著名的Vatican City梵蒂冈城是罗马教廷所在地，是由教皇统治的国家，位于意大利罗马城内，面积只有109英亩（约180平方公里），可谓是世界上最小的独立国家。Vatican City的建筑气势宏伟、内部装饰精美，堪称艺术之杰作……
Vatican City is an independent state under the absolute authority of the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church. It is an enclave with Rome, Italy, with an area of 44 hectares (109 acres). The smallest independent country in the world, Vatican City was established in 1929 under terms of the Lateran Treaty, concluded by the Italian government and the papacy after many years of controversy. This treaty was superseded in 1984 by a new concordat, which, like its predecessor, recognized the full sovereignty of the Holy See (the jurisdiction of the Pope) within the state of Vatican City.
* conclude：“结束、中止”的意思。Vatican City于1929开始修建，许多年后由意大利政府和罗马教廷（papacy）最后完成，其中经过了许多争论（controversy）。
* concordat：“协议”、“合同”的意思，这里指“宗教协定”，是罗马教皇与各国政府之间的协定，即，承认教皇在Vatican City的统治。
Vatican City is situated on Vatican Hill in northwestern Rome, just west of the Tiber River. It is surrounded by medieval and Renaissance walls and has six gates. Many of the most renowned artists and architects of the Italian Renaissance were commissioned by Popes to work on the Vatican's buildings. The most imposing and important edifice is Saint Peter's Basilica. Built for the most part between the 15th and 17th centuries, and designed by artists, including Bramante, Michelangelo, and Bernini, it is the world center of Roman Catholic worship. In front of the basilica is the great Piazza San Pietro (Saint Peter's Square).
* edifice：“建筑物”、“大厦”，规模宏大、建筑精美的building。Vatican City最宏伟的建筑是Saint Peter's Basilica（圣彼得大教堂），它是世界上最大的基督教教堂，形状象一个十字架。
* Piazza San Pietro：圣彼得广场，因位于圣彼得教堂前方而得名。
The other major edifice is the Palace of the Vatican, also known as the Papal Palace. It is a complex of buildings that contains more than 1000 rooms and houses the papal apartments, the government offices of the Roman Catholic church, several chapels and museums, and a library. The most famous portions of the palace are the Sistine Chapel, with its great ceiling frescoes painted by Michelangelo (restored 1980-1990); and Raphael's Rooms, papal apartments with frescoes painted by the Italian artist Raphael.
* fresco：湿壁画，湿壁画技法。“干壁画”是fresco secco。
The Vatican's museums are outstanding and include the Gregorian Museum of Egyptian Art; the Gregorian Museum of Etruscan Art; the Pio Clementno Museum, with a superlative collection of antiquities; the Chiaramonti Museum; and the Vatican Pinacotheca, with representative works by Italian masters. The Vatican Library has a priceless collection of ancient manuscripts and more than 1 million bound volumes. Also within the Vatican's walls are the Government Palace and the Vatican Gardens.
* Gregorian museum：“格利高里博物馆”，“Gregory”是教皇的名字。Vatican的博物馆都很突出，其中包括格利高里埃及艺术博物馆、格利高里伊特鲁里亚艺术(Etruscan Art)博物馆等。
* Vatican Pinacotheca：“梵蒂冈美术馆”，Pinacotheca就是“画廊、美术馆”的意思。
Vatican City is governed by the Pope, who has absolute executive, legislative, and judicial powers. The executive powers are delegated to a governor, who is responsible directly to the Pope. In the exercise of his legislative powers, the Pope is advised and assisted by the Sacred College of Cardinals and by the various Sacred Congregations. The judicial powers are exercised by tribunals; appeals from their decisions are heard by the sacred Roman Rota and by the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature.
* Pope：“教皇、主教”。Vatican City由教皇统治，完全掌握着行政权、立法权、和司法权。
* sacred College of Cardinals：“红衣主教神学院”。教皇在行使立法权时，由红衣主教神学院和Sacred Congregations（圣会）协助并提出建议。
The Secretariat of State represents the Holy See in diplomatic relations with foreign powers. Swiss Guards maintain internal security and protection of the Pope; the Piazza San Pietro is subject to the authority of the Italian police. Castel Gandolfo, the papal summer palace outside Rome, as well as other buildings located in Rome but outside of Vatican City are endowed with extraterritoriality.
* Secretariat of State：“秘书长”。
* Holy See：“圣座”的意思，这里指代教皇。教廷的秘书长可以代表教皇进行外交活动。
* Castel Gandolfo：教皇的夏季宫殿。
Vatican City has its own currency (equal to the Italian lira) and postal system. It also has a railroad station and radio station, and manages its own telephone and telegraph services. Annual expenditures in the late 1980s were $121.9 million. A daily newspaper and an official monthly journal are published, as are books and pamphlets in numerous languages.
* annual：“每年的，每年一次的”，指植物时是“一年生植物”。Vatican City不但有自己的货币和邮政体系，还有一个火车站和电台，经营着自己的电话和电报服务机构。80年代后期年均在这些项目上的花费有1.2亿多美元。