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中华人民共和国海商法(三)

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  Chapter XI Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims

  Article 204 Ship owners and salvors may limit their liability in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter for claims set out in Article 207 of this Code.

  The ship owners referred to in the preceding paragraph shall include the charterer and the operator of a ship.

  Article 205 If the claims set out in Article 207 of this Code are not made against ship owners or salvors themselves but against persons for whose act, neglect or default the ship owners or salvors are responsible, such persons may limit their liability in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter.

  Article 206 Where the assured may limit his liability in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter, the insurer liable for the maritime claims shall be entitled to the limitation of liability under this Chapter to the same extent as the assured.

  (3) The contributory value of freight shall be calculated on the basis of the amount of freight at the risk of the carrier and which the carrier is entitled to collect at the end of the voyage, less any expense incurred for the prosecution of the voyage after the general average, in order to earn the freight, plus the amount of general average sacrifice. #13Article 207 Except as provided otherwise in Articles 208 and 209 of this Code, with respect to the following maritime claims, the person liable may limit his liability in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter, whatever the basis of liability may be:

  (1) Claims in respect of loss of life or personal injury or loss of or damage to property including damage to harbour works, basins and waterways an daids to navigation occurring on board or in direct connection with the operation of the ship or with salvage operations, as well as consequential damages resulting therefrom;

  (2) Claims in respect of loss resulting from delay in delivery in the carriage of goods by sea or from delay in the arrival of passengers or their luggage;

  (3) Claims in respect of other loss resulting from infringement of rights other than contractual rights occurring in direct connection with the operation of the ship or salvage operations;

  (4) Claims of a person other than the person liable in respect of measures taken to avert or minimize loss for which the person liable may limit his liability in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter, and further loss caused by such measures.

  All the claims set out in the preceding paragraph, whatever the way they are lodged, may be entitled to limitation of liability. However, with respect to the remuneration set out in sub-paragraph (4) for which the person liable pays as agreed upon in the contract, in relation to the obligation for payment, the person liable may not invoke the provisions on limitation of liability of this Article.

  Article 208 The provisions of this Chapter shall not be applicable to the following claims:

  (1) Claims for salvage payment or contribution in general average;

  (2) Claims for oil pollution damage under the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage to which the People's Republic of China is a party;

  (3) Claims for nuclear damage under the International Convention on Limitation of Liability for Nuclear Damage to which the People's Republic of China is a party;

  (4) Claims against the shipowner of a nuclear ship for nuclear damage;

  (5) Claims by the servants of the shipowner or salvor, if under the law governing the contract of employment, the shipowner or salvor is not entitled to limit his liability or if he is by such law only permitted to limit his liability to an amount greater than that provided for in this Chapter.

  Article 209 A person liable shall not be entitled to limit his liability in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter, if it is proved that the loss resulted from his act or omission done with the intent to cause such loss or recklessly and with knowledge that such loss would probably result.

  Article 210 The limitation of liability for maritime claims, except as otherwise provided for in Article 211 of this Code, shall be calculated as follows:

  (1) In respect of claims for loss of life or personal injury:

  a) 333,000 Units of Account for a ship with a gross tonnage ranging from 300 to 500 tons;

  b) For a ship with a gross tonnage in excess of 500 tons, the limitation under a) above shall be applicable to the first 500 tons and the following amounts in addition to that set out under a) shall be applicable to the gross tonnage in excess of 500 tons:

  For each ton from 501 to 3,000 tons: 500 Units of Account;

  For each ton from 3,001 to 30,000 tons: 333 Units of Account;

  For each ton from 30,001 to 70,000 tons: 250 Units of Account;

  For each ton in excess of 70,000 tons: 167 Units of Account.

  (2) In respect of claims other than that for loss of life or personal injury:

  a) 167,000 Units of Account for a ship with a gross tonnage ranging from 300 to 500 tons;

  b) For a ship with a gross tonnage in excess of 500 tons, the limitation under a) above shall be applicable to the first 500 tons, and the following amounts in addition to that under a) shall be applicable to the part in excess of 500 tons:

  For each ton from 501 to 30,000 tons: 167 Units of Account;

  For each ton from 30,001 to 70,000 tons: 125 Units of Account;

  For each ton in excess of 70,000 tons: 83 Units of Account.

  (3) Where the amount calculated in accordance with sub-paragraph (1) above is insufficient for payment of claims for loss of life or personal injury set out therein in full, the amount calculated in accordance with sub-paragraph (2) shall be available for payment of the unpaid balance of claims under sub-paragraph (1), and such unpaid balance shall rank rate ably with claims set out under sub-paragraph (2)。

  (4) However, without prejudice to the right of claims for loss of life or personal injury under sub-paragraph (3), claims in respect of damage to harbour works, basins and waterways and aids to navigation shall have priority over other claims under sub-paragraph (2)。

  (5) The limitation of liability for any salvor not operating from any ship or for any salvor operating solely on the ship to, or in respect of which, he is rendering salvage services, shall be calculated according to a gross tonnage of 1,500 tons.

  The limitation of liability for ships with a gross tonnage not exceeding 300 tons and those engaging in transport services between the ports of the People's Republic of China as well as those for other coastal works shall be worked out by the competent authorities of transport and communications under the State Council and implemented after its being submitted to and approved by the State Council.

  Article 211 In respect of claims for loss of life or personal injury to passengers carried by sea, the limitation of liability of the shipowner thereof shall be an amount of 46,666 Units of Account multiplied by the number of passengers which the ship is authorized to carry according to the ship's relevant certificate, but the maximum amount of compensation shall not exceed 25,000,000 Units of Account.

  The limitation of liability for claims for loss of life or personal injury to passengers carried by sea between the ports of the People's Republic of China shall be worked out by the competent authorities of transport and communications under the State Council and implemented after its being submitted to and approved by the State Council.

  Article 212 The limitation of liability under Articles 210 and 211 of this Code shall apply to the aggregate of all claims that may arise on any given occasion against ship owners and salvors themselves, and any person for whose act, neglect or fault the ship owners and the salvors are responsible.

  Article 213 Any person liable claiming the limitation of liability under this Code may constitute a limitation fund with acourt having jurisdiction. The fund shall be constituted in the sum of such an amount set out respectively in Articles 210 and 211, together with the interest thereon from the date of the occurrence giving rise to the liability until the date of the constitution of the fund.

  Article 214 Where a limitation fund has been constituted by a person liable, any person having made a claim against the person liable may not exercise any right against any assets of the person liable. Where any ship or other property belonging to the person constituting the fund has been arrested or attached, or, where a security has been provided by such person, the court shall order without delay the release of the ship arrested or the property attached or the return of the security provided.

  Article 215 Where a person entitled to limitation of liability under the provisions of this Chapter has a counter-claim against the claimant arising out of the same occurrence, their respective claims shall be set off against each other and the provisions of this Chapter shall only apply to the balance, if any.

  Chapter XII Contract of Marine Insurance

  Section 1 Basic Principles

  Article 216 A contract of marine insurance is a contract whereby the insurer undertakes, as agreed, to indemnify the loss to the subject matter insured and the liability of the insured caused by perils covered by the insurance against the payment of an insurance premium by the insured.

  The covered perils referred to in the preceding paragraph mean any maritime perils agreed upon between the insurer and the insured, including perils occurring in inland rivers or on land which is related to a maritime adventure.

  Article 217 A contract of marine insurance mainly includes:

  (1) Name of the insurer;

  (2) Name of the insured;

  (3) Subject matter insured;

  (4) Insured value;

  (5) Insured amount;

  (6) Perils insured against and perils excepted;

  (7) Duration of insurance coverage;

  (8) Insurance premium.

  Article 218 The following items may come under the subject matter of marine insurance:

  (1) Ship;

  (2) Cargo;

  (3) Income from the operation of the ship including freight, charter hire and passenger's fare;

  (4) Expected profit on cargo;

  (5) Crew's wages and other remuneration;

  (6) Liabilities to a third person;

  (7) Other property which may sustain loss from a maritime peril and the liability and expenses arising therefrom.

  The insurer may reinsure the insurance of the subject matter enumerated in the preceding paragraph. Unless otherwise agreed in the contract, the origional insured shall not be entitled to the benefit of the reinsurance.

  Article 219 The insurable value of the subject matter insured shall be agreed upon between the insurer and the insured.

  Where no insurable value has been agreed upon between the insurer and the insured, the insurable value shall be calculated as follows:

  (1) The insurable value of the ship shall be the value of the ship at the time when the insurance liability commences, being the total value of the ship's hull, machinery, equipment, fuel, stores, gear, provisions and fresh water on board as well as the insurance premium;

  (2) The insurable value of the cargo shall be the aggregate of the invoice value of the cargo or the actual value of the non-trade commodity at the place of shipment, plus freight and insurance premium when the insurance liability commences;

  (3) The insurable value of the freight shall be the aggregate of the total amount of freight payable to the carrier and the insurance premium when the insurance liability commences;

  (4) The insurable value of other subject matter insured shall be the aggregate of the actual value of the subject matter insured and the insurance premium when the insurance liability commences.

  Article 220 The insured amount shall be agreed upon between the insurer and the insured. The insured amount shall not exceed the insured value. Where the insured amount exceeds the insured value, the portion in excess shall be null and void.

  Section 2 Conclusion, Termination and Assignment of Contract

  Article 221 A contract of marine insurance comes into being after the insured puts forth a proposal for insurance and the insurer agrees to accept the proposal and the insurer and the insured agree on the terms and conditions of the insurance. The insurer shall issue to the insured an insurance policy or other certificate of insurance in time, and the contents of the contract shall be contained therein.

  Article 222 Before the contract is concluded, the insured shall truthfully inform the insurer of the material circumstances which the insured has knowledge of or ought to have knowledge of in his ordinary business practice and which may have a bearing on the insurer in deciding the premium or whether be agrees to insure or not.

  The insured need not inform the insurer of the facts which the insurer has known of or the insurer ought to have knowledge of in his ordinary business practice if about which the insurer made no inquiry.

  Article 223 Upon failure of the insured to truthfully inform the insurer of the material circumstances set forth in paragraph 1 of Article 222 of this Code due to his intentional act, the insurer has the right to terminate the contract without refunding the premium. The insurer shall not be liable for any loss arising from the perils insured against before the contract is terminated.

  If, not due to the insured's intentional act, the insured did not truthfully inform the insurer of the material circumstances set out in paragraph 1 of Article 222 of this Code, the insurer has the right to terminate the contract or to demand a corresponding increase in the premium. In case the contract is terminated by the insurer, the insurer shall be liable for the loss arising from the perils insured against which occurred prior to the termination of the contract, except where the material circumstances uninformed or wrongly informed of have an impact on the occurrence of such perils.

  Article 224 Where the insured was aware or ought to be aware that the subject matter insured had suffered a loss due to the incidence of a peril insured against when the contract was concluded, the insurer shall not be liable for indemnification but shall have the right to the premium. Where the insurer was aware or ought to be aware that the occurrence of a loss to the subject matter insured due to a peril insured against was impossible, the insured shall have the right to recover the premium paid.

  Article 225 Where the insured concludes contracts with several insurers for the same subject matter insured and against the same risk, and the insured amount of the said subject matter insured thereby exceeds the insured value, then, unless otherwise agreed in the contract, the insured may demand indemnification from any of the insurers and the aggregate amount to be indemnified shall not exceed the loss value of the subject matter insured. The liability of each insurer shall be in proportion to that which the amount he insured bears to the total of the amounts insured by all insurers. Any insurer who has paid an indemnification in an amount greater than that for which he is liable, shall have the right of recourse against those who have not paid their indemnification in the amounts for which they are liable.

  Article 226 Prior to the commencement of the insurance liability, the insured may demand the termination of the insurance contract but shall pay the handling fees to the insurer, and the insurer shall refund the premium.

  Article 227 Unless otherwise agreed in the contract, neither the insurer nor the insured may terminate the contract after the commencement of the insurance liability.

  Where the insurance contract provides that the contract may be terminated after the commencement of the liability, and the insured demands the termination of the contract, the insurer shall have the right to the premium payable from the day of the commencement of the insurance liability to the day of termination of the contract and refund the remaining portion. If it is the insurer who demands the termination of the contract, the unexpired premium from the day of the termination of the contract to the day of the expiration of the period of insurance shall be refunded to the insured.

  Article 228 Notwithstanding the stipulations in Article 227 of this Code, the insured may not demand termination of the contract for cargo insurance and voyage insurance on ship after the commencement of the insurance liability.

  Article 229 A contract of marine insurance for the carriage of goods by sea may be assigned by the insured by endorsement or otherwise, and the rights and obligations under the contract are assigned accordingly. The insured and the assignee shall be jointly and severally liable for the payment of the premium if such premium remains unpaid up to the time of the assignment of the contract.

  Article 230 The consent of the insurer shall be obtained where the insurance contract is assigned in consequence of the transfer of the ownership of the ship insured. In the absence of such consent, the contract shall be terminated from the time of the transfer of the ownership of the ship. Where the transfer takes place during the voyage, the contract shall be terminated when the voyage ends.

  Upon termination of the contract, the insurer shall refund the unexpired premium to the insured calculated from the day of the termination of the contract to the day of its expiration.

  Article 231 The insured may conclude an open cover with the insurer for the goods to be shipped or received in batches within a given period. The open cover shall be evidenced by an open policy to be issued by the insurer.

  Article 232 The insurer shall, at the request of the insured, issue insurance certificates separately for the cargo shipped in batches according to the open cover.

  Where the contents of the insurance certificates issued by the insurer separately differ from those of the open policy, the insurance certificates issued separately shall prevail.

  Article 233 The insured shall notify the insurer immediately on learning that the cargo insured under the open cover has been shipped or has arrived. The items to be notified of shall include the name of the carrying ship, the voyage, the value of the cargo and the insured amount.

  Section 3 Obligation of the Insured

  Article 234 Unless otherwise agreed in the insurance contract, the insured shall pay the premium immediately upon conclusion of the contract. The insurer may refuse to issue the insurance policy or other insurance certificate before the premium is paid by the insured.

  Article 235 The insured shall notify the insurer in writing immediately where the insured has not complied with the warranties under the contract. The insurer may, upon receipt of the notice, terminate the contract or demand an amendment to the terms and conditions of the insurance coverage or an increase in the premium.

  Article 236 Upon the occurrence of the peril insured against, the insured shall notify the insurer immediately and shall take necessary and reasonable measures to avoid or minimize the loss. Where special instructions for the adoption of reasonable measures to avoid or minimize the loss are received from the insurer, the insured shall act according to such instructions.

  The insurer shall not be liable for the extended loss caused by the insured's breach of the provisions of the preceding paragraph.

  Section 4 Liability of the Insurer

  Article 237 The insurer shall indemnify the insured promptly after the loss from a peril insured against has occurred.

  Article 238 The insurer's indemnification for the loss from the peril insured against shall be limited to the insured amount. Where the insured amount is lower than the insured value, the insurer shall indemnify in the proportion that the insured amount bears to the insured value.

  Article 239 The insurer shall be liable for the loss to the subject matter insured arising from several perils insured against during the period of the insurance even though the aggregate of the amounts of loss exceeds the insured amount. However, the insurer shall only be liable for the total loss where the total loss occurs after the partial loss which has not been repaired.

  Article 240 The insurer shall pay, in addition to the indemnification to be paid with regard to the subject matter insured, the necessary and reasonable expenses incurred by the insured for avoiding or minimizing the loss recoverable under the contract, the reasonable expenses for survey and assessment of the value for the purpose of ascertaining the nature and extent of the peril insured against and the expenses incurred for acting on the special instructions of the insurer.

  The payment by the insurer of the expenses referred to in the preceding paragraph shall be limited to that equivalent to the insured amount.

  Where the insured amount is lower than the insured value, the insurer shall be liable for the expenses referred to in this Article in the proportion that the insured amount bears to the insured value, unless the contract provides otherwise.

  Article 241 Where the insured amount is lower than the value for contribution under the general average, the insurer shall be liable for the general average contribution in the proportion that the insured amount bears to the value for contribution.

  Article 242 The insurer shall not be liable for the loss caused by the intentional act of the insured.

  Article 243 Unless otherwise agreed in the insurance contract, the insurer shall not be liable for the loss of or damage to the insured cargo arising from any of the following causes:

  (1) Delay in the voyage or in the delivery of cargo or change of market price;

  (2) Fair wear and tear, inherent vice or nature of the cargo;

  (3) Improper packing.

  Article 244 Unless otherwise agreed in the insurance contract, the insurer shall not be liable for the loss of or damage to the insured ship arising from any of the following causes:

  (1) Unsea worthiness of the ship at the time of the commencement of the voyage, unless where under a time policy the insured has no knowledge thereof;

  (2) Wear and tear or corrosion of the ship.

  The provisions of this Article shall apply mutatis mutandis to the insurance of freight.

  Section 5 Loss of or Damage to the Subject Matter Insured and Abandonment

  Article 245 Where after the occurrence of a peril insured against the subject matter insured is lost or is so seriously damaged that it is completely deprived of its original structure and usage or the insured is deprived of the possession there of, it shall constitute an actual total loss.

  Article 246 Where a ship's total loss is considered to be unavoidable after the occurrence of a peril insured against or the expenses necessary for avoiding the occurrence of an actual total loss would exceed the insured value, it shall constitute a constructive total loss.

  Where an actual total loss is considered to be unavoidable after the cargo has suffered a peril insured against, or the expenses to be incurred for avoiding the total actual loss plus that for forwarding the cargo to its destination would exceed its insured value, it shall constitute a constructive total loss.

  Article 247 Any loss other than an actual total loss or a constructive total loss is a partial loss.

  Article 248 Where a ship fails to arrive at its destination within a reasonable time from the place where it was last heard of, unless the contract provides otherwise, if it remains unheard of upon the expiry of two months, it shall constitute missing. Such missing shall be deemed to be an actual total loss.

  Article 249 Where the subject matter insured has become a constructive total loss and the insured demands indemnification from the insurer on the basis of a total loss, the subject matter insured shall be abandoned to the insurer. The insurer may accept the abandonment or choose not to, but shall inform the insured of his decision whether to accept the abandonment within a reasonable time.

  The abandonment shall not be attached with any conditions. Once the abandonment is accepted by the insurer, it shall not be withdrawn.

  Article 250 Where the insurer has accepted the abandonment, all rights and obligations relating to the property abandoned are transferred to the insurer.

  Section 6 Payment of Indemnity

  Article 251 After the occurrence of a peril insured against and before the payment of indemnity, the insurer may demand that the insured submit evidence and materials related to the ascertainment of the nature of the peril and the extent of the loss.

  Article 252 Where the loss of or damage to the subject matter insured within the insurance converage is caused by a third person, the right of the insured to demand compensation from the third person shall be subrogated to the insurer from the time the indemnity is paid.

  The insured shall furnish the insurer with necessary documents and information that should come to his knowledge and shall endeavour to assist the insurer in pursuing recovery from the third person.

  Article 253 Where the insured waives his right of claim against the third person without the consent of the insurer or the insurer is unable to exercise the right of recourse due to the fault of the insured, the insurer may make a corresponding reduction from the amount of indemnity.

  Article 254 In effecting payment of indemnity to the insured, the insurer may make a corresponding reduction there from of the amount already paid by a third person to the insured.

  Where the compensation obtained by the insurer from the third person exceeds the amount of indemnity paid by the insurer, the part in excess shall be returned to the insured.

  Article 255 After the occurrence of a peril insured against, the insurer is entitled to waive his right to the subject matter insured and pay the insured the amount in full to relieve himself of the obligations under the contract.

  In exercising the right prescribed in the preceding paragraph, the insurer shall notify the insured thereof within seven days from the day of the receipt of the notice from the insured regarding the indemnity. The insurer shall remain liable for the necessary and reasonable expenses paid by the insured for avoiding or minimizing the loss prior to his receipt of the said notice.

  Article 256 Except as stipulated in Article 255 of this Code, where a total loss occurs to the subject matter insured and the full insured amount is paid, the insurer shall acquire the full right to the subject matter insured. In the case of under-insurance, the insurer shall acquire the right to the subject matter insured in the proportion that the insured amount bears to the insured value.

  Chapter XIII Limitation of Time

  Article 257 The Limitation period for claims against the carrier with regard to the carriage of goods by sea is one year, counting from the day on which the goods were delivered or should have been delivered by the carrier. Within the limitation period or after the expiration thereof, if the personal legedly liable has brought up a claim of recourse against a third person, that claim is time barred at the expiration of 90 days, counting from the day on which the person claiming for the recourse settled the claim, or was served with a copy of the process by the court handling the claim against him.

  The limitation period for claims against the carrier with regard to voyage charter party is two years, counting from the day on which the claimant knew or should have known that his right had been infringed.

  Article 258 The limitation period for claims against the carrier with regard to the carriage of passengers by sea is two years, counting respectively as follows:

  (1) Claims for personal injury: Counting from the day on which the passenger disembarked or should have disembarked;

  (2) Claims for death of passengers that occurred during the period of carriage: Counting from the day on which the passenger should have disembarked; whereas those for the death of passengers that occurred after the disembarkation but resulted from an injury during the period of carriage by sea, counting from the day of the death of the passenger concerned, provided that this period does not exceed three years from the time of disembarkation.

  (3) Claims for loss of or damage to the luggage: Counting from the day of disembarkation or the day on which the passenger should have disembarked.

  Article 259 The limitation period for claims with regard to charter parties is two years, counting from the day on which the claimant knew or should have known that his right had been infringed.

  Article 260 The limitation period for claims with regard to sea towage is one year, counting from the day on which the claimant knew or should have known that his right had been infringed.

  Article 261 The limitation period for claims with regard to collision of ships is two years, counting from the day on which the collision occurred. The limitation period for claims with regard to the right of recourse as provided for in paragraph 3 of Article 169 of this Code is one year, counting from the day on which the parties concerned jointly and severally paid the amount of compensation for the damage occurred.

  Article 262 The limitation period for claims with regard to salvage at sea is two years, counting from the day on which the salvage operation was completed.

  Article 263 The limitation period for claims with regard to contribution in general average is one year, counting from the day on which the adjustment was finished.

  Article 264 The limitation period for claims with regard to contracts of marine insurance is two years, counting from the day on which the peril insured against occurred.

  Article 265 The limitation period for claims with regard to compensation for oil pollution damage from ships is three years, counting from the day on which the pollution damage occurred. However, in no case shall the limitation period exceed six years, counting from the day on which the accident causing the pollution occurred.

  Article 266 Within the last six months of the limitation period if, on account of force majeure or other causes preventing the claims from being made, the limitation period shall be suspended. The counting of the limitation period shall be resumed when the cause of suspension no longer exists.

  Article 267 The limitation of time shall be discontinued as a result of bringing an action or submitting the case for arbitration by the claimant or the admission to fulfil obligations by the person against whom the claim was brought up. However, the limitation of time shall not be discontinued if the claimant withdraws his action or his submission for arbitration, or his action has been rejected by a decision of the court.

  Where the claimant makes a claim for the arrest of a ship, the limitation of time shall be discontinued from the day on which the claim is made.

  The limitation period shall be counted anew from the time of discontinuance.

  Chapter XIV Application of Law in Relation to Foreign-related Matters

  Article 268 If any international treaty concluded or acceded to by the People's Republic of China contains provisions differing from those contained in this Code, the provisions of the relevant international treaty shall apply, unless the provisions are those on which the People's Republic of China has announced reservations.

  International practice may be applied to matters for which neither the relevant laws of the People's Republic of China nor any international treaty concluded or acceded to by the People's Republic of China contain any relevant provisions.

  Article 269 The parties to a contract may choose the law applicable to such contract, unless the law provides otherwise. Where the parties to a contract have not made a choice, the law of the country having the closest connection with the contract shall apply.

  Article 270 The law of the flag State of the ship shall apply to the acquisition, transfer and extinction of the ownership of the ship.

  Article 271 The law of the flag State of the ship shall apply to the mortgage of the ship.

  The law of the original country of registry of a ship shall apply to the mortgage of the ship if its mortgage is established before or during its bare boat charter period.

  Article 272 The law of the place where the court hearing the case is located shall apply to matters pertaining to maritime liens.

  Article 273 The law of the place where the infringing act is committed shall apply to claims for damages arising from collision of ships.

  The law of the place where the court hearing the case is located shall apply to claims for damages arising from collision of ships on the high sea.

  If the colliding ships belong to the same country, no matter where the collision occurs, the law of the flag State shall apply to claims against one another for damages arising from such collision.

  Article 274 The law where the adjustment of general average is made shall apply to the adjustment of general average.

  Article 275 The law of the place where the court hearing the case is located shall apply to the limitation of liability for maritime claims.

  Article 276 The application of foreign laws or international practices pursuant to the provisions of this Chapter shall not jeopardize the public interests of the People's Republic of China.

  Chapter XV Supplementary Provisions

  Article 277 The Unit of Account referred to in this Code is the Special Drawing Right as defined by the International Monetary Fund; the amount of the Chinese currency (RMB) in terms of the Special Drawing Right shall be that computed on the basis of the method of conversion established by the authorities in charge of foreign exchange control of this country on the date of the judgment by the court or the date of the award by the arbitration organization or the date mutually agreed upon by the parties.

  Article 278 This Code shall come into force as of July 1, 1993.

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以前自己看书,感觉非常吃力,很多地方看不懂。抱着试试看的心理,我报名参加了外语教育网的基础法律英语辅导。沙老师和李老师讲得非常好,重点、难点,经过老师的系统讲解,我都基本掌握了。就连冥思苦想都不能解决的难题,也通过答疑板请教老师而得到了满意的答复。在此衷心感谢网校的老师。
学员 hnigni:
我是法律专业的本科生,因为工作的需要,必须得会法律英语,可之前在学校的时候没好好学过啊。正头疼,同事推荐了外语教育网,于是我就报了名,开始学习。在学习过程中,发现沙老师的课真的很不错,她不但英语口语发音标准,而且她授课的内容通俗易懂,很方便我们接受和学习。另外,外语教育网的教学模式很适合我这种已经参加了工作的人,可以让我兼顾工作和学习,也很不错。特此,到网上来赞一下沙老师!沙老师,谢谢您!也谢谢网校的良好服务!在外语教育网学习,真值!
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