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英语学习方法论

2006-05-17 13:37

  第1部分 整体建议

  1. We'd better develop our interest in English at the beginning of our study. To develop interest in English study is not very hard. We may have the feeling of satisfaction and achievement from our English study when we are able to say something simple in English, talk with others or foreigners in English and act as others' interpreters.

  在英语学习之初,我们应该注重培养对英语学习的兴趣.培养对英语的兴趣并不难。当我们可以说点儿简单的英语,用英语与别人或与老外交谈,或作别人的翻译时,我们就可以从英语学习中得到满足感和成就感,这样,兴趣就培养起来了。请注意,这种满足感和成就感很重要!

  2. Plans are always very essential, so we must make some elaborate and workable plans before study. And we should certainly carry out these plans to the letter.

  制定英语学习计划太重要了,所以我们必须在学习前制定精细的和可操作的计划。并且我们一定要严格执行这些计划。请注意:千万不要干没有计划的傻事,那等于在浪费生命。

  3. Notes should be made whenever we study any book. We may follow this advice: Don't read book without making notes. As we know that notes are the summarization, the core content, our understanding and the abbreviations of the books. Our notes are much thinner than the books so that we can learn them by heart easier and can often review and read them. We may also record our notes on tapes so as to often listen to them easier, to deepen our impression and to lighten our burden of memory. Sometimes it is needful to draw some tables and illustrations that are very impressive, visual and concise.

  无论学习什么,我们都要作笔记。我们可以参照下面的忠告:不作笔记就不要读书。如您所知,笔记是我们对所学课本的总结,中心内容,我们的理解和课本的缩略。笔记要比课本薄的多,我们可以较容易的记忆和经常复习他们。更胜一畴的做法是把笔记录成音,这样我们可以经常听一听来加深印象和减轻记忆负担。

  4. Watching English movies, English TV programs, listening to English songs and learn English on some special occasions are also excellent and vivid English learning ways as we may combine English with some certain scenes to deepen our memory.

  看英文电影,收看英语电视节目,听英文歌曲和在某些特定场景学习英语也是很棒和很生动的英语学习方式,因为这样我们可以把所学英语与某些特定的场景联系起来以加深记忆。

  5. Never just memorize single English words. Learn by heart the whole sentences and the phrases that contain the new words so we may know how to use the words.

  不要孤立地背英语单词。请背记包含生词的句子或词组,这样我们才真正能运用这些词汇,而且印象更深。

  6. If time permits, we may read Mini Chinese-English dictionary carefully from cover to cover, which may help us widen our sight and master knowledge in all aspects.

  如果时间允许,通读小小汉英字典对于英语学习也帮助很大。他能帮助我们扩大视野并全方位地掌握所学知识。

  7. Excellent personality is one of the decisive factors in English study. Persistence, patience, self-confidence and determination are badly needed.

  优秀的性格也是英语学习的关键因素之一,坚持,忍耐,自信和坚定都是很重要的。当然如果兴趣培养得好,可适当削弱这方面的要求。

  第2部分 具体方法

  1. Oral English:(口语学习)

  A. We study spoken English so as to make oral communications, so this order of importance of oral English study should be followed: Fluency, Accuracy, and Appropriateness. That is to say, we have to pay more attention to practical communicating ability instead of only laying emphasis on the grammatical correctness.

  我们学习口语目的是为了与别人进行交流,所以英语口语中的几个要素的重要次序应为:流利-准确-恰当。

  B. Try to find some partners practicing oral English together and English corner is a good place as where we may exchange English study experience, widen our sight and improve interest in English.

  努力寻找学伴一起练习口语。英语角是个不错的地方,在那我们不但可以练习口语,还可以交流英语学习经验,开拓视野,提高英语学习兴趣。

  C. If English partners are not easy to get, then we have to create an English environment ourselves by speaking English to ourselves.

  如果找不到学伴或参加英语角的机会很少,那么就需要通过自己对自己将英语来创造英语环境。比如对自己描述所看到的景物,英语口述自己正在作的事情。

  D. This method is very effective and easy to insist on——interpreting Chinese-English novels or books. First we read the Chinese parts and then try to interpret them into English and then compare our interpretation with the original versions in the novels or books so that we can find out the mistakes, shortcomings and progresses in our interpretation.

  这种方法非常有效且很容易坚持——口译汉英对照(或英汉对照)的小说或其它读物。首先我们先读汉语部分,然后逐句直接口译成英文,完成一小段后,去看书上的对应英文部分并与我们的口译进行比较,我们马上可以发现我们口译的错误,缺点和进步。

  请注意:开始要选择较简单的读物。

  这样作的好处:

  1. 自己就可以练习口语,想练多久,就练多久。

  2. 始终有一位高级教师指出您的不足和错误——英文原文。

  3. 题材范围极广,可以突破我们自己的思维禁锢,比如我们总是喜欢谈论我们自己熟悉的话题,所以我们总是在练习相同的语言,进步当然就缓慢了。

  4. 选择小说,幽默故事或好的短文阅读,使我们有足够的兴趣坚持下去。

  5. 有一些我们在直接学习英语课文时被我们熟视无睹的地道的英语用法会被此法发掘出来。

  6. 对所学知识和所犯错误印象深刻。这等于我们一直在作汉译英练习,很多英文译文是我们费尽心思憋出来的,所以印象相当深刻。比直接学习英文课文印象要深的多。

  E. Interpreting what you hear——Changing Roles: Three people make a group: one speaks Chinese, one speaks English acting as the foreigner, one acts as interpreter. Then change roles. This is a good interpreting training method and is good for studying from one another. In addition, it may improve the responding ability and speed of students. The advanced stage of this method is simultaneous interpretation.

  听译法-角色互换:三人一组,模拟翻译实战。一人将汉语,一人将英语,扮演老外,一人作翻译。练习一段时间后互换角色。这是一种非常好的翻译训练方法,也是很好的相互学习,取长补短的方法。而且可大大提高反应速度和能力,此法的高级阶段为同声传译,我们可以在听广播或看电视或开会时,把所听内容口译英文。

  F. Oral composition and 3-minute training method: This method is suitable for intense training. Making an oral composition about a certain topic for one minute the first time and record the composition on tape at the same time. Then listen to the composition and find out the room for improvement. Then make the same composition for two minutes for the second time and also record it. And at last repeat the above-mentioned for three minutes.

  口语作文和3分钟训练法:此法适用于强化训练。找好一个题目作一分钟的口语作文,同时将其录音。听录音,找出不足和错误,就此题目再作两分钟的的口语作文,同样录音,再听并找出不足与进步,继续作三分钟口语作文。这是高级口语训练,效果不俗。

  G. Retelling exercise: Retell some articles or English stories in our own words.

  复述练习:用自己的话口语复述我们所听的英语故事或文章。

  H. If possible, we may read some English tongue twisters loudly and quickly with one or two cakes of candy in our mouth (just as the Chinese cross-talk actors do.) to train our oral cavity muscle and tongues suitable for English pronunciation.

  如果可能我们也可以大声且快速朗读英文绕口令(就象相声演员练嘴),还可以同时口中含块糖以加大强化训练的力度。这样来强我们的口腔肌肉迅速适应英文发音,使我们的口语相当流利,清晰,而且还有自信。例如:

  ☆A big black bug bit the back of a big black bear. The big black bear bit back the big black bug.

  ☆This fish has a thin fin; That fish has a fat fin;

  This fish is a fish that has a thinner fin than that fish.

  I. Paying more attention to phrases and small words as one major shortcoming of Chinese English (especially Chinese oral English) is that Chinese students tend to use big words in their oral language, but the idiomatic oral English is abundant with short, active and vivid phrases. And most of such phrases are made of small words.

  特别注意短语(词组)和小词的运用,中国式的英语尤其是口语一个很大的缺点就是中国学生喜欢用大词,而真正地道的英语口语确是充满着短小,活泼,生动的短语,富有生气。而这些短语大部分有小词构成。

  J. Oral English has its own features, but it is closely combined with other aspects of English, for example, writing may make oral English precise and accurate.

  口语随自有特色,但与英语的其它方面紧密相连。比如,经常练习写作,可是口语精密,准确。

  2. Listening comprehension:(听力)

  A. We may improve our aural ability by speaking English in the native and idiomatic way. The pronunciation, intonation and sentence structure should not be in Chinese style.

  可以通过讲地道的口语来提高听力。发音,语调和句子结构请不要中国化。既然能说出来,当然能听懂。当然这样作有点难。

  B. Keeping a relaxed, natural and steady mood when listening to some materials. Namely, to establish self-confidence and to develop excellent psychological quality are essential in the improvement of aural ability.

  在作听力练习时,力求保持放松,自然和稳定的心态。即建立自信心和培养良好的心理素质在听力提高中致关重要。

  C. We may make some simple notes while listening, for examples, the names of people and places, time, age, distance, occupation, figures and so on to get a better understanding of the content.

  在作听力练习时,我们可以作些简单的笔记,例如人名,地名,时间,年龄,职业,数字等以便更好地理解材料。当然还要以听为主。

  D. Catching the drift of the content instead of understanding every word and never waste too much time on single words.

  作听力练习要重材料大意,而不要力求听懂每个词,不要在单个词上浪费太多时间,

  E. Pay close attention to CONCESSION and TRANSITION so as to correctly understand the attitudes of the speakers. The following words are most important: even though, even so, in spite of, unless, although, no matter, however, whatever, no, nor, neither……nor, but……

  密切注意听力材料中的让步与转折以便正确把握说话人的态度.特别关注这些词: even though, even so,in spite of,unless,although,no matter,however,whatever,no,nor,neither……nor, but……

  F. If we may learn by heart new words by listening some word tapes, the results must be satisfactory.

  在背记生词时,如果能听词汇磁带,那么对听力提高也很有好处。

  3.Reading skills:(阅读)

  a. Intensive Reading: When we read the intensive articles, we should make notes of the new words and phrases and good sentences. After reading them, we may ask ourselves some questions about them by using such words: Who, What, Why, When and Where. Then try to answer them in our own words.

  精读:在精读课文时,我们要把生词,词组,句型做成笔记。读后要试着用这些疑问词提问自己是谁,什么,何时,何地且努力用自己的话来回答。

  b. Extensive reading: We must train our ability to scan, skip and read fast. Namely, the ability to catch the key words, the topic sentences and the drift of the articles.

  泛读:要培养浏览,跳读和快读的能力。即抓住关键词,主题句和中心大意的能力。

  c. Reading speed: Three ways to improve our reading speed: 1) Reading the articles from the beginning to the end without intervals so to catch the rough idea of the articles on the whole. Never waste too much time on some new words and single sentences. 2)We may keep time when reading articles.3) When reading articles, we can point at the words with our finger or pen point and our eyes move with the finger quickly so that we are able to read very fast.

  阅读速度:三种方法提高我们的阅读速度:1. 先从头至尾不间断地通读课文以抓住课文大意。不要在单个词或单句上浪费太多时间。2.阅读时计时。3. 阅读时用手指或笔尖指向文章字句并快速移动来迫使我们的眼睛快速随手指或笔尖移动来强化我们的阅读速度。

  d. Newspaper as good reading materials can widen our sight and richen our knowledge.

  多读报,多受益。开阔视野,丰富知识,学习流行词语和英语最新发展。

  4.Writing skills.( 写作)

  a. We have to accumulate abundant materials before we write something, say, learning by heart crowds of articles.

  写作需要有很多素材,积累素材很重要。要多背课文。

  b. Try to express one meaning in various ways.

  努力用多种方式表达一种意思。

  c. Keeping English diary if possible.

  写英语日记。

  a) Prepare some new words, expressions and good sentences to be used before writing something.

  在写作前准备一些要用的好词汇,好句子。

  b) We may also make some English pen pals to establish English communication relationship through some media like newspaper and magazines.

  结交英语笔友,写英文信。这种方法容易坚持,还很有意思。不仿一试,好处多多。

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