Symposium talks will cover a wide range of subjects from overfishing to physical and environmental factors that affect the populations of different species.
In the teaching of mathematics， the way of instruction is generally traditional， with teachers presenting formal lectures and students taking notes.
It is better to die on one's feet than to live on one's knees.
Despite the temporary difficulties， the manager prefers increasing the output to decreasing it.
（1）rather than， let alone 虽不是并列连词，但在结构上连接两个语法形式相同的成分。如：
We are taught that a business letter should be written in a formal style rather than in a personal style.
For the new country to survive， let alone for its people to enjoy prosperity， new economic policies will be required.
At times， more care goes into the composition of newspaper and magazine advertisements than into the writing of the features and editorials.
如：Each cigarette a person smokes does some harm， and eventually he may get a serious disease from its effect.
It was during the 1920's that the friendship between the two American writers Hemingway and Fitzgerald reached its highest point.
Our department was monitored by two supervisors， Bill and me.
Conversation calls for a willingness to alternate the role of speaker with that of listener， and it calls for occasional “digestive pauses” by both.
No bread eaten by man is so sweet as that earned by his own labor.
one指代带不定冠词的单数可数名词，复数为ones.the one 指代带定冠词的单数可数名词。如：
A good writer is one who can express the commonplace in an uncommon way.
For him to be re'elected， what is essential is not that his policy works， but that the public believe that it does.
抹过黑夜的鸢尾 [yagubai19770101@sohu] 发表于2006-05-19 18：30：07 [回复] [发留言] [送礼物] [投诉此帖] [ ]
Just outside the ruins is a magnificent building surrounded by tall trees.
Although a great number of houses in that area are still in need of repair， there has been improvement in the facilities.
The amount of pressure which the materials are subject to affects the quality of the products.
Despite much research， there are still certain elements in the life cycle of the insect that are not fully understood.
There are many valuable services which the public are willing to pay for， but which do not bring a return in money to the community.
Buying clothes is often a time-consuming job because those clothes that a person likes are rarely the ones that fit him or her.
To understand the situation completely requires more thought than has been given thus far.
5.主语带有（together/along）with， such as， as well as， accompanied by， including， rather than 等附加成分， 谓语的数不受附加成分的影响。如：
The president of the college， together with the deans， is planning a conference for the purpose of laying down certain regulations.
a great many + 可数名词复数 谓语用复数
many a + 可数名词单数 谓语用单数
a number of +可数名词复数 谓语用复数
the number of +可数名词复数 谓语用单数
the majority of +可数名词复数 谓语用复数
each/every +可数名词单数 谓语用单数
neither/either of +可数名词复数 谓语用单数
more than one +可数名词单数 谓语用单数
one and a half +可数名词复数 谓语用单数
the greater part of
a large proportion of
one third of
the rest of
never， no， neither， not only， hardly， scarcely， little， seldom， rarely， not until， nowhere， at no time， on no account， in no respect， in no sense， by no means， in no way， no longer， no less， no more， no sooner than， under no circumstances， in vain， still less.如：
Not only is its direct attack on their discipline， it bypasses the essence of what sociologists focus on.
Under no circumstances should we do anything that will benefit ourselves but harm the interests of the state.
only then， only at that time， only once， only in this way， only with， only through， only by， only when， only after， only because.如：
Only when you have obtained sufficient data can you come to a sound conclusion.
often， so， well， to such a degree， to such an extent， to such extremes， to such a point，many a time.如：
So involved with their computers do the children become that leaders at summer computer camps often have to force them to break for sports and games.
（1）出于修辞需要，表示方向的副词：out， down， in， up， away， on.如：
Down jumped the burglar from the tenth floor when he heard someone shouted at him.
（2）出于习惯用法：here， there， now， thus， hence， then.如：
Now is your turn. There goes the bell.
Less important than ever is developing a meaningful philosophy of life.
In between these two extremes are those people who agree with the jury system as a whole， but feel that some changes need to be implemented to improve its effectiveness.
Much as I have traveled， I have never seen anyone to equal her， in thoroughness， whatever the job.
（2）出现在句型be+主语+其他， come what may中。如：
While it's true that we all need a career， preferably a profitable one， it is equally true that our civilization has accumulated an incredible amount of knowledge—be it scientific or artistic.
The business of each day， be it selling goods or shipping them， went quite smoothly.
Come what may， I'll be on your side.
Hydrogen burns much more cleanly than do other fuels and is easy to produce.
Today's electric cars cannot go as fast as gasoline-driven vehicles because the battery does not offer the same amount of energy as does gasoline combustion.
Reading is to the mind as is exercise to the body.
Little did we expect that he would fulfill his task so rapidly.
Suddenly， Gallup's name was on everyone's lips； not only was he the prophet of the moment， but it was generally believed that he had founded a new and most important method of prediction.
Of course developing a system for helping students whose needs are out of the ordinary had been a necessary step in helping those students get into the world of public education.
It is perhaps not an exaggeration to say that we shall soon be trusting our health， wealth and happiness to elements with whose very names the general public are unfamiliar.
2.介词 + which的用法
Children are best served when schools contribute to shaping the solid foundation on which their future will be built.
However， the batteries from which they（electric vehicles） draw energy usually contain harmful chemicals， which become pollutants when the batteries are disposed of.
We are not conscious of the extent to which work provides the psychological satisfaction that can make the difference between a full and an empty life.
Biologists believe that rainforests are the home of perhaps half the world's biotic species， about five-sixth of which have not yet been described and named.
There are two spare rooms in the building， neither of which has been provided with modern facilities.
（1）as与the same， such， so， as等关联使用。如：
As the forest goes， so goes its animal life.
As is true in all institutions， juries are capable of making mistakes.
As is generally accepted， economic growth is determined by the smooth development of production.
as has been said before， as has been mentioned above， as can be imagined， as is known to all， as has been announced， as can be seen from these figures， as might/could be expected， as is often the case， as has been pointed out，
as often happens， as will be shown等。
（2）先行词是不定代词anything， nothing， little， all， everything时，关系代词用that；
（3）先行词由形容词最高级或序数词修饰或由next，last， only， very修饰时，用that；
There are few teachers but know how to use a computer.
There is no complicated problem but can be solved by a computer.
They lost their way in the forest， and what made matters worse was that night began to fall.
Water will continue to be what it is today—next in importance to oxygen.
They always give the vacant seats to whoever comes first.
appeal， belief， conclusion， condition， conviction， doubt， evidence， fact， fear， feeling， ground（s），hope， idea， likelihood， message， news， opinion， order， plan， point， possibility， problem， promise，reply， proof， proposal， question， rumor， sign， story， suggestion， suspicion， theory， thought， truth， trouble， understanding， worry.如：
I have no doubt that he will overcome all his difficulties.
One sign that you are making progress in an art such as painting or photography is that you begin to realize how much there is to learn.
（2）引导词通常为that， 但有时因名词内容的需要，也可由whether及连接副词why， when， where，how引导。that不表示任何意义，其他词表示时间、地点、原因等。如：
The problem， where I will have my college education， at home or abroad， remains untouched.
The fact that she was a few minutes late is no reason for discharging her.
Evidence came up that specific speech sounds a
re recognized by babies as young as 6 months old.
（3）whether or not可以连在一起用，而if or not则不能，or not只能放在句末；
5.动词believe， expect， fancy， imagine， suppose， think后的宾语从句如为否定式，一般将否定词转移到主句谓语上，这一点在翻译时要注意与汉语表达的区别
Even if automakers modify commercially produced cars to run on alternative fuels， the cars won't catch on in a big way unless drivers can fill them up at the gas station.
In debating， one must correct the opponent's facts， deny the relevance of his proof， or deny that what he presents as proof， if relevant， is sufficient.
（2）复合连词as long as，so long as，as far as，on condition that，in the event that；动词及分词provided（that），providing（that），given that， suppose/supposing（that），assuming，say等引导条件状语从句。如：
If left alone by humans， they （the forests） can regenerate， as long as there are seed trees in the neighborhood and the soil has not lost all its nutrients.
You can arrive in Beijing earlier for the meeting provided you don't mind taking the night train.
Assuming he is diligent in his studies at ordinary times， he is sure to pass the test.
In the event that she has not been informed， I will tell her.（如果……）
You can go swimming on condition that you don't go too far from the river bank.（如果……）
Suppose it rained， we would still go.（假如……）
Say it were true， what would you do about it？ （假如……）
Talk to anyone in the drug industry， and you'll soon discover that the science of genetics is the biggest thing to hit drug research since penicillin was discovered.
Dress warmly， or else you'll catch cold.
Hurry up， or the tickets will have been sold out by the time we get there.
Much as he likes her， he does get irritated with her sometimes.
Tired as he was， we decided to disturb him.
Humble as it may be， there is no place like home.
Everybody cheats a little， some psychologists say， while others insist that most people are basically honest and some wouldn't cheat under any circumstances.
While it's true that we all need a career， preferably a profitable one， it is equally true that our civilization has accumulated an incredible amount of knowledge—be it scientific or artistic.
（3）复合连接词for all that和分词granting/granted（that）引导让步从句。如：
Granted you have made much progress， you should not be conceited.
For all that computers can provide us with great help， they shouldn't be seen as substitutes for fundamental thinking and reasoning skills.
Electronics must be programmed before they can work.必须为计算机编好程序它才能工作。
New ideas sometimes have to wait for years before they are fully accepted.有时候新的思想必须等待多年以后才能被人们完全接受。
He was almost hurt when the bus came to a sudden stop.（1991年6月四级考题）
I have just started back for the house to change my clothes when I heard the voices.
（3）when it comes to 是习惯用法，意为“当谈到……时”。如：
Doing your homework is a sure way to improve your test scores， and this is especially true when it comes to classroom tests.
（4）名词短语、介词短语each /every time， the moment/second/minute， in the time， by the time起连词作用。如：
I hope her health will have improved greatly by the time we come back next year.
If individuals are awakened each time they begin a dream phase of sleep， they are likely to become irritable even though their total amount of sleep has been sufficient.
My pain must have been apparent the moment I walked into the room， for the first man I met asked sympathetically： “Are you feeling all right？”
Mercury's velocity is so much greater than the Earth's that it completes more than four revolutions around the Sun in the time it takes the Earth to complete one.
（5）副词directly， immediately， instantly， now引导时间从句， 相当于as soon as.如：
The policemen went into action directly they heard the alarm.
Advertising is distinguished from other forms of communication in that the advertiser pays for the message to be delivered.
Criticism and self-criticism is necessary in that it helps us to find and correct our mistakes.
（2）now that表示 “既然” ； seeing that， considering表示“鉴于”、“考虑到”。如：
Now that we have all the material ready， we should begin the new task at once.
He did poorly in the examinations， considering how hard he had tried for them.
Seeing she is lawfully enough to get married， I don't think how you can stop her.
其他引导原因状语从句的连接词语还有： for the （simple） reason that， by reason that， on the grounds that， in as much as， in so far as等。
5.while， whereas 引导对比从句
While the teenage population in the United States has declined over the past dec
ade， violent crimes committed by juveniles have sharply increased.
A baby might show fear of an unfamiliar adult， whereas he is likely to smile and reach out to another infant.
6.so…that…， with the result that， so much so that 引导结果状语从句
Conversation becomes weaker in a society that spends so much time listening and being talked to that it has all but lost the will and the skill to speak for itself.
Over the years， a large number of overseas students have studied at that university with the result that it has acquired substantial experience in dealing with them.
He himself believed in freedom， so much so that he would rather die than live without it.
7.in order that， in case， for fear that， lest （用虚拟语气） 引导目的状语从句
Give me your telephone number， in case I need your help.
Helen listened carefully in order that she might discover exactly what John wanted.
In Japan， a person's capabilities are not forced into an inflexible specialty. Where there is willingness and intelligence， there is a place within the company to try and to succeed.
Where the Atlantic Ocean crosses the equator， the trade wind causes a flow of water to the west.
（1）that， which 引导定语从句并在从句中做宾语时，可以省略。
No one would have the time to read or listen to an account of everything there is going on in the world.
Had it not been for the timely investment from the general public， our company would not be so thriving as it is.
（2）由although， as if， if， no matter + wh-， once， though， unless， until， when， where， whether， while等连词引导的表示时间、地点、条件、让步、方式的状语从句，可省略主语和助动词be，保留ing分词、ed分词或表语。这样省略的条件是：●从句中被省略的主语必须与主句的主语一致；●谓语动词必须含有be；●从句必须与主语和b
Though raised in San Francisco， Dave Mitchell had always preferred to record the plain facts of small-town life.
Although born in Chicago， the author is most famous for his stories about New York City.
One should never lose one's heart when confronted with temporary difficulties.
These proposals sought to place greater restrictions on the use and copying of digital information than exist in traditional media.
There ought to be less anxiety over the perceived risk of getting cancer than exists in the public mind today.
The project requires more labor than has been put in because it is extremely difficult.
1. Exceptional children are different in some significant way from others of the same age. For these children to their full adult potential， their education must be adapted to those differences.
A. to develop B. to be developed C. developing D. will develop
2. Space exploration promises to open up many new territories for human settlement， as well as the harvest of mineral resources.
A. leads to B. to lead to C. leading to D. lead to
3. Someday， solar power collected by satellites the earth or fission power （裂变能）manufactured by mankind may give us all the energy we need for an expanding civilization.
A. circled B. to circle C. circling D.circles
4. In this experiment， they are wakened several times during the night， and asked to report what they .
A.had just been dreaming B. are just dreaming
C.have just been dreaming D. had just dreamt
5. Her terror was so great somewhere to escape， she would have run for her life.
A. only if B. that there had only been
C. that had there only been D. if there were only
6. Some women a good salary in a job instead of staying home， but they decided not to work for the sake of the family.
A. must make B. should have made
C. would make D. could have made
7. A light with no more power than by an ordinary electric light bulb becomes intensely strong as it is concentrated to a pinpoint-sized beam.
A. as is produced B. that produced
C. that is produced D. produced
8. For most people the sea was remote， and with the exception of early intercontinental travelers or others who earned a living from the sea， there was little reason to ask many questions about it， let alone what lay beneath the surface.
A. asking B. ask C. to ask D. be asked
9.Even if they are on sale， these refrigerators are equal in price to， if not more expensive than， at the other store.
A. anyone B. the others C. that D. the ones
10. The atmosphere is as much a part of the earth as its soil and the water of its lakes， rivers and oceans.
A. are B. is C. do D. has
11. From now on， when anyone in our ranks who has done some useful work dies， soldier or cook， we should have a funeral ceremony and a memorial meeting in his honor.
A. no matter he is B. whether he has been
C. be he D. whether be he
12. In 1921 Einstein won the Nobel Prize， and was honored in Germany until the rise of Nazism he was driven from Germany because he was a Jew.
A. then B. and C. when D. before
13.Physics is the present-day equivalent of used to be called natural philosophy from which most of present-day science arose.
A. that B. all C. which D. what
14. the population of working age increased by 1 million between 1981 and 1986， today it is barely growing.
A. Whereas B. Even if C. After D. Now that
15. His features were agreeable； his body， slight of build， had something of athletic outline.
A. somehow B. as C. though D. somewhat
16. By the first decade of the 21st century， international commercial traffic vastly beyond today's levels.
A.will be expected to extend B. will have been expected to extend
C.is expected to be extended D. is expected to have extended
17. We advocate the economic， cultural and religious traditions of all national minorities.
A. to respect B. to be respected
C. respecting D. having respected
18. There are two horses at the ends of a rope with all their might in opposite directions.
A. pulling B. pull C. pulled D. to pull
19. Today the Tennessee Valley is one of the richest areas in the world. But if things as they were it would now be a desert.
A. had left B. were left C. had been left D. had been leaving
20.After twenty years abroad， William came back only how his hometown was damaged in an earthquake.
A. to find out B. finding out
C. to have found out D. to be finding out
21. Relaxation， fresh air， pure water and clean food， is essential to a sound mind and healthy body.
A. much less than B. no less than
C. no more than D. any less than
22. It is far better to do well a bit of work which is well a large fortune.
A. worthy to be done than have B. worth doing than to have
C. worthwhile to do than have D. worthy of doing than have
23. Understanding the cultural habit of another nation， especially containing as many different subcultures as the United States， is a complex task.
A.one B. the one C. that D. such
24. Whether or not the next plan will yield any positive results to be seen.
A.remain B. remains C.is remained D. have remained
25. If ever again happens an accident like this， we will have only ourselves to blame.
A. it B. so C. there D. that
26. This is the most important respect civilized man can be distinguished from primitive communities.
A. which B. in which C. with which D. that
27. With production steadily， the factory needs an ever-increasing supply of raw materials.
A. having gone up B. goes up
C. gone up D. going up
28. I thought the technician was to blame for the blowing of the fuse， but I see now I was mistaken.
A. how B. that C. where D. why
29. Electronic computers， many advantages， cannot carry out creative work or replace man.
A. though having had B. which have
C. even if having D. over which have
30. The members of the delegation were glad longer than originally planned.
A.to be staying B. staying
C.to have stayed D. if they stayed
31. The students were much encouraged a chance to talk with the Americans in English.
A. to get B. gotten C. to have got D. having got
32. When a person is in a happy frame of mind， he may agree on the thing that he won't tolerate when he is not in the right frame of mind.
A. doing B. to do C. done D. to be done
33. Recently many schools have faced what could be called the crisis of comprehension or， in simple terms， the phenomenon of students with phonic and grammar skills still unable to understand what they read.
A. are B. to be C. being D. have been
34. I the train but I overslept that morning.
A. could catch B. might catch
C. must have caught D. could have caught
35. It is very kind of you to do the washing-up， but you it.
A. mustn't have done B. wouldn't have done
C. mightn't have done D. didn't have to do
36. Taking more vitamin than the body needs does not make it function better， over-fulfilling the oil lamp makes it lighten better.
A. no more than B. any more than C. not more than D. much more than
37. Do you have any idea what Jim does all Sunday？ He spends as much time idling about as he does .
A. his study B. studying C. to study D. on his study
38. The student I am teaching this year is much more intelligent than I taught last year.
A. that B. one C. the one D. those
39. Just as the builder is skilled in the handling of his bricks， the experienced writer in the handling of his words.
A. and so is B. as is C. the same is D. so is
40. The new hotel has erected a beautiful building with recreation area and conference facilities on the top floor the finest view of the city can be obtained.
A. in which B. over which C. where D. there
41. We agree to accept they thought was the best tourist guide.
A. whatever B. whomever C. whichever D. whoever
42. Although many people view conflict as bad， conflict is sometimes useful it forces people to test the relative merits of their attitudes and behaviors.
A. by which B. so that C. in that D. provided that
43. A beam of light will not bend round corners unless to do so with the help of a reflecting device.
A. made B. being made C. having made D. to be made
44. A knock at the door again！ It was the third time someone me that evening.
A.has interrupted B. had interrupted
C.to have interrupted D. would have interrupted
45. The government agrees to install services by residents over a ten-year period.
A. which are to be paid for B. for which to be paid
C. which to be paid for D. to be paid for which
46. He would always ignore the fact of such a contradiction in his inner thought.
A. there to be B. there being C. it being D. there having been