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法律词汇表Q-R

2006-05-09 15:45   我要纠错 | 打印 | 收藏 | | |
术语
定义
quash To vacate, void, nullify.
quid pro quo "Something for something." Fair return consideration; i.e., giving something of value in return for getting something of similar value.
quo warranto (quo wah RANT oh) Writ used to discover by what authority an individual holds or claims a public office, franchise or liberty.
rap sheet See criminal history record information.
ratio decidendi (RAY she oh DES ih DEN dye) Principle or rule of law on which a court decision is based.
real evidence Physical evidence that plays a direct part in incident in question, as opposed to oral testimony.
real property Land, anything growing on the land and anything erected on or attached to the land. Also called real estate.
reasonable doubt State of mind in which jurors cannot say they feel confident that an individual is guilty of crime charged. See beyond a reasonable doubt.
reasonable person Hypothetical person who sensibly exercises qualities of attention, knowledge, intelligence and judgment. Used as legal standard to determine negligence.
rebuttal Evidence which disproves evidence introduced by the opposing party.
recidivism (reh SID ih vizm) Relapse into former type of behavior, as when an individual relapses into criminal behavior. A habitual criminal is a recidivist.
recognizance See personal recognizance.
record Official documents, evidence, transcripts, etc., of proceedings in a case.
recusal Process by which a judge excuses him/herself from hearing a case.
recusation Plea by which defendant requests that judge hearing his/her trial excuse him/herself from case.
re-direct examination Opportunity to question witness after cross-examination regarding issues brought up during the cross-examination. Compare rehabilitation.
redress To set right; to remedy; to compensate.
referral Process by which a juvenile case is introduced to court, agency or program where needed services can be obtained.
referee Person appointed by a court to assist with certain proceedings, such as taking testimony.
rehabilitation Reexamining a witness whose credibility has suffered during cross-examination to restore that witness's credibility. Compare re-direct examination.
rehearing Another hearing of case by same court in which suit was originally heard.
rejoinder Defendant's answer to the plaintiff's reply.
relevant evidence Evidence that tends to prove or disprove a matter at issue.
relief See remedy.
remand To send a case back to court where originally heard for further action. Also, to send an individual back into custody after a preliminary examination.
remedy Means by which right or privilege is enforced or violation of right or privilege is prevented, redressed or compensated. Also called relief.
remittitur (reh MID ih dur) Judge's reduction of damages awarded by jury.
removal Transfer of state case to federal court for trial.
replication Plaintiff's reply to defendant's plea, answer or counterclaim.
replevin (reh PLEV in) Action for recovery of a possession wrongfully taken.
reply Plaintiff's response to defendant's argument, counterclaim or answer. Plaintiff's second pleading.
respondent See appellee.
rest When one side finishes presenting evidence in a trial.
restitution Return of something to its rightful owner. Also, giving the equivalent for any loss, damage or injury.
restraining order Order prohibiting someone from harassing, threatening, contacting or even approaching another individual.
retainer Act of a client in hiring an attorney. Also denotes fee client pays when retaining attorney.
return Report to judge of action taken in executing writ issued by judge, usually written on the back of the writ. Also, the action of returning the writ to court.
reverse Higher court setting aside lower court's decision.
reversible error Error sufficiently harmful to justify reversing judgment of lower court. Also called prejudicial error. Compare harmless error.
revocable trust (REV uh cuh b'l) Trust that grantor may change or revoke.
revoke To cancel or nullify a legal document.
robbery Felonious taking of another's property in that person's presence by force or fear. Differs from larceny.
rule of court Rules governing how a given court operates.
rules of evidence Standards governing whether evidence is admissible.

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