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反域名抢注消费者保护法

2006-05-09 09:55   我要纠错 | 打印 | 收藏 | | |

  第3001条 简短标题;援引

  (a) 简短标题──本章可被引用为《反域名抢注消费者保护法》;

  (b) 对《1946年商标法》之援引──本章中对《1946年商标法》之任何援引均应指对于1946年7月5日批准的名为《对商业使用之商标的注册和保护作出规定、执行某些国际公约的条款及为其他目的之法案》(15 U.S.C. 1051及随后条款)之法案之援引。

  第3002条 域名抢注之防范

  (a) 一般规定──在《1946年商标法》第43条(15 U.S.C. 1125)末尾加入以下内容进行修正:

  [d](1)

  (A) 一个人应在由商标(包括根据本条作为商标保护的人名)所有人提起的诉讼中承担责任,无需考虑各方的商品或服务,若该人──

  (i) 有从该商标(包括根据本条作为商标保护的人名)获利的恶意意图;并且

  (ii) 注册、交易或使用某一域名──

  (I) 在该域名注册之时该商标具有显著性的情况下,该域名与该商标完全相同或混淆性相似;(II) 在域名注册之时该商标为驰名商标的情况下,该域名与该商标完全相同或混淆性相似或淡化了该商标;或(III) 因《美国法典》第18编第706条,或《美国法典》第36编第220506条而受保护之商标、文字或名称(指由美国奥林匹克委员会对奥运五环标记拥有之权利──译者注)。

  (B) (i) 在判断某人是否具有(A)目所述之"恶意意图"时,法院可考虑但不限于下列因素,如──

  (I) 该域名中所含有的该人的商标或其他知识产权权利(如果有的话);(II) 该域名中包括该人真名或其他通常用于识别该人名称的程度;(III) 该人在与任何商品或服务的真实提供过程中,对于该域名先前进行过的任何使用(如果有的话);

  (IV) 该人在该域名之下可到达的网站中,对于商标善意地非商业性使用或合理使用;(V) 该人有否通过对网站在来源、主办关系、从属关系或批准关系制造令人发生混淆的可能性,或为了牟取商业收益,或带有抹黑或贬损商标的意图,故意将消费者由商标所有人所在的网上位置转移至可能侵害商标代表的商誉的、该域名之下可抵达网站的意图;(VI) 该人是否曾经为营利目的向商标持有人或任何第三方发出过转让、销售或以其他方式出让该域名的要约,但实际却没有在任何商品或服务的真实提供过程中对于该域名进行过任何使用或没有使用该域名的意图,或该人先前曾从事过类似行为;(VII) 该人在申请域名注册之时提供重大的、误导性的错误联络信息,该人蓄意不保持联络信息的准确性,或该人先前曾从事过类似行为;(VIII) 该人注册或收购大量域名,并且该人知道这些域名与他人所有的、在该等域名注册时具有识别性的商标完全相同或混淆性相似,或对他人所有的、在该等域名注册时具有知名度的驰名商标构成了淡化,而无需考虑各方的商品或服务;以及(IX) 该人的域名注册中所包含的商标在第43条第(c)(1)款规定的含义之内,具有或不具有识别度或知名度的范围。

  (ii) 在任何案件中,若法院确认该人相信并有合理依据相信对域名的使用是合理使用或者是合法的,则不应被认定为存在(A)目所述之"恶意意图"。

  (C) 在根据本段提起的涉及对域名的注册、交易或使用的任何民事诉讼中,法院可命令没收或注销该域名,或将该域名转让予商标的所有人。

  (D) 只有域名注册者或该注册者授权的被许可人才应对(A)目规定之下的域名使用行为承担责任。

  (E) 本段之中使用的"交易"一词系指包括但不限于销售、购买、出借、质押、许可、货币交换和任何其他换取对价的转让或作为对价接受的交易。

  [d](2)

  (A) 商标所有人可以在域名注册员,域名登记机构或其他进行域名注册或分配的域名管理机构所在地的司法区域内对域名提起对物民事诉讼,若──

  (i) 该域名侵犯了已在专利与商标局注册的或依第(a)或(c)款受保护的商标所有人的任何权利,且

  (ii) 法院查明该所有人──

  (I) 无法对依第(1)段提起的民事诉讼中本应作为被告的一方取得对人管辖;或者(II) 通过下列方式,经审慎调查后无法找到依第(1)段提起的民事诉讼中本应作为被告的一方──

  (aa) 按注册者向注册机构提供的邮政和电子邮件地址向注册者发出含有所指控的侵犯行为和意欲依本段规定继续行事的通知;且(bb) 在起诉之后,根据法院可能给出的指示,及时将诉讼通知公布。

  (B) (A)(ii)目之下的各项行为应构成送达程序。

  (C) 在依本段提起的对物诉讼中,一域名应被视为在以下司法区域内有其所在地──

  (i) 域名注册员,域名登记机构或其他进行域名注册或分配的域名管理机构所在的司法区域;或

  (ii) 保管足以确立与域名的注册和使用的处分权相关的控制及管理文件的法院所在的司法区域。

  (D) (i) 本段之下对物诉讼的救济措施应仅限于没收或注销域名,或将域名转让给商标所有人的法院命令。在收到由商标所有人依本段规定向美国联邦地区法院已提交之起诉书加盖印鉴的副本后,域名注册员,域名登记机构或其他域名管理机构应──

  (I) 迅速将足以确立与法院对域名的注册和使用的处分权相关的控制和管理文件提交于法院保管;并且(II) 除非根据法院命令,在诉讼未决过程中不得转让,中止或以其他方式修改域名。

  (ii) 除非有恶意或故意漠视(包括蓄意不遵守任何法院命令)之情形,否则域名注册员、域名登记机构或其他域名管理机构不应对依本段作出之禁令性或金钱性救济承担责任。

  [d](3) 依第(1)段提起之民事诉讼与依第(2)段提起之对物诉讼及根据上述任一种诉讼所能获得的任何救济,均应是对其他可适用的任何其他民事诉讼或救济的补充。

  [d](4) 依第(2)段确立之对物管辖权,应是对其他既有的任何其他形式管辖权(无论为对物或是对人)的补充。

  (b) 域名抢注中对个人的保护──

  (1) 一般规定──

  (A) 民事责任──任何人若注册了包含有另一个在世者姓名,或与该在世者的姓名实质性和混淆性相似的域名,而未经该在世者同意,并有通过向该在世者或任何第三方出售域名换取经济收入以从该域名中获取利润的特定意图,则该注册人应在由该在世者提起的民事诉讼中承担责任。

  (B) 例外规定──若某人以善意注册包含有另一个在世者姓名,或与该在世者的姓名实质性和混淆性相似的域名,若该等名称在根据《美国法典》第17编受到保护的作品(包括如《美国法典》第17编第101条所定义的雇佣作品)中使用、附属于该作品或与其有关连,并且若该注册域名者是作品的版权所有人或被许可人,该人在正当利用作品的过程中试图出售该域名,并且该等注册不受注册者与被提及姓名者之间合同的禁止,则该人不应根据本段规定承担责任。本目规定的例外应仅在根据第(1)段提起的民事诉讼中适用,并且在任何情况下均不应对根据《1946年商标法》(15 U.S.C. 1051及随后条款)、联邦或州法律提供的保护构成限制。

  (2) 救济──在根据第(1)段提起的任何民事诉讼中,法院可提供禁令性救济,包括没收或撤销域名或将域名转让给原告。法院可同时依其酌定权,判令胜诉方获偿诉讼费用和律师费。

  (3) 定义──在本款中,"域名"一词应具有《1946年商标法》第45条(15 U.S.C. 1127)所列举的含义。

  (4) 生效日期──本款应适用于本法案制定颁布之日及之后注册的域名。

  第3003条 赔偿金与救济方法

  (a) 域名抢注情况下的救济──

  (1) 禁令──《1946年商标法》第34条(a)(15 U.S.C. 1116(a))的第一句删去"(a)或(c)",加入"(a)、(c)或(d)"。

  (2) 赔偿金──《1946年商标法》第35条(a)(15 U.S.C. 1117(a))的第一句在"第43条(a)"之后加入"、(c)或(d)"。

  (b) 法定赔偿金──《1946年商标法》第35条(15 U.S.C. 1117)在其结尾处增加以下内容:

  "(d) 在涉及违反第43条(d)(1)的案件中,在初审法院作出最后判决之前的任何时间,原告可选择获取数额为每个域名不少于1,000美元且不多于100,000美元,由法院认为公允而确定之法定赔偿金判决,而取代获取实际损失和利润的赔偿。"

  第3004条 责任限制

  《1946年商标法》第32(2)条 (15 U.S.C. 1114)修改如下──

  (1) 在第(A)目之前的引言中删去"根据第43条(a)",加入"根据第43条(a)或(d)";及

  (2) 将原来的(D)目重新编号为(E)目,并在(C)目后加入以下内容:

  (D) (i)

  (I) 实施第(ii)款规定的任何影响域名行为的域名注册员、域名登记机构或其他域名注册管理机构,不应为该等行为向任何人承担金钱性救济,或禁令性救济(除第(II)款的规定之外),不论域名是否最终被认定为侵犯或淡化了某一商标。

  (II) 第(I)款所述之域名注册员、域名登记机构或其他域名注册管理机构仅在该等注册员、登记机构或注册管理机构从事下列行为之时受禁令性救济之约束──

  (aa) 未能迅速将足以确立与法院对域名的注册和使用的处分权相关的控制和管理文件提交于已受理与域名的处分权相关诉讼的法院保管;(bb) 除根据法院命令外,在诉讼未决过程中转让、中止或以其他方式修改了域名;或(cc) 故意不遵守任何该等法院命令。

  (ii) 第(i)(I)所述之行为系指:(I)为遵守第43(d)条规定之法院命令;或(Ⅱ)该等注册员、登记机构或管理机构在执行禁止注册与他人商标相同、混淆性相似或淡化他人商标的域名的合理政策过程中,所采取的任何拒绝注册、移除注册、转让、暂时屏蔽或永久注销某一域名的行为。

  (iii) 若无法表明有从注册或维持某一域名过程中牟利之恶意意图,域名注册员、域名登记机构或其他的域名注册管理机构不应为注册或维持某一域名而向他人承担本条规定之赔偿责任。

  (iv) 若域名注册员、域名登记机构或其他域名注册机构基于任何第三人关于某域名与某一商标相同或混淆性相似,或淡化了某商标的明知且重大的虚假陈述而采取第(ii)款所述之行为,则该作出明知且重大虚假陈述之人应有义务承担赔偿责任,包括域名注册人遭受之任何损失(含诉讼费和律师费)。法院亦可向域名注册人提供包括重新激活域名或将域名转让给域名注册人在内的禁令性救济。

  (v) 域名注册人的域名被依据第(ii)(II)款所述之政策被中止、屏蔽或转让之后,可在向商标所有人发出通知之后,提起民事诉讼以确立该注册人对域名之注册及使用根据本法案并不非法。法院可向该域名注册人提供包括重新激活域名或将域名转让给域名注册人在内的禁令性救济。

  第3005条 定义

  在1946年《商标法》第45条(15 U.S.C. 1127)对于"假冒"一词定义的未编号段落之后,加入以下内容进行修改:

  "域名"是指由任何域名注册员、域名登记机构或其他域名注册管理机构注册或分配的任何包括文字与数字的名称,作为互联网络之上电子地址的一部分。

  "互联网络"一词具有1934年《通讯法》第230(f)(1)条(47 U.S.C. 230(f)(1))所定义的含义。

  第3006条 对涉及人名的滥用性域名注册进行调研

  (a) 一般规定──在本法案通过后180日内,商务部长在同专利与商标局及联邦选举委员会协商后,应就解决涉及某人注册或使用包含另一人的姓名整体或局部,或将与该人姓名混淆性相似的名称注册为域名所引发争议的方针和程序进行调研,并向国会提交建议性报告,其中应考虑和就以下议题提出建议──

  (1) 防止姓名被他人注册为二级域名,以达到通过出售或以其他方式将该等域名转让给原有人或任何第三人换取经济收入的目的;

  (2) 防止个人姓名被他人以损害该个人名誉或与该个人姓名相关的商誉的恶意目而恶意使用为二级域名;

  (3) 保护消费者,防止二级层域中含有姓名的域名被注册和使用,以故意或可能造成公众对域名注册人同姓名持有人之间的从属、联系或关联关系,或该域名下可进入的网站与姓名持有人之间的关系,或对商品、服务或域名注册人的商事活动的来源、出资或批准等方面的混淆或欺骗;

  (4) 保护公众,防止包含美利坚合众国内联邦、州或地方政府官员、官员候选人和政治职位的潜在候选人的姓名被注册为域名,并以破坏选举进程或对公众接触有关该等个人精确和可靠信息的能力构成破坏的方式被使用;

  (5) 现有的救济方式(无论依据州法或其他),和该等救济方式在何种程度上才足以体现第(1)至第(4)段所考虑的因素;以及

  (6) 互联网络名称及数码指定公司的方针、程序及政策及他们对体现第(1)至第(4)段因素考虑的程度。

  (b) 方针和程序──商务部长应根据其与互联网络名称及数码指定公司的备忘录,协同制定解决涉及某人注册或使用包含另一人姓的名整体或局部,或将与该人姓名混淆性相似的名称注册为域名所引发争议的方针和程序。

  第3007条 史迹保存

  在《国家史迹保存法案》第101(a)(1)(A)条(16 U.S.C. 470a(a)(1)(A))末尾增添如下内容:"尽管有于1946年7月5日批准之《对商业使用之商标的注册和保护作出规定、执行某些国际公约的条款及为其他目的之法案》(通称为《1946年商标法》(15 U.S.C. 1125(c)))第43(c)条之规定,已登录于或有资格登录于《国家史迹注册名录》之上的建筑物和筑造物(无论为单独建筑或史迹区的一部分),或被州或地方政府部门指定为单独地理标志或史迹区构成建筑物的建筑物和筑造物,可保留历史上与该建筑物或筑造物相连的名称。"

  第3008条 除外条款

  本章中的任何内容不应影响一被告依据《1946年商标法》所享有的任何抗辩理由(包括该法案第43(c)(4)条之下或与合理使用相关的任何抗辩理由),或依据美利坚合众国宪法第一修正案所具有的言论及表达自由的权利。

  第3009条 技术性及一致性修正

  美国法典28编第85章作如下修正:

  (1) 美国法典第28编第1338条作如下修正──(A) 在该条标题中删除"trade-marks"并插入"trademarks";(B) 在(a)款中删除"trade-marks"并插入"trademarks";(C) 在(b)款中删除"trade-mark"并插入"trademark"。

  (2) 在美国法典28编第85章的条款目录中与第1338条相关的条款中,删除"trade-marks"并插入"trademarks"。

  第3010条 生效日期

  除根据本编第3003条修正之1946年《商标法》第35条(a)或(d)款(15 U.S.C. 1117)规定的赔偿金不适用于本法案制定颁布日前发生的对于域名的注册、交易或使用行为外,本编第3002(a)、3003、3004、3005和3008条应适用于本法案制定颁布日之前、之时或之后注册的全部域名。

  TITLE III——TRADEMARK CYBERPIRACY PREVENTION Enacted on November 29, 1999

  SEC. 3001. SHORT TITLE; REFERENCES (a) SHORT TITLE- This title may be cited as the `Anticybersquatting Consumer Protection Act'. (b) REFERENCES TO THE TRADEMARK ACT OF 1946- Any reference in this title to the Trademark Act of 1946 shall be a reference to the Act entitled `An Act to provide for the registration and protection of trademarks used in commerce, to carry out the provisions of certain international conventions, and for other purposes', approved July 5, 1946 (15 U.S.C.1051 et seq.). SEC. 3002. CYBERPIRACY PREVENTION. (a) IN GENERAL- Section 43 of the Trademark Act of 1946 (15 U.S.C. 1125) is amended by inserting at the end the following: (d) (1) (A) A person shall be liable in a civil action by the owner of a mark, including a personal name which is protected as a mark under this section, if, withou tregard to the goods or services of the parties, that person—— (i) has a bad faith intent to profit from that mark, including a personal name which is protected as a mark under this section; and (ii) registers, traffics in, or uses a domain name that—— (I) in the case of a mark that is distinctive at the time of registration of the domain name, is identical or confusingly similarto that mark; (II) in the case of a famous mark that is famous at the time of registration of the domain name, is identical or confusingly similar to or dilutive of that mark; or (III) is a trademark, word, or name protected by reason of section 706 of title 18, United States Code, or section 220506 of title 36, United States Code. (B) (i) In determining whether a person has a bad faith intent described under subparagraph (A), a court may consider factors such as, but not limited to——(I) the trademark or other intellectual property rights of the person, if any, in the domain name; (II) the extent to which the domain name consists of the legal name of the person or a name that is otherwise commonly used to identify that person; (III) the person's prior use, if any, of the domain name in connection with the bona fide offering of any goods or services; (IV) the person's bona fide noncommercial or fair use of the mark in a site accessible under the domain name; (V) the person's intent to divert consumers from the mark owner's online location to a site accessible under the domain name that could harm the goodwill represented by the mark, either for commercial gain or with the intent to tarnish or disparage the mark, by creating a likelihood of confusion as to the source, sponsorship, affiliation, or endorsement of the site; (VI) the person's offer to transfer, sell, or otherwise assign the domain name to the mark owner or any third party for financial gain without having used, or having an intent to use, the domain name in the bona fide offering of any goods or services, or the person's prior conduct indicating a pattern of such conduct; (VII) the person's provision of material and misleading false contact information when applying for the registration of the domain name, the person's intentional failure to maintain accurate contact information, or the person's prior conduct indicating a pattern of such conduct; (VIII) the person's registration or acquisition of multiple domain names which the person knows are identical or confusingly similar to marks of others that are distinctive at the time of registration of such domain names, or dilutive of famous marks of others that are famous at the time of registration of such domain names, without regard to the goods or services of the parties; and (IX) the extent to which the mark incorporated in the person's domain name registration is or is not distinctive and famous within the meaning of subsection (c)(1) of section 43.(ii) Bad faith intent described under subparagraph (A) shall not be found in any case in which the court determines that the person believed and had reasonable grounds to believe that the use of the domain name was a fair use or otherwise lawful. `(C) In any civil action involving the registration, trafficking, or use of a domain name under this paragraph, a court may order the forfeiture or cancellation of the domain name or the transfer of the domain name to the owner of the mark. (D) A person shall be liable for using a domain name under subparagraph (A) only if that person is the domain name registrant or that registrant's authorized licensee. (E) As used in this paragraph, the term `traffics in' refers to transactions that include, but are not limited to, sales, purchases, loans, pledges, licenses, exchanges of currency, and any other transfer for consideration or receipt in exchange for consideration.[(d)] (2) (A) The owner of a mark may file an in rem civil action against a domain name in the judicial district in which the domain name registrar, domain name registry, or other domain name authority that registered or assigned the domain name is located if—— (i) the domain name violates any right of the owner of a mark registered in the Patent and Trademark Office, or protected under subsection (a) or (c); and (ii) the court finds that the owner—— (I) is not able to obtain in personam jurisdiction over a person who would have been a defendant in a civil action underparagraph (1); or (II) through due diligence was not able to find a person who would have been a defendant in a civil action underparagraph (1) by—— (aa) sending a notice of the alleged violation and intent to proceed under this paragraph to the registrant ofthe domain name at the postal and e-mail address provided by the registrant to the registrar; and (bb) publishing notice of the action as the court may direct promptly after filing the action.(B) The actions under subparagraph (A)(ii) shall constitute service of process. (C) In an in rem action under this paragraph, a domain name shall be deemed to have its situs in the judicial district in which—— (i) the domain name registrar, registry, or other domain name authority that registered or assigned the domain name is located; or (ii) documents sufficient to establish control and authority regarding the disposition of the registration and use of the domain name are deposited with the court. (D) (i) The remedies in an in rem action under this paragraph shall be limited to a court order for the forfeiture or cancellation of the domain name or the transfer of the domain name to the owner of the mark. Upon receipt of written notification of a filed, stamped copy of a complaint filed by the owner of a mark in a United States district court under this paragraph, the domain name registrar, domain name registry, or other domain name authority shall—— (I) expeditiously deposit with the court documents sufficient to establish the court's control and authority regarding thedisposition of the registration and use of the domain name to the court; and (II) not transfer, suspend, or otherwise modify the domain name during the pendency of the action, except upon order of the court.(ii) The domain name registrar or registry or other domain name authority shall not be liable for injunctive or monetary relief under this paragraph except in the case of bad faith or reckless disregard, which includes a willful failure to comply with any such court order.[(d)] (3) The civil action established under paragraph (1) and the in rem action established under paragraph (2), and any remedy available under either such action, shall be in addition to any other civil action or remedy otherwise applicable. [(d)] (4) The in rem jurisdiction established under paragraph (2) shall be in addition to any other jurisdiction that otherwise exists, whether in rem or in personam.'(b) CYBERPIRACY PROTECTIONS FOR INDIVIDUALS- (1) IN GENERAL-(A) CIVIL LIABILITY- Any person who registers a domain name that consists of the name of another living person, or a name substantially and confusingly similar thereto, without that person's consent, with the specific intent to profit from such name by selling the domain name for financial gain to that person or any third party, shall be liable in a civil action by such person. (B) EXCEPTION- A person who in good faith registers a domain name consisting of the name of another living person, or a name substantially and confusingly similar thereto, shall not be liable under this paragraph if such name is used in, affiliated with, or related to a work of authorship protected under title 17, United States Code, including a work made for hire as defined in section 101 of title 17, United States Code, and if the person registering the domain name is the copyright owner or licensee of the work, the person intends to sell the domain name in conjunction with the lawful exploitation of the work, and such registration is not prohibited by a contract between the registrant and the named person. The exception under this subparagraph shall apply only to a civil action brought under paragraph (1) and shall in no manner limit the protections afforded under the Trademark Act of 1946 (15 U.S.C. 1051 et seq.) or other provision of Federal or State law.(2) REMEDIES- In any civil action brought under paragraph (1), a court may award injunctive relief, including the forfeiture or cancellation of the domain name or the transfer of the domain name to the plaintiff. The court may also, in its discretion, award costs and attorneys fees to the prevailing party. (3) DEFINITION- In this subsection, the term `domain name' has the meaning given that term in section 45 of the Trademark Act of 1946 (15 U.S.C. 1127). (4) EFFECTIVE DATE- This subsection shall apply to domain names registered on or after the date of the enactment of this Act. SEC. 3003. DAMAGES AND REMEDIES. (a) REMEDIES IN CASES OF DOMAIN NAME PIRACY- (1) INJUNCTIONS- Section 34(a) of the Trademark Act of 1946 (15 U.S.C. 1116(a)) is amended in the first sentence by striking `(a) or (c)' and inserting `(a), (c), or (d)'. (2) DAMAGES- Section 35(a) of the Trademark Act of 1946 (15 U.S.C. 1117(a)) is amended in the first sentence by inserting `, (c), or (d)' after `section 43(a)'.(b) STATUTORY DAMAGES- Section 35 of the Trademark Act of 1946 (15 U.S.C. 1117) is amended by adding at the end the following: `(d) In a case involving a violation of section 43(d)(1), the plaintiff may elect, at any time before final judgment is rendered by the trial court, to recover, instead of actual damages and profits, an award of statutory damages in the amount of not less than $1,000 and not more than $100,000 per domain name, as the court considers just.SEC. 3004. LIMITATION ON LIABILITY. Section 32(2) of the Trademark Act of 1946 (15 U.S.C. 1114) is amended—— (1) in the matter preceding subparagraph (A) by striking `under section 43(a)' and inserting `under section 43(a) or (d)'; and(2) by redesignating subparagraph (D) as subparagraph (E) and inserting after subparagraph (C) the following: (D) (i)(I) A domain name registrar, a domain name registry, or other domain name registration authority that takes any action described under clause (ii) affecting a domain name shall not be liable for monetary relief or, except as provided in subclause (II), for injunctive relief, to any person for such action, regardless of whether the domain name is finally determined to infringe or dilute the mark. (II) A domain name registrar, domain name registry, or other domain name registration authority described in subclause (I) may be subject to injunctive relief only if such registrar, registry, or other registration authority has—— (aa) not expeditiously deposited with a court, in which an action has been filed regarding the disposition of the domain name, documents sufficient for the court to establish the court's control and authority regarding the disposition of the registration and use of the domain name; (bb) transferred, suspended, or otherwise modified the domain name during the pendency of the action, except upon order of the court; or (cc) willfully failed to comply with any such court order. (ii) An action referred to under clause (i)(I) is any action of refusing to register, removing from registration, transferring, temporarily disabling, or permanently canceling a domain name—— `(I) in compliance with a court order under section 43(d); or `(II) in the implementation of a reasonable policy bysuch registrar, registry, or authority prohibiting the registration of a domain name that is identical to, confusingly similar to, or dilutive of another's mark. (iii) A domain name registrar, a domain name registry, or other domain name registration authority shall not be liable for damages under this section for the registration or maintenance of a domain name for another absent a showing of bad faith intent to profit from such registration or maintenance of the domain name. (iv) If a registrar, registry, or other registration authority takes an action described under clause (ii) based on a knowing and material misrepresentation by any other person that a domain name is identical to, confusingly similar to, or dilutive of a mark, the person making the knowing and material misrepresentation shall be liable for any damages, including costs and attorney's fees, incurred by the domain name registrant as a result of such action.The court may also grant injunctive relief to the domain name registrant, including the reactivation of the domain name or the transfer of the domain name to the domain name registrant. (v) A domain name registrant whose domain name has been suspended, disabled, or transferred under a policy described under clause (ii)(II) may, upon notice to the mark owner, file a civil action to establish that the registration or use of the domain name by such registrant is not unlawful under this Act. The court may grant injunctive relief to the domain name registrant, including the reactivation of the domain name or transfer of the domain name to the domain name registrant.SEC. 3005. DEFINITIONS. Section 45 of the Trademark Act of 1946 (15 U.S.C. 1127) is amended by inserting after the undesignated paragraph defining the term `counterfeit' the following: The term `domain name' means any alphanumeric designation which is registered with or assigned by any domain name registrar, domain name registry, or other domain name registration authority as part of an electronic address on the Internet. The term `Internet' has the meaning given that term in section 230(f)(1) of the Communications Act of 1934 (47 U.S.C. 230(f)(1)).'SEC. 3006. STUDY ON ABUSIVE DOMAIN NAME REGISTRATIONS INVOLVING PERSONAL NAMES. (a) IN GENERAL- Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary of Commerce, in consultation with the Patent and Trademark Office and the Federal Election Commission, shall conduct a study and report to Congress with recommendations on guidelines and procedures for resolving disputes involving the registration or use by a person of a domain name that includes the personal name of another person, in whole or in part, or a name confusingly similar thereto, including consideration of and recommendations for—— (1) protecting personal names from registration by another person as a second level domain name for purposes of selling or otherwise transferring such domain name to such other person or any third party for financial gain; (2) protecting individuals from bad faith uses of their personal names as second level domain names by others with malicious intent to harm the reputation of the individual or the goodwill associated with that individual's name; (3) protecting consumers from the registration and use of domain names that include personal names in the second level domain in manners which are intended or are likely to confuse or deceive the public as to the affiliation, connection, or association of the domain name registrant, or a site accessible under the domain name, with such other person, or as to the origin, sponsorship, or approval of the goods, services, or commercial activities of the domain name registrant; (4) protecting the public from registration of domain names that include the personal names of government officials, official candidates, and potential official candidates for Federal, State, or local political office in the United States, and the use of such domain names in a manner that disrupts the electoral process or the public's ability to access accurate and reliable information regarding such individuals; (5) existing remedies, whether under State law or otherwise, and the extent to which such remedies are sufficient to address the considerations described in paragraphs (1)through (4); and (6) the guidelines, procedures, and policies of the Internet Corporation for assigned Names and Numbers and the extent to which they address the considerations described in paragraphs (1) through (4).(b) GUIDELINES AND PROCEDURES- The Secretary of Commerce shall, under its Memorandum of Understanding with the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, collaborate to develop guidelines and procedures for resolving disputes involving the registration or use by a person of a domain name that includes the personal name of another person, in whole or in part, or a name confusingly similar thereto. SEC. 3007. HISTORIC PRESERVATION. Section 101(a)(1)(A) of the National Historic Preservation Act (16 U.S.C. 470a(a)(1)(A)) is amended by adding at the end the following: `Notwithstanding section 43(c) of the Act entitled `An Act to provide for the registration and protection of trademarks used in commerce, to carry out the provisions of certain international conventions, and for other purposes', approved July 5, 1946 (commonly known as the `Trademark Act of 1946' (15 U.S.C. 1125(c))), buildings and structures on or eligible for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places (either individually or as part of a historic district), or designated as an individual landmark or as a contributing building in a historic district by a unit of State or local government, may retain the name historically associated with the building or structure.' SEC. 3008. SAVINGS CLAUSE. Nothing in this title shall affect any defense available to a defendant under the Trademark Act of 1946 (including any defense under section 43(c)(4) of such Act or relating to fair use) or a person's right of free speech or expression under the first amendment of the United States Constitution. SEC. 3009. TECHNICAL AND CONFORMING AMENDMENTS. Chapter 85 of title 28, United States Code, is amended as follows: (1) Section 1338 of title 28, United States Codes, is amended—— (A) in the section heading by striking `trade-marks' and inserting `trademarks'; (B) in subsection (a) by striking `trade-marks' and inserting `trademarks'; and (C) in subsection (b) by striking `trade-mark' and inserting `trademark'. (2) The item relating to section 1338 in the table of sections for chapter 85 of title 28, United States Code, is amended by striking `trade-marks' and inserting `trademarks'.SEC. 3010. EFFECTIVE DATE. Sections 3002(a), 3003, 3004, 3005, and 3008 of this title shall apply to all domain names registered before, on, or after the date of the enactment of this Act, except that damages under subsection (a) or (d) of section 35 of the Trademark Act of 1946 (15 U.S.C. 1117), as amended by section 3003 of this title, shall not be available with respect to the registration, trafficking, or use of a domain name that occurs before the date of the enactment of this Act.

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