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中华人民共和国合同法(二)

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  Article 300 Where the carrier unilaterally changes the means of transportation, thereby lowering the standards of service, it shall, upon request by the passenger, refund the ticket-fare or lower the price of the ticket; where the service standards are enhanced, no additional ticket-fare shall be charged.

  Article 301 In the course of carriage, the carrier shall gives its best efforts to assist the passenger who is seriously ill, or who is giving birth to a child or whose life is at risk.

  Article 302 The carrier shall be liable for damages in case of injury or death of the passenger in the course of carriage, except where such injury or death is attributable to the passenger's own health, or the carrier proves that such injury or death is caused by the passenger's intentional misconduct or gross negligence.

  The provisions in the preceding paragraph apply to a passenger who is exempted from buying a ticket or holds a preferential ticket pursuant to the relevant provisions, or who is permitted by the carrier to be on board without a ticket.

  Article 303 Where an article that the passenger takes with him on board is damaged or destroyed during the period of carriage, the carrier shall be liable for the damage if it has committed faults.

  Where the passenger's check-in luggage is damaged or lost, the relevant provisions on the carriage of cargoes shall be applied.

  Section Three Cargo Transportation contracts

  Article 304 In undergoing the formalities for cargoes, the consignor shall precisely indicate to carrier the name of the consignee or the consignee by order, the name, nature weight, amount and the place for taking delivery of the cargoes, and other information necessary for cargo carriage.

  Where the carrier suffers from damage due to untrue declaration or omission of important information by the consignor, the consignor shall be liable for damages.

  Article 305 Where carriage of the cargo is subject to such procedures as examination and approval or inspection, the consignor shall submit to the carrier the documents of fulfillment of the relevant procedure.

  Article 306 The consignor shall pack the cargo in the agreed manner. Where the packing manner is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, the provisions of Article 156 of this Law shall be applied.

  Where the consignor violates the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the carrier may refuse to carry.

  Article 307 In consigning any dangerous articles which are inflammable, explosive, toxic, corrosive, or radioactive, the consignor shall, in accordance with the provisions of the State on the carriage of dangerous articles, properly pack the dangerous articles and affix thereon signs and labels for dangerous articles, and shall submit the written papers relating to the number and measures of precaution to the carrier

  If the consignor violates the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the carrier may refuse to carry, and may also take corresponding measures to avoid losses, expenses thus caused shall be borne by the consignor .

  Article 308 Prior to carrier's delivery of the cargoes to the consignee, the consignor may request the carrier to suspend the carriage, return the cargoes, change the destination or deliver the cargoes to another consignee, but it shall compensate the carrier for any losses thus caused.

  Article 309 Upon arrival of the cargoes, if the carrier has the knowledge of the consignee, it shall timely notify the consignee and the consignee shall timely take delivery. Where the consignee takes delivery exceeding the time limit, it shall pay such expenses as storage of the goods, etc.

  Article 310 Upon taking delivery of the cargoes, the consignee shall inspect the cargoes at the agreed time. Where the time for inspection is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 61 of this Law, the consignee shall inspect the cargo within a reasonable time limit. The consignee's failure to raise any objection on the quantity of, or any damage to, the cargoes within the agreed time limit or within a reasonable time limit is deemed prima facie evidence of delivery by the carrier in compliance with the description in the transportation documents.

  Article 311 The carrier is liable for damages in case of damage to or loss of the cargoes in the course of carriage, provided that it is not liable for damages if it proves that such damage to or loss of the cargoes is caused by force majeure, the intrinsic characteristics of the cargoes, reasonable depletion, or the fault of the consignor or consignee.

  Article 312 Where the parties agree on the amount of damages in case of damage to or loss of the cargoes, the damages payable is the agreed amount; if the amount of damages is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 61 of this Law, it shall be calculated on the basis of the prevailing market price at the destination when the cargoes are or ought to be delivered. Where a law or administrative regulation provides otherwise in respect of the measures for the calculation of damages and of the ceiling of the amount of damages, these provisions shall be applied.

  Article 313 Where two or more carriers jointly carry the cargoes using the same means of transportation, the carrier contracting with the consignor shall be responsible for the whole course of carriage. Where the losses occurred at a particular segment, the carrier contracting with the consignor and the carrier for such segment are jointly and severally liable.

  Article 314 Where the cargoes are lost in the course of carriage due to force majeure, if the freight has not been collected, the carrier may not request the payment thereof; if the freight has been collected, the consignor may request the refund of the freight.

  Article 315 Where the consignor or consignee fails to pay the freight, storage fees and other carriage expenses, the carrier is entitled to lien on the relevant carried cargoes, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.

  Article 316 Where the consignee is not clear or refuses to take delivery of the cargoes without justified reasons, the carrier may place the cargo in escrow according to the provisions of Article 101 of this Law.

  Section Four Multi-modal Transportation contract

  Article 317 A multi-modal carriage operator is responsible for performing, or arranging for performance of, the multi-modal transportation contract, and it enjoys the rights and assumes the obligations of a carrier throughout the course of carriage.

  Article 318 The multi-modal carriage operator and the segment carriers may enter into agreements on their respective duties concerning each segment, provided that the obligations of the multi-modal carriage operator with respect to the entire course of carriage are not affected by any such agreement.

  Article 319 Upon receipt of the cargo delivered by the consignor, the multi-modal carriage operator shall issue thereto a multi-modal carriage document. The multi-modal carriage document may either be assignable or non-assignable as required by the consignor.

  Article 320 Where the multi-modal carriage operator sustains any loss due to the fault of the consignor in the course of consigning the cargo, the consignor shall be liable for damages notwithstanding its subsequent assignment of the multi-modal carriage document.

  Article 321 Where damage to or loss of the cargo occurred within a particular segment of the course of a multi-modal carriage, the multi-modal carriage operator's liability for damages and any limitation thereon are governed by the applicable transportation law of the jurisdiction which such segment is under. Where the segment in which the cargo is damaged or lost cannot be determined, the liability for damages shall be borne in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter.

  Chapter 18 Technology Contracts

  Section One General Provisions

  Article 322 A technology contract is a contract the parties conclude for establishing their rights and obligations in respect of the development or transfer of technology, or in respect of technical consulting or service.

  Article 323 The conclusion of a technology contract shall be conducive to the advancement of science and technology, and expedite the conversion, application and dissemination of scientific and technological achievements.

  Article 324 The contents of a technology contract shall be agreed upon by the parties, and shall contain the following clauses in general:

  (1)project name;

  (2)contents, scope and requirement of the subject matter;

  (3)the plan, schedule, period, place, territory and method of performance;

  (4)confidentiality of technical information and materials;

  (5)allocation of responsibilities for risks;

  (6)ownership of the technology and allocation of benefits accrued therefrom;

  (7)standard applicable to and method of acceptance test;

  (8)price, remuneration or licensing fee and the method of payment;

  (9)liquidated damages or method for calculation of damages;

  (10)method of dispute resolution;

  (11)definition of terms and phrases.

  The parties may agree to include the following materials relating to the performance of the contract as an integral part thereof: technical background information, feasibility studies and technical evaluation report, project task matrix and project plan, technical standard, technical specifications, original design and technique documents, as well as other technical documentation.

  Where the technology contract involves any patent, it shall set forth the name of the invention or innovation, the patent applicant and the patentee, the date of application, the application number, patent number and the term of the patent.

  Article 325 The method for payment of the price, remuneration or licensing fee under a technology contract shall be agreed upon by the parties, who may agree upon lump-sum payment based on one-time calculation or installment payment based on one-time calculation, and may also agree upon royalty payment or royalty payment plus advance payment of initial fee.

  Where a royalty payment method is agreed upon, the royalty may be calculated as a percentage of the product price, any increase in product value resulting from exploitation of the patent or use of the technical secret, profit, or product sales, and may also be calculated by any other method agreed upon by the parties. The royalty rate may be fixed or subject to annual increase or decrease.

  Where a royalty payment is agreed, the parties shall agree in the contract a method for inspection of the relevant accounting books.

  Article 326 Where the right to use and the right to transfer job-related technology belong to a legal person or an organization of any other nature, the legal person or organization may enter into a technology contract in respect of such job-related technology. The legal person or organization shall reward or remunerate the individual(s) who developed the technology with a percentage of the benefits accrued from the use and transfer of the job-related technology. Where the legal person or organization is to enter into a technology contract for the transfer of the job-related technology, the individual who accomplished this technological achievement shall have the priority to be the transferee under the same conditions.

  A job-related technology is a technology developed in the course of completing a task assigned by a legal person or an organization of any other nature, or developed by primarily utilizing the material and technical resources thereof.

  Article 327 The right to use and the right to transfer non-job-related technology belong to the individual developer, who may enter into a technology contract in respect thereof.

  Article 328 The individual who developed the technology is entitled to identify himself as the developer in the documentation related thereto, and to receive honor certificate and reward.

  Article 329 A technology contract which illegally monopolizes technology, impairs technological advancement or infringes on the technology of a third party is invalid.

  Section Two Technology Development Contract

  Article 330 A technology development contract is a contract concluded in respect of the development of a new technology, product, technique or material and the associated system.

  Technology development contracts include commissioned development contracts and cooperative development contracts.

  A technology development contract shall be in written form.

  A contract on the conversion of a scientific achievement with potential for industrial application is governed by reference to the provisions on technology development contracts.

  Article 331 The commissioning party under a commissioned development contract shall, in accordance with the contract, provide development funds and pay remuneration; supply technical materials and original data; complete its tasks of cooperation; and accept the developed technology.

  Article 332 The developer under a commissioned development contract shall, in accordance with the contract, prepare and implement the development plan; use development funds in a reasonable manner; timely complete the development and deliver the developed technology, as well as provide the relevant technical materials and necessary technical guidance so as to help the commissioning party master the technology developed.

  Article 333 Where the commissioning party breaches the contract, thereby causing stoppage, delay or failure of the development, it shall be liable for the breach of contract.

  Article 334 Where the developer breaches the contract, thereby causing stoppage, delay or failure of the development, it shall be liable for the breach of contract.

  Article 335 Parties to a cooperative development contract shall, in accordance with the contract, make investment, including investment in the form of technology; participate in the development by performing their respective tasks; and cooperate with each other in the development.

  Article 336 Where a party to a cooperative development contract breaches the contract, thereby causing stoppage, delay or failure of the development, it shall be liable for the breach of contract.

  Article 337 Where the technology which is the subject matter of a technology development contract is made public by a third party, thereby making the performance of the technology development contract meaningless, the parties may terminate the contract.

  Article 338 If, in the course of implementing a technology development contract, the development is failed in whole or in part due to any insurmountable technical difficulty, allocation of the responsibility for such risk shall be agreed upon by the parties. Where the allocation of responsibility for such risk is not agreed upon or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 61of this Law, it shall be shared by the parties in a reasonable manner.

  Where a party discovers any circumstance which may lead to the failure of the development in whole or in part as described in the preceding paragraph, it shall timely notify the other party and take the appropriate measures to mitigate loss; where the party fails to timely notify the other party and take the appropriate measures, thereby enlarging the losses, it shall be liable for the enlarged losses.

  Article 339 Unless otherwise agreed upon by the parties, the right to apply for patent on the invention or innovation resulting from a commissioned development belongs to the developer. Where the developer is granted a patent, the commissioning party may exploit such patent free of charge.

  Where the developer is to assign the right to apply for patent on the Invention or innovation resulting from the commissioned development, the commissioning party shall have the right to priority in acquiring such right under the same conditions.

  Article 340 Unless otherwise agreed upon by the parties, the right to apply for patent on the invention or innovation resulting from a cooperative development belongs to the parties therein jointly. Where a party is to assign its joint patent application right, the other parties shall have the right to priority in acquiring such right under the same conditions.

  Where a party in the cooperative development declares a waiver of its joint patent application right, the other party may apply by itself, or the other parties may jointly apply, as the case may be. Where a patent is granted on the invention or innovation, the party waiving its patent application right may exploit such patent free of charge.

  If a party in the cooperative development does not consent to the application for patent, the other party or parties may not apply for patent.

  Article 341 The right to use and transfer the technical secret resulting from a commissioned or cooperative development, and the method for allocation of benefits accrued therefrom shall be agreed upon by the parties. Where such matters are not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can they be determined in accordance Article 61 of this Law, all of the parties are entitled to use and transfer the technology, provided that the developer in a commissioned development may not transfer the technology to a third party before it delivers the technology to the commissioning party.

  Section Three Technology Transfer Contracts

  Article 342 Technology transfer contracts include contracts for the assignment of patent, assignment of patent application right, transfer of technical secrets, and patent licensing.

  A technology transfer contract shall be in written form.

  Article 343 A technology transfer contract may set forth the scope of exploitation of the patent or the use of the technical secret by the transferor and the transferee, provided that it may not restrict technological competition and technological development.

  Article 344 A patent licensing contract is only valid during the term of the patent. Where the term of the patent expires or the patent is invalidated, the patentee may not enter into a patent licensing contract with any other person in respect thereof.

  Article 345 The transferor under a patent licensing contract shall, in accordance with the contract, license the patent to the transferee, deliver the technical materials related to the exploitation of the patent, and provide the necessary technical guidance.

  Article 346 The transferee under a patent licensing contract shall exploit the patent in accordance with the contract and may not license the patent to any third party except as provided for in the contract; and shall pay the licensing fee in accordance with the contract.

  Article 347 The transferor under a contract for transfer of technical secret shall, in accordance with the contract, supply the technical materials, provide technical guidance, and warrant the practical applicability and reliability of the technology, and shall abide by its confidentiality obligations.

  Article 348 The transferee under a contract for transfer of technical secret shall, in accordance with the contract, use the technology, pay the licensing fee and abide by its confidentiality obligations.

  Article 349 The transferor under a technology transfer contract shall warrant that it is the lawful owner of the technology provided, and shall warrant that the technology provided is complete, free from error, effective, and capable of achieving the prescribed goals.

  Article 350 The transferee under a technology transfer contract shall, in conformity with the scope and the time period as agreed upon in the contract, abide by its confidentiality obligations in respect of the non-public and secret portion of the technology provided by the transferor.

  Article 351 Where the transferor fails to transfer technology in accordance with the contract, it shall refund the licensing fee in part or in whole, and shall be liable for the breach of contract; where the transferor exploits the patent or uses the technical secret beyond the agreed scope, or unilaterally allows the patent to be exploited or the technical secret to be used by a third party in breach of the contract, it shall cease the breach and be liable for the breach of contract; where the transferor breaches any agreed confidentiality obligation, it shall be liable for the breach of contract.

  Article 352 Where the transferee fails to pay the agreed licensing fee, it shall pay the overdue licensing fee and pay breach of contract damages in accordance with the contract; where it fails to pay the overdue licensing fee and breach of contract damages, it shall cease exploitation of the patent or use of the technical secret, return the technical materials, and be liable for the breach of contract; where the transferee exploits the patent or uses the technical secret beyond the agreed scope, or allows the patent to be exploited or the technical secret to be used by a third party without consent of the transferor in breach of the contract, it shall cease the breach and be liable for the breach of contract; where the transferee breaches any agreed confidentiality obligation, it shall be liable for the breach of contract.

  Article 353 Where the exploitation of the patent or the use of the technical secret by the transferee in accordance with the contract infringes on the lawful interests of any other person, the liability shall be borne by the transferor, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.

  Article 354 The parties may, on the basis of mutual benefit, provide in the technology transfer contract for the method of sharing any subsequent improvement resulting from the exploitation of the patent or use of the technical secret. If such method is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 61 of this Law, neither party is entitled to share any subsequent improvement made by the other party.

  Article 355 Where the relevant laws or administrative regulations provide otherwise in respect of technology import or export contracts or in respect of patent contracts or contracts for patent application, such provisions shall prevail.

  Section Four Technical Consulting Contracts and Technical Service Contracts

  Article 356 Technical consulting contracts include contracts for provision of feasibility studies, technical forecast, specialized technical investigation, and analysis and evaluation report, etc. in respect of a particular technical project.

  A technical service contract means a contract whereby one party solves a particular technical problem for the other party by utilizing its technical knowledge, excluding a contract for construction project or a contract of hired work.

  Article 357 The client under a technical consulting contract shall, in accordance with the contract, describe the problem on which consultancy is sought, provide the technical background information as well as related technical materials and data; and accept the work product from, and pay the remuneration to, the consultant.

  Article 358 The consultant under a technical consulting contract shall complete the consulting report or answer the question within the agreed period; the consulting report submitted shall comply with the requirements set forth in the contract.

  Article 359 Where the client under a technical consulting contract fails to provide the necessary materials and data in accordance with the contract, thereby impairing the progress and quality of the work, or fails to accept or delays in accepting the work result, it may not claim refund of the remuneration paid, and shall pay any unpaid remuneration.

  Where the consultant under the technical consulting contract fails to provide the consulting report within the agreed period or the consulting report submitted does not comply with the contract, it shall be liable for the breach of contract by way of reducing or foregoing the remuneration, etc.

  The client under a technical consulting contract shall compensate the loss resulting from any decision made by it based on the complying consulting report and opinion provided by the consultant, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.

  Article 360 The client under a technical service contract shall, in accordance with the contract, provide the working conditions and complete its tasks of cooperation; accept the work results and pay the remuneration.

  Article 361 The service provider under a technical service contract shall, in accordance with the contract, complete the services, solve the technical problem, warrant the quality of its work, and communicate the knowledge for solving the technical problem.

  Article 362 Where the client under a technical service contract fails to perform its contractual obligations, or the performance is not in conformity with the contract, thereby impairing the progress and quality of the work, or fails to accept or delays in accepting the work results, it may not claim refund of the remuneration paid, and shall pay any unpaid remuneration.

  Where the service provider under a technical service contract fails to complete services in accordance with the contract, it shall be liable for the breach of contract by way of forgoing the remuneration, etc.

  Article 363 In the course of performing a technical consulting contract or a technical service contract, any new technology developed by the consultant or service provider utilizing the technical materials and working conditions provided by the client belongs to the consultant or service provider. Any new technology developed by the client utilizing the work results provided by the consultant or service provider belongs to the client. However, if the parties agree otherwise in the contract, such provisions shall prevail.

  Article 364 Where a relevant law or administrative regulation provides otherwise in respect of technology intermediary service contracts or technical training contracts, such provisions shall prevail.

  Chapter 19 Storage Contracts

  Article 365 A storage contract is a contract whereby the depository keeps the deposit delivered by the depositor, and eventually returns it thereto.

  Article 366 The depositor shall pay the storage fee to the depository in accordance with the contract.

  Where the storage fee is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 61 of this Law, the storage shall be for free.

  Article 367 A storage contract is established upon delivery of the deposit, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.

  Article 368 Upon the depositor's delivery of the deposit to the depository, the depository shall issue a deposit voucher thereto, except as otherwise practised in transaction.

  Article 369 The depository shall keep the deposit with due care.

  The parties may agree the place and manner of storage. The place and manner of storage may not be changed without authorization, except in an emergency situation or for the purpose of protecting the depositor's interests.

  Article 370 Where the deposit delivered by the depositor has defects or requires special storage measures in light of its nature, the depositor shall inform the depository of the relevant situation. Where the depositor fails to inform, thereby causing damage to the deposit, the depository is not liable for damages; where the depository sustains any loss as a result, the depositor shall be liable for damages, except where the depository is, or ought to be, aware of the situation and fails to take remedial measures.

  Article 371 The depository may not delegate storage of the deposit to a third party, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.

  Where the depository delegated storage of the deposit to a third party in violation of the provisions of the preceding paragraph, thereby causing damage to the deposit, the depository shall be liable for damages.

  Article 372 The depository may not use, or allow the use of, the deposit, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.

  Article 373 Where a third party makes a claim on the deposit, the depository shall perform its obligation of returning the deposit to the depositor, except where an order of preservation or enforcement is carried out in respect of the deposit in accordance with the law.

  Where a third party brings a lawsuit against the depository or applies for attachment of the deposit, the depository shall timely notify the depositor.

  Article 374 If the deposit is damaged or lost due to improper storage by the depository during the deposit period, the depository shall be liable for damages, provided that if the storage is provided for free, and the depository proves that it has no gross negligence, it shall be not liable for damages.

  Article 375 Where the depositor is to deposit money, securities, or any other valuable item for storage, it shall make a declaration to the depository on such item, which shall be inspected or sealed by the depository. Where the depositor fails to make such declaration and the article is damaged, destroyed or lost afterwards, the depository may compensate for it as it is an ordinary article.

  Article 376 The depositor may retrieve the deposit at any time.

  Where a deposit period is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, the depository may require the depositor to retrieve the deposit at any time; where a deposit period is agreed, without special reason, the depository may not require the depositor to retrieve the deposit before the expiry of the deposit period.

  Article 377 At the expiry of the deposit period, or if the depositor retrieves the deposit before the expiry of the deposit period, the depository shall return the original item together with any fruit thereof to the depositor.

  Article 378 Where the depository keeps money deposit, it may return money of the same type and quantity. Where the depository keeps any other fungible item, it may return any item of the same type, quality and quantity in accordance with the contract.

  Article 379 Under a storage contract for value, the depositor shall pay to the depository the storage fee at the agreed time.

  Where the time of payment of the storage fee is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 61 of this Law, the storage fee shall be paid at the same time the deposit is retrieved.

  Article 380 Where the depositor fails to pay the storage fee and other expenses, the depository is entitled to lien on the deposit, unless as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.

  Chapter 20 Warehousing Contracts

  Article 381 A warehousing contract is a contract whereby the safekeeping party stores the goods delivered by the depositor, and the depositor pays the warehousing fee.

  Article 382 A warehousing contract becomes effective upon its formation.

  Article 383 Where the depositor intends to store any dangerous article which is inflammable, explosive, toxic, corrosive, or radioactive, etc., or any material susceptible to deterioration, it shall indicate the nature of the goods and provide the relevant information.

  Where the depositor violates the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the safekeeping party may reject the goods and may also take the appropriate measures to avoid losses, the cost consequently incurred shall be borne by the depositor.

  Where the safekeeping party is to store any dangerous article that is inflammable, explosive, toxic, corrosive, or radioactive, etc., it shall be equipped with the appropriate safekeeping conditions.

  Article 384 The safekeeping party shall, in accordance with the contract, conduct warehouse-in inspection of the goods. Where in the course of such inspection, the safekeeping party discovers that the goods are not in conformity with the terms of the contract, it shall timely notify the depositor. After inspection and acceptance by the safekeeping party, if it is discovered that the category, quantity or quality of the warehousing goods are not in conformity with the terms of the contract, the safekeeping party shall be liable for damages.

  Article 385 Upon the depositor's delivery of the goods, the safekeeping party shall issue a warehouse receipt.

  Article 386 The safekeeping party shall sign or affix a seal on the warehouse receipt. The warehouse receipt shall contain the following items:

  (1) name and domicile of the depositor;

  (2) category, quantity, quality, and package, number of pieces and marks of the warehousing goods;

  (3) standards of spoilage of the warehousing goods;

  (4) place of storage;

  (5) time period of storage;

  (6) warehousing fee;

  (7) if the goods have been insured, the insured amount, term of insurance and the name of the insurer;

  (8) name of the person issuing the warehouse receipt, the place and the date of issuance.

  Article 387 The warehouse receipt is the voucher for retrieving the goods. Where the depositor or holder of the warehouse receipt has endorsed the warehouse receipt and the safekeeping party has signed or sealed thereon, the right to retrieve the goods may be assigned.

  Article 388 Upon request of the depositor or the holder of the warehouse receipt, the safekeeping party shall allow the person to inspect the goods or take samples therefrom.

  Article 389 Where the safekeeping party discovers that the warehoused goods are deteriorating or are otherwise damaged, it shall timely notify the depositor or holder of the warehouse receipt.

  Article 390 Where the safekeeping party discovers that the warehoused goods are deteriorating or are otherwise damaged, thereby endangering the safety and normal safekeeping of other warehoused goods, it shall demand disposal of the goods by the depositor or the holder of the warehouse receipt as necessary. In an emergency situation, the safekeeping party may dispose of the goods as necessary, but shall timely notify the depositor or holder of the warehouse receipt of the situation.

  Article 391 Where the warehousing period is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, the depositor or holder of the warehouse receipt may retrieve the goods at any time, and the safekeeping party may require the depositor or holder of the warehouse receipt to retrieve the goods at any time, provided that the other party shall be given the time required for preparation.

  Article 392 At the expiry of the warehousing period, the depositor or holder of the warehouse receipt shall retrieve the goods by presenting the warehouse receipt to the safekeeping party. Where the depositor or holder of the warehouse receipt fails to claim the goods, additional warehousing fee shall be charged; where the goods are retrieved before the expiry the warehousing period, the warehousing fee shall not be reduced.

  Article 393 At the expiry of the warehousing period, if the depositor or holder of the warehouse receipt fails to retrieve the goods, the safekeeping party may demand retrieval within a reasonable period, and if the goods are not retrieved at the expiry of such period, the safekeeping party may place the goods in escrow.

  Article 394 Where the goods are damaged or lost during the warehousing period due to improper safekeeping by the safekeeping party, it shall be liable for damages. If the goods are deteriorated or damaged due to unconformity of the nature of the warehoused goods or of the packing with the terms of the contract, or the fact that the goods exceed the valid storage period, the safekeeping party is not liable for damages.

  Article 395 Matters not provided for in this Chapter shall be governed by the relevant provision on storage contracts.

  Chapter 21 Commission Contracts

  Article 396 A commission contract is a contract whereby the principal and the agent agree that the agent will handle the principal's affairs.

  Article 397 The principal may specifically appoint the agent to handle one or more of its affairs, or generally appoint the agent to handle all of its affairs.

  Article 398 The principal shall prepay the expenses for handling the commissioned affair. Any expense necessary for handling the commissioned affair advanced by the agent shall be repaid with interest by the principal.

  Article 399 The agent shall handle the commissioned affair in accordance with the instruction of the principal. Any required deviation from the principal's instruction is subject to consent by the principal; in an emergency where the agent has difficulty in contacting the principal, the agent shall properly handle the commissioned affair, provided that thereafter the agent shall timely notify the principal of the situation.

  Article 400 The agent shall personally handle the commissioned affair. Subject to consent by the principal, the agent may delegate the agency to a third party. If the delegation is approved, the principal may issue instructions concerning the commissioned affair directly to the delegate, and the agent is only responsible for its selection of the delegate or its own instruction thereto. Where the agency is delegated without consent, the agent shall be liable for any act of the delegate, except in an emergency where the agent needs to delegate the agency in order to safeguard the interests of the principal.

  Article 401 Upon request by the principal, the agent shall report on the progress of the commissioned affair. Upon discharge of the commission contract, the agent shall render an account of the commissioned affair.

  Article 402 Where the agent, acting within the scope of authority granted by the principal, enter into a contract in its own name with a third party who is aware of the agency relationship between the principal and agent, the contract is directly binding upon the principal and such third party, except where there is conclusive evidence establishing that the contract is only binding upon the agent and such third party.

  Article 403 Where the agent enter into a contract in its own name with a third party who is not aware of the agency relationship between the agent and the principal, if the agent fails to perform its obligation toward the principal due to any reason attributable to such third party, the agent shall disclose the third party to the principal, allowing it to exercise the agent's rights against such third party, except where the third party will not enter into the contract with the agent if he knows the identity of the principal at the time of entering into the contract.

  Where the agent fails to perform its obligation toward the third party due to any reason attributable to the principal, the agent shall disclose the principal to the third party, allowing the third party to select in alternative either the principal or the agent as the other contract party against whom to make a claim, provided that the third party may not subsequently change its selection of the contract party.

  Where the principal exercises the rights of the agent against the third party, the third party may avail itself of any defense it has against the agent. Where the third party selects the principal as the other party to the contract, the principal may avail itself of any defense it has against the agent as well as any defense the agent has against the third party.

  Article 404 Any property acquired by the agent in the course of handling the commissioned affair shall be turned over to the principal.

  Article 405 Upon completion of the commissioned affair by the agent, the principal shall pay the remuneration thereto. Where the agency appointment contract is terminated or the commissioned affair is not capable of being completed due to any reason not attributable to the agent, the principal shall pay to the agent an appropriate amount of remuneration. If the parties agrees otherwise, such agreement shall prevail.

  Article 406 Under a commission contract for value, if the principal sustains any loss due to the fault of the agent, the principal may claim damages. Under a gratuitous agency appointment contract, if the principal sustains any loss due to the agent's intentional misconduct or gross negligence, the principal may claim damages.

  Where the agent acts beyond the scope of authorization, thereby causing loss to the principal, it shall pay damages.

  Article 407 In the course of handling the commissioned affair, if the agent sustains any loss due to a reason not attributable to itself, the agent may seek indemnification from the principal.

  Article 408 Subject to consent by the agent, the principal may, in addition to appointing the agent, also appoint a third party to handle the commissioned affair. If such appointment results in loss to the agent, it may seek indemnification from the principal.

  Article 409 Where two or more agents jointly handle the commissioned affair, they are jointly and severally liable to the principal.

  Article 410 Either the principal or the agent may terminate the agency appointment contract at any time. Where the other party sustains any loss due to termination of the contract, the terminating party shall indemnify the other party, unless such loss is due to a reason not attributable to the terminating party.

  Article 411 A commission contract is discharged when either the principal or the agent is deceased or incapacitated or enters into bankruptcy, except where the parties agree otherwise, or where discharge is inappropriate in light of the nature of the commissioned affair.

  Article 412 Where discharge of the commission contract due to the death, incapacitation or bankruptcy of the principal will harm the principal's interests, the agent shall continue to handle the commissioned affair before an heir, legal agent or liquidation team thereof takes over the commissioned affair.

  Article 413 If the commission contract is discharged as a result of the death, incapacitation or bankruptcy of the agent, the heir, legal agent or liquidation team thereof shall timely notify the principal. Where discharge of the agency contract will harm the principal's interests, before the principal makes any care-taking arrangement, the heir, legal agent or liquidation team of the agent shall take the necessary measures.

  Chapter 22 Contracts of Commission Agency

  Article 414 A contract of commission agency is a contract whereby the commission agent conducts trading activities in its own name for the principal, and the principal pays the remuneration.

  Article 415 The expenses incurred by the commission agent in the course of handling the commissioned affair shall be borne by the commission agent, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.

  Article 416 Where the commission agent is in possession of the entrusted item, it shall keep the entrusted item with due care.

  Article 417 If an entrusted item is defective, perishable or susceptible to deterioration at the time it was delivered to the commission agent, upon consent by the principal, the commission agent may dispose of the item; where the trustee-trader is unable to contact the principal in time, it may dispose of the entrusted item in a reasonable manner.

  Article 418 Where the commission agent is to sell the entrusted item below, or buy the entrusted item above, the price designated by the principal, it shall obtain consent from the principal. If such sale is effected without consent by the principal, and the commission agent makes up the deficiency on its own, it is binding on the principal.

  Where the commission agent sells the entrusted item above, or purchases the entrusted item below, the price designated by the principal, the remuneration may be increased in accordance with the contract. Where such matter is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 61of this Law, the benefit belongs to the principal.

  Where the principal gives special pricing instruction, the commission agent may not make any sale or purchase in contravention thereof.

  Article 419 Where the commission agent is to sell or purchase a commodity the price of which is fixed by the market, the commission agent may act

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