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如何应对四级复合式听写

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大学英语四级考试复合式听写

外语教育网四六级辅导专家  梁海燕

  为了更好地、科学地、客观地衡量大学生的英语水平及语言应用能力,国家英语四、六级考委会本着为教学服务的精神,认真研究测试手段对教学的反映作用,不断提高测试的质量。从1996年年初起已正式启用翻译、简答题、听写等新题型。长期以来,听力对学生来说一直是一个很大的障碍,听写就更是难上加难了。全国大学英语四级统考于97年6月首次采用了"复合式听写"(Compound Dictation)这一题型,它比听力选择题更强调语言综合运用能力,考生不仅要具有良好的听的能力,还应具有较强的拼写能力,记笔记能力和书面表达能力,听的能力是"复合式听写"的基础。怎样应试好听写部分呢?

  Section B Compound Dictation外语教育网版权所有www.for68.com

  Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage Three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. Then listen to the passage again. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from S1 to S7 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from S8 to S10 you are required to fill in missing information. You can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.

  在英语四级考试中,考生在做第8-10个填空时,由于没弄懂题意,只想着全部听写下来,结果感到速度太快,记不下来。听写部分意思虽然理解了,也没用自己的话表达,白白地丢掉了好几分。四级听力考试中,除了对话和短文的解题要点以外,做英语四级听写部分时,还要根据听写题材本身的特点,采用一些不同的技巧。要做好听写题,必须所把握好以下几点:

  (1)利用间隙,浏览全文,积极预测。

  听写部分开头有一段较长的Directions,其长度约为150词左右,差不多等于听写短文本身。按每分钟130-150个词的语速朗读,大约需要1分多一点的时间才能读完。而Directions的内容考生在平时的训练中已经多次接触,非常熟悉,没有必要再去细听慢读,应该有效地利用这一段宝贵的时间,通读全文,积极预测文章的内容。因为听写部分(除复合式听写的第二部分外)卷面所提供的文字信息往往比所要求填写的信息多,利用这些已知的信息预测未知的信息可以大大提高填词的针对性。

  通过卷面文字捕捉信息,找出线索、了解大意。"复合式听写"材料多为说明文,这一体裁的文章具有主题突出,条理分明,层次清楚,语言简洁,逻辑性强的特点。文章的开头或段首多半有主题句(topic sentence),之后的段、句进一步具体扩展、说明或论证主题句。段首和段尾均有完整的主题句。考生应利用一切机会,如考前空隙或播放考试指令时间,浏览试卷该项下的文字部分,尤其是主题句,根据主题句预测文章发展线索和大意。

  Passage One

  If you are a young college student, most of your concerns about your health and happiness in life are probably (S1) _________ on the present. Basically, you want to feel good physically, mentally, and (S2)_______now. You probably don't spend much time worrying about the (S3)_______future, such as whether you will develop heart disease, or (S4)________,how you will take care of yourself in your (S5)_______years, or how long you are going to live. Such thoughts may have (S6)_______your mind once in a while, however, if you are in your thirties, forties, fifties, or older, such health related thoughts are likely to become(S7)________important to you.

  (S8)_________that will help you feel better physically and mentally. Recently researchers have found that, even in late adulthood, exercise, strength training with weights, and better food can help elderly individuals significantly improve their health and add happiness to their life. (S9)_________ giving us the opportunity to avoid some of health problems that have troubled them. (S10)____________

  (S1) focused

  (S2) emotionally

  (S3) distant

  (S4) cancer

  (S5) retirement

  (S6) crossed

  (S7) increasingly

  (S8)Regardless of your age, you can make a number of important changes in your current life style

  (S9)We know much more about preventive health today than our parents and grandparents did in the past,

  (S10)And this new knowledge can be transmitted to our children to help them become healthier than our generation.

  (1) present-now-future

  (2) Para. 1 Changes of people's concerns (young——older)

  (3) Para. 2 how to feel better and avoid some health problems

  即使"复合式听写"材料为其它体裁的文章,听音前浏览下试题也大有裨益。因为文章具有一致性和连贯性的特点,从试题中我们总会搜索到一些有参考价值的材料。1997年6月份大学英语四级考试中的听写文章:考生扫一眼便会知道是一篇关于policeman和他们的job的事,这样就不会措手不及,心慌意乱,影响正常水平的发挥了。

  Passage Two外语教育网版权所有www.for68.com

  (1997.6)

  In police work, you can never predict the next crime or problem. No working day is identical to any other, so there is no (S1) _____ day for a police officer. Some days are (S2)_________ slow, and the job is (S3)________; other days are so busy that there is no time to eat. I think I can (S4)________ police work in one word: (S5)________. Sometimes it's dangerous. One day, for example, I was working undercover; that is, I was on the job, but I was wearing (S6) ________ clothes, not my police (S7)________. I was trying to catch some robbers who were stealing money from people as they walked down the street. Suddenly,(S8) ___________________________________________Another policeman arrived, and together, we arrested three of the men; but the other four ran away. Another day, I helped a woman who was going to have a baby. (S9)_____________________ ___________. I put her in my police car to get her there faster. I thought she was going to have the baby right there in my car. But fortunately, (S10) _____________________.

  (S1) typical

  (S2) relatively

  (S3) boring

  (S4) describe

  (S5) variety

  (S6) normal

  (S7) uniform

  (S8) seven bad men jumped out at me/came to me and we got into/began a fight.

  (S9) She was trying to get to/going to the hospital. But there was a bad traffic jam.

  (S10) the baby arrived in the hospital.

  原文:

  S8. seven bad men jumped out at me; one of them had a knife, and we got into a fight.

  S9. She was trying to get to the hospital, but there was a bad traffic jam.

  S10. the baby waited to "arrive" until we got to the hospital.

  缩小了内容范围,考生听音时更具针对性和准确性,心理放松,更为自信,使自己在考试中处于主动地位。

  (2)听第一遍录音应从大处着眼,小处着手,听为主,记为辅,听写结合,双管齐下

  听第一遍录音时应尽量放松,抓主要信息(大处着眼),将注意力集中在空格部分,尤其注意听清或写下第一个词和最后一个词(小处着手)。否则,就可能糊里糊涂地什么也没听清。要特别提醒:听第一遍时不要手忙脚乱、边听边记,或为了某一个词而造成意识上的暂时停顿,破坏整句或整段的理解。

  第一遍是全文朗读,要求考生注意听懂全文内容。由于听音前考生已浏览了卷面文字,对听力材料有了大致的了解,因此听读第一遍时,考生可以适当地填写些单词和做些笔记,听为主,记为辅。第一遍记下关键词有助于第二遍听写时启发记忆,提示要点,同时也减轻了第二遍笔记的任务,使笔记更加充实、完整,依次与出的内容要点才会更加全面、准确。听和记两种不同的语言技能在"复合式听写"中有着紧密的联系,相互促进。

  (3)听第二遍录音时,留神停顿信号,注意意群和关键词语。外语教育网版权所有www.for68.com

  第二遍在听懂的基础上,迅速记下所听的内容。这一遍主要是抢速度,用简写等方式或用图形、符号记录下内容就行。一般考生听完两遍基本可听懂句意;但只凭记忆写要点,往往容易有疏漏和错误。足够信息量的笔记是写好要点的重要条件;但如何在有限的时间内记录下更多的内容呢?这里介绍几种方法。

  首先,可使用缩略语。可用esp.代especially,sth代something, apprec代appreciation等。没有缩略语的词汇,如字母较少的单词,可完整写出该词,如gift, take,字母较多的单词(只写该词前几个字母;这里的基本要求是快速,省时,并能表达含义。缩略语不一定要求规范,甚至可用些符号,所记内容不一定要求完整,只要能起到提示的作用,自己能看懂就行了。

  其次,由于"复合式听写"第二部分朗读时没有停顿,即使使用缩略语也难记下全文,因此考生应有选择地记笔记。英语中实词具有表意功能,而虚词多具语法功能,所以记词应以实词为主。

  另外,因为"复合式听写"第二部分只要求写出内容要点,这样考生应重点记下句中的中心词。短语a thank-you gift,greatly appreciated和quite acceptable中的定、状语便可略去不记。

  通过这几种方法,考生大大压缩了所记的词语,赢得了时间,精练了内容,增大了笔记的信息量,提高记笔记的效率,为写好内容要点创造了条件。

  (4)听第三遍录音时,注意听没有听明白或没有记录下来的词或句。

  如果都已记下,就重点检查、修正记录内容。考生应针对以上内容及第一部分和第二部分的主题句进行诊断,判断,概括。文章要点显然不可缺漏,但也并非多多益善,考生应分清主次,有所取舍,从这个意义上说,"复合式听写"还要求考生具有一定的逻辑分析和归纳能力。文字表达应简洁、通顺、准确。

  如:分析Passage Two 的原文:

  S8 seven bad men jumped out at me; one of them had a knife, and we got into a fight.

  S9. She was trying to get to the hospital, but there was a bad traffic jam.

  S10. the baby waited to "arrive" until we got to the hospital.

  Passage Two的参考答案:

  (S8) seven bad men jumped out at me/came to me and we got into/began a fight.

  (S9) She was trying to get to/going to the hospital. But there was a bad traffic jam.

  (S10) the baby arrived in the hospital.

  我们不难发现它有以下特点:外语教育网版权所有www.for68.com

  1.将内容要点分列为几点,清楚明白,一目了然。

  2.要点尽可能用完整的简单句表达,不宜用短语,句式也不宜过于复杂。

  3.尽量省去语句中可有可无的修饰成份。

  总而言之,考生应用有限的词语简洁明了地概括出所听内容的全部要点,使内容要点和语言表达达到有机的完美统一。

  (5)听音结束后

  "复合式听写"第三遍朗读供考生进行核对,核对是最后必不可少的环节,考生应抓住时机弥补前两遍听音时所忽略或遗漏的内容,进一步修改和完善自己的答案。 听写第一部分要求考生填入所缺单词,有时考生只凭辩音仍难以准确地判断出应为何词,此时考生可运用自己的语言知识,修正听力细节上的不足。主要可以从语法结构,词语搭配、意义连贯、上下文等多角度去推测、分析和判断,并正确拼写出单词。而在核对听写第二部分内容要点表达时,则应注意力求要点完整、准确,尽量减少语言中语法、拼写等错误。 单词是否拼写正确往往暗示你是否真正听懂了。写错了单词而且错误还比较多的话,很难说你已听懂了。所以,平时应加强拼写练习。

  出题规律

  1)1-7题设计规律

  ① 所填单词以实词为主。97,98两年的复合式听写中只有一个是介词,其他13个全是名词、形容词或副词。

  ② 7个单词以评价性词汇为主,也就是说可以从上下文找到说明的信息。如97年6月的复合式听写:

  In police work, you can never predict the next crime or problem. No working day is identical to any other, so there is no (1)"______" day for a police officer.

  既然没有一天是相同的,也就没有哪一天是"典型的"。根据这种因果说明可以判断所填单词为typical。而没有一天完全相同,也正说明了警察的工作富于变化,由此也可以判断下面的第5个空填variety ( I think I can (describe) police word in one word:(5) _______.)。

  ③ 表示上下义的词汇为题眼

  有些词语即使听不清楚同样可以填出。如98年1月的复合式听写。

  Very few people can get college degree before 11, but Michael was an exception.

  He started high school when he was 5, finishing in just nine months. He became the (S1) ______ youngest college graduate when he was 10 years and 4 months old, earning an (S2)______ degree. Now at 11 Michael's working on a master's degree in (S3)______ intelligence. But Michael's (S4) ______ hasn't always come easy. (S5) ______ his intelligence, he still lacks important life(S6) ______. In one class, he had to struggle to understand (S7) ______ novels, because, he says, "I'm 11. I've never been in love before."

  Another challenge was his size. (S8) ______________________________He likes computers so much (S9)______________________________________ He wants to make robots do all the heavy tasks. (S10)___________________________________ .

  (S1) world's

  (S2) architecture

  (S3) artificial外语教育网版权所有www.for68.com

  (S4) success

  (S5) Despite

  (S6) experiences

  (S7) romantic

  (S8) high school physical education was difficult, because all of the equipment was too big for the then five-year-old student.

  (S9) that in graduate school he's studying how to make them think like people.

  (S10) Michael is smart, but he is like every other kid.

  文章的第一段介绍了Michael如何5岁上高中,10岁上大学,11岁攻读硕士学位。第二段开始一个转折,介绍他的这种"成功"也来之不易。 所填单词为以上信息的上义词,对上文的总结,自然应该是success。(But Michael's _____ hasn't always come easy.)

  ④ 表示同义或反义的词汇为题眼

  复合式听写所填词汇一部分是同义或反义关系,如97年考题:

  One day, for example, I was working undercover; that is, I was on the job, but I was wearing (6)____ clothes, not my police (7)______.

  通常情况下警察所穿的应该是"制服",即uniform,这样,police uniform和normal clothes就构成反义关系。根据(6)(7)的对照关系,可以判断(6)所表示的应该是"便装",这也正式对上文working undercover的解释。

  ⑤ 对文章叙述逻辑的考查

  叙述逻辑即上下文的因果、转折、递进、解释等关系。如果同学们能看出这些关系,则不用听就可以将所缺单词填上。如98年考题。

  But Michael's (success) hasn't always come easy. (5)______ his intelligence, he still lacks important life (6)_______. In one class, he had to struggle to understand (7)______ novels, because, he says, "I'm 11. I've never been in love before."

  由上下文个逻辑关系可以判断(5)应该填Despite,即虽然他很聪慧,但却缺乏很重要的生活……。后面在课上所发生的事情是说明他缺乏(……)的一个例证。例证本身不仅说明了(6)应该填experiences,同时加上后文中的"I'm 11. I've never been in love before." 说明(7)应该填love或romantic。

  2)8-10题设计规律

  8-10基本上是三句话,从句子内容来看,大体有两种情况。

  ① 用于说明主题的细节

  这部分听写一般是段落的主题已经给出,要求同学们补全细节。如98年考题:

  Another challenge was his size. (8) _____________________________.

  紧接着的一句显然是用来说明Another challenge was his size.的,原句是high school physical education was difficult, because all of the equipment was too big for the then five-year-old student.

  97年的8-10题也是如此,所描述的是用来说明警察工作危险的细节。请看原文:

  Sometimes, it's dangerous. One day, for example, I was working undercover,……… I was trying to catch some robbers who were stealing money from people as they walked down the street. Suddenly, (8) ____. Another policeman arrived, and together, we arrested three of the men; but the other four ran away. Another day, I helped a woman who was going to have a baby. (9) ______. I put her in my police car to get her there faster. I thought she was going to have the baby right there in my car. But fortunately, (10) ____________.

  ② 概括性的结论或主题外语教育网版权所有www.for68.com

  95年以来,复合式听写只考过几次,其中98年的第十句为结论句(Michael is smart, but he is like every other kid. )是全文的一个概括。主题与结论作为文章的重点之笔应该是听力理解的重点,也应该是复合式听力所应包含的内容。

  解题技巧:

  根据上面所谈的复合式听写的特点,建议在做复合式听写时最好做到以下几点:

  ① 注意话题知识的运用,文章的话题规定了用词范围。

  ② 利用词汇的上下义和同义词和反义词的关系。

  ③ 根据上下文推测词汇的运用。

  ④ 在做8-10题时,在不能将原句完全记下的情况下, 将关键词记下来, 然后根据关键词,结合文章叙述的逻辑,重新编写句子。

  (2003.1)

  It's difficult to imagine the sea ever running out of fish. It's so vast, so deep, so (S1)_______. Unfortunately, it's not bottomless. Overfishing, (S2)________ with destructive fishing practices, is killing off the fish and (S3)________ their environment.

  Destroy the fish, and you destroy the fishermen's means of living. At least 60 ( S4)___________ of the world's commercially important fish (S5)____________ are already over fished, or fished to the limit. As a result, governments have had to close down some areas of sea to commercial fishing.

  Big, high tech fleets (S6)________ that everything in their path is pulled out of water. Anything too small, or the wrong thing, is thrown back either dead or dying. That's an (S7)________ of more than 20 million metric tons every year.

  (S8)_________________________

  In some parts of the world, for every kilogram of prawns (对虾)caught, up to 15 kilograms of unsuspecting fish and other marine wildlife die, simply for being in the wrong place at the wrong time.

  True, (S9)_________________ , before every ocean becomes a de ad sea.

  (S10)____________________ , then catch them in a way that doesn't kill other innocent sea life.

  S1 mysterious

  S2 coupled

  S3 ruining

  S4 percent

  S5 species

  S6 ensure

  S7 average

  S8 When you consider, that equals a quarter of the world catch, you begin to see the size of the problem.

  S9 some countries are beginning to deal with this problem, but it's vital we find rational ways of fishing,

  S10 It would make sense to give the fish enough time to recover, grow to full size and reproduce,

  It's difficult to imagine the sea ever running out of fish. It's so vast, so deep, so mysterious. Unfortunately, it's not bottomless. Over fishing, coupled with destructive fishing practices, is killing off the fish and ruining their environment. 

  Destroy the fish, and you destroy the fishermen's means of living. At least 60 percent of the world's commercially important fish species are already over fished, or fished to the limit. As a result, governments have had to close down some areas of sea to commercial fishing. 

  Big, high-tech fleets ensure that everything in their path is pulled out of water. Anything too small, or the wrong thing, is thrown back either dead or dying. That's an average of more than 20 million metric tons every year. 

  When you consider that equals a quarter of the world catch, you begin to see the size of the problem. In some parts of the world, for every kilogram of prawns (对虾)caught, up to 15 kilograms of unsuspecting fish and other marine wildlife die, simply for being in the wrong place at the wrong time.

  True, some countries are beginning to deal with this problem, but it's vital we find rational ways of fishing, before every ocean becomes a dead sea. 

  It would make sense to give the fish enough time to recover, grow to full size and reproduce, then catch them in a way that doesn't kill other innocent sea life.外语教育网版权所有www.for68.com

  复合式听写很大程度上利用了完形填空的词汇和篇章技巧,同时在有三题中又运用了写作的技法。但是否能够以适当的语言准确地补全短文所缺信息,不是技巧本身所能做到的,需要考生平时加强这方面的训练。

  以上简要分析了四级听力测试的特点和可以运用的一些方法技巧。但是,听力能力的发展不是一朝一夕可练就的,更不是知道几个小窍门就能解决问题的。希望同学们结合四级考试听力测试的特点,有针对性地强化训练,同时注意解题的技巧,可望在短时间之内有个突破。

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