表达方式单一,逻辑性也差,因此很难在考试的评分中得到较高档次。如果使用一些恰当的连接词,并尽量使用较高级的词汇和较复杂的语法结构,这个平淡的文章就会有很大改观,甚至会变得更精彩。

  Ladies and gentlemen,

  Welcome to our village! ①This village is a small one with/which has nearly 100 families and about 500 people. It used to be very poor. ②However, it has changed a lot since 1978 ③and has been developing very fast. People here ④have/live a much better life than before . Now it is taking on a new look.

  In the past, the school here was very small⑤and most children couldn't afford to go to school.⑥But now it has been rebuilt⑦and the newly built teaching building ⑧which has 4 storeys is the most beautiful one in the village. All the school-age children can study here. ⑨What's more/Also, they enjoy free education.

  ⑩May you enjoy your stay here/May you have a pleasant time here! Thank you.

  [对上文评析]:

  ①用介词短语作定语或用含定语从句的主从复合句。②语句间缺少连接成分However。③表现作者对现在乡村的发展的喜悦心情,也起到承上启下作用。④较高级词汇。⑤作者对过去孩子们上不起学表示遗憾和同情。⑥语句间缺少连接成分,添加But。⑦语句间缺少承上启下连接成分and。⑧用含定语从句的主从复合句。⑨此处应添加一个承接上下文的过渡性词语,如“What's more/Also”,这样,前后就显得更加连贯了。⑩如能适当发挥,在结尾处添加像“May you enjoy your stay here/May you have a pleasant time here!”的表希望、祝愿的语句,会使全文更加完整,使文章读起来更亲切,完全达到与读者进行交流的目的,从而收到更佳的表达效果。

  ④较高级词汇。

  ①⑧较复杂句式。

  ②⑥⑦⑨这些连接词的恰当使用无疑能使全文过渡自然,令读者对后续的句子产生心理的期待和准备,增强句子间的逻辑性和紧凑性。

  ③⑤⑩适当增加句子的感情色彩,增加一些人情味,使文章读起来更亲切,完全达到与读者进行交流的目的。

  以上我们可以看出,要使文章连贯、流畅,就要使用较高级词汇、复杂句子结构以及恰当的连接词,才能给人一种美的享受,才能在考试的评分中得到较高的档次。总之,希望同学们通过以上启发,灵活运用,坚持用科学的方法多写多练,就一定能写出高质量的英语作文,在高考中取得成功。

  [小练习]:

  试试看,下面这篇书面表达又该怎样写才能得高分呢?

  请你根据下列表格的内容,阐述一下你对减少城市人口的看法。

建议项  具体措施  的 
1  A. 晚婚
B. 一对夫妇一个孩子 
减少人口自然增长
(人口出生率) 
2  严格控制外地人进城务工经商  减轻外地人口对城市的压力 
3  A. 在郊区,建造生活、商业、文教、
卫生、娱乐休闲生活小区
B. 在城市的县里建造卫星城 
吸引城市居民到郊区和卫星城工作和生活。 

  A Suggested Version:

  Our modern city is too crowded, and to solve the problem, I have three suggestions. First of all, practise the policy of “ Late Marriage ”and “ One Couple, One child ” so as to reduce the birth rate. Secondly, the city government must have a tight control of people entering cities to engage in trade or do various physical jobs in order to reduce the pressure on the city caused by the increasing population. Finally, more and more people suggest that living blocks with shopping centers, school, hospital as well as cinemas and theatres or even satellite towns should be built in the city suburbs or the countries round the cities. In this way city citizens will be encouraged to move there. If these three suggestions are well carried out, the city population will be greatly reduced.

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