I Political Relations：
The People's Republic of China established diplomatic relations with the Kingdom of Afghanistan on January 20, 1955.
Premier Zhou Enlai and Vice Premier He Long visited Afghanistan in January 1957. This is the first ever visit taken by Chinese leadership to Afghanistan in the history of Sino-Afghan relations. During the visit, the Chinese Premier and Vice Premier met with King Mohammad Zahir Shah of Afghanistan, and held respective talks with Prime Minister Mohammad Daud, Vice Prime Minister Ali Mohammad and Vice Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Mr. Mohammad Naim. The Chinese Premier's visit to Afghanistan enhanced mutual understanding between the two countries and laid a solid foundation for the development of friendly relations between China and Afghanistan. In October 1957, Prime Minister Mohammad Daud of Afghanistan visited China under China's invitation. During the visit he held meetings respectively with Chairman Mao Zedong, Vice Chairman Zhu De and Chairman Liu Shaoqi of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of China.
China and Afghanistan held negotiations in Kabul on boundary treaty from June to August 1963 and in November of the same year, two countries signed the boundary treaty, thus finally completing the determination of the boundary of the two countries.
King Mohammad Zahir Shah and Queen of Afghanistan visited China in October 1964. The King met with Chairman Mao Zedong and held talks with Chairman Liu Shaoqi and Premier Zhou Enlai. Through those meetings and talks, positive achievements were made in further promoting mutual understanding as well as developing bilateral friendship and cooperation.
Mr. Chen Yi, Vice Premier and Foreign Minister of China visited Afghanistan in March 1965 and signed the Boundary Protocol, Agreement of Economic and Technological Cooperation and Agreement of Cultural Cooperation with the Afghan side.
On July 17, 1973, Mr. Mohammad Daud, former Prime Minister undertook a coup, abrogated the King of Afghanistan and declared to set up "the Republic of Afghanistan". On July 20, 1973, Mr. Siddiqui, Ambassador of Afghanistan in China, instructed by the Afghan government, called on Mr. Han Nianlong, Vice Foreign Minister of China to request China's early recognition of the Republic of Afghanistan. On July 28, Mr. Han Nianlong was authorized by the Chinese government to convey a verbal message to the Afghan Ambassador that "under the request by the Afghan government, the People's Republic of China extends recognition to the Republic of Afghanistan with a hope of further maintaining and developing the traditional friendship between the two peoples and friendly ties between the two countries."
In December 1974, Mr. Mohammad Naim, Special Envoy of the Afghan President visited China under China's invitation. He met with Premier Zhou Enlai and held talks with Vice Premier Li Xiannian and Foreign Minister Qiao Guanhua. Both sides discussed international situation and issues on how to strengthen Sino-Afghan relations. The relations between China and Afghanistan have been smoothly developed from the establishment of diplomatic ties to the period of the Republic of Afghanistan.
On April 27, 1978, former Vice General Commander of Afghan Air Force, Wing Commander Abdul Qadir, who held pro-Moscow stand, undertook a coup d'etat, ousted the Daud government and set up "the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan". The Revolutionary Council was established as the highest authority of the country. Mr. Noor Mohammad Taraki, Chairman of the People's Democratic Party became Chairman of the Council and Prime Minister of the government. The new government of Afghanistan sent a memorandum to the Chinese Embassy in Kabul on April 30 and a verbal note to the Chinese Foreign Ministry on May 3 demanding China's recognition of the Afghan government. With a view to further developing the friendly relations between the two countries and two peoples, the Chinese Foreign Ministry replied with a verbal note on May 7 to extend recognition to the new government of Afghanistan. However, soon after this, the Afghan government started to carry out a pro-Soviet Union and anti-China policy by throwing in its own lot with Soviet Union and conducting anti-China activities. Afghanistan also expressed its dissatisfaction to China's establishment of diplomatic ties with the USA.
In February 1979, the Afghan government delivered a statement condemning China "invading" Viet Nam. In March, the Afghan government issued another communique accusing China of sending officers to train Afghan guerrillas and providing arms and financial assistance to Afghan refugees in Pakistan. In April, the Afghan media including its newspaper and broadcasting vilified China by alleging that China had trained Afghan "anti-revolutionary elements". The Chinese Foreign Ministry as well as the Chinese Embassy in Kabul made a number of presentations to the Afghan authorities to expose their lies and clarify the truth of events. The Sino-Afghan friendly relations had thus been severely damaged.