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中共中央 国务院关于加快发展第三产业的决定 DECISION OF THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF CHINA AND THE STATE COUNCIL ON ACCELERATING DEVELOPMENT OF TERTIARY INDUSTRY

2006-05-17 14:12   我要纠错 | 打印 | 收藏 | | |

(June 16, 1992)
颁布日期:19920618  实施日期:19920618  颁布单位:国务院

  With a view to taking advantage of the present opportunity, speeding up steps of reform and opening up, concentrating efforts to facilitate economic construction and in accordance with the Ten-Year Programme and Eighth Five-Year Plan on National Economic Development and Social Progress, the tertiary industry should be developed comprehensively and swiftly.

  I. Accelerating Development of the Tertiary Industry is of Great Strategic Significance

  1. Speedy development of the tertiary industry is the necessary result of the growth of productivity and social progress. The situation of the tertiary industry is an important indicator by which economic development is measured in a modern society. The tertiary industry of our country suffers slow and backward development which falls short of demands of national economic development. The law of economic development observed in many countries indicates that when an economy is developed to certain level, the tertiary industry normally enjoys more speedy development than the first and secondary industries and obviously plays a role of impetus to the overall growth of national economy. Our country has just entered that stage. With a view to smoothly realizing the gigantic objectives of socialist modernization, we must catch up with the opportunity and promote development of the tertiary industry to a new level.

  2. Acceleration of the development of the tertiary industry can facilitate the forthcoming of a fully developed market, improve socialization and standardization of service industry, strengthen social security and be beneficial to smooth implementation of a series of reforms in respect to labour, wage, price, operational mechanism in enterprises and the circulation system, and be beneficial to further opening up, attraction of larger foreign investment, institutional simplification, efficiency growth and to gradual change of the undesirable status quo that government agencies, institutions and enterprises take on what ought to be done by the society. Consequently the tertiary industrial development can create better conditions for development of reform and opening up in a broader and in-depth area.

  3. Our country suffers low industrial economic efficiency, low commercialization of agricultural products, retarded circulation and financial difficulties which has severely impeded further development of the national economy. One of the important reasons for which those problems arise is the ill structure of the whole economy, which can be indicated by the fact that the tertiary industry falls short of demands of the first and secondary industries. Even low investment in the tertiary industry can create immediate efficiency and good social effect. To quicken development of the tertiary industry can, on one hand, readjust ratio of three industries and optimize the overall structure of national economy and, on the other hand, effectively alleviate in-depth structural contradictions of the economic life and promote faster economic growth.

  4. The 1990s sees large number of new grown-up labour and those labour that are removed from the first and secondary industries waiting for reemployment. The tertiary industry has particular advantages in recruitment of labour; variety of trades and occupations; co-existence of labour; technology and knowledge concentrated professions which can recruit large number of various personnel of different levels, especially large number of technological and specialized talents. To accelerate development of the tertiary industry is a major solution to alleviation of employment pressure which is becoming more and more serious in our country.

  5. Towards the end of this century our people's lives will become fairly better off. Compared with the living standard of sufficient food and clothing, the level of well-to-do livelihood does not only mean certain standards of income already satisfied, but more importantly it should be measured in terms of commercialization of services and living quality of residents. Along with economic development and increase of income, the people are asking for more and higher demands not only upon material life in respect to clothing, food, housing, transportation, communication, hygiene and living environment, but also upon cultural life in respect to cultural entertainment, broadcasting, movies and TV programmes, publications, physical training and recuperation, and tourism. Only when the tertiary industry is quickly developed could the ever increasing material and cultural demands of the people be satisfied and the construction of the socialist material and cultural, ethical civilization be advanced.

  II. The Goal and Key Areas of the Tertiary Industry to be Quickly Developed

  6. In the light of national circumstances, we have categorized national economy into three productive industries with agriculture being the first productive industry, manufacture and construction the secondary industry and all trades other than the above mentioned being categorized as the tertiary industry including circulation departments, departments that serve production and livelihood and departments that provide services for improvement of science and culture awareness and quality of citizens.

  7. The goal of accelerating the tertiary industry development is to gradually establish, in about ten years or longer times, an integrated socialist market system, a comprehensive socialized service system in both cities and countryside and a social security system, all of which are adapted to circumstances of our country. In 1990s, development of the tertiary industry should enjoy higher speed than before along with development of the first and secondary industries so that the overall national economy could be brought to a new stage every couple of years. For this purpose, the tertiary industry should enjoy development at higher speed than the first and secondary industries. The proportion of the tertiary industry value to GNP and the proportion of the employment in the tertiary industry to the total social labour should be brought up to or nearly to the average level of that proportion in developing countries.

  8. Key areas of the tertiary industry to be developed at high speed are specified as the following:

  —— Firstly, trades which require small investment but generate immediate result and high efficiency, have large capacity of labour recruitment and direct relevance to economic development and people's livelihood. Such trades mainly refer to those in commerce, goods and materials, external trade, banking, insurance, tourism, real estate, storehousing, neighborhood services, catering, entertainment, hygiene, etc.;

  —— Secondly, those newly developed trades related to scientific and technological progress, which mainly consist of consultancy (including consultancy in science and technology, law, accounting and auditing, etc.), information and various technical services, etc.;

  —— Thirdly, the tertiary industry in countryside, which mainly refer to those trades that provide services before, during and after harvest or offer services for improvement of farmers quality and living standards;

  —— Fourthly, those basic trades that have comprehensive influence upon and guiding significance for development of national economy, including communication and transportation, posts and telecommunications, scientific research, education and other public undertakings, etc……

  III. Main Policies and Measures for Development of the Tertiary Industry

  9. All positive factors including the state, collectives and individuals should be fully mobilized. Economic collectives, private-run enterprises and individuals in both cities and countryside should be given free rein to develop those trades which are small in investment, quick in result, concentrated with labour and directly serve production and livelihood. The trades that have comprehensive influence upon and guiding significance to national economic development should be mainly run by the state, but competition should be introduced so that under uniform planning and management localities, departments and economic collectives could also be mobilized to establish such trades. The acceleration of the tertiary industry development should principally depend on social forces subject to the principle of “whoever invest will hold the ownership and be the beneficiary”。 The state should not be dependent upon too much for investment.

  10. Acceleration of steps for development of the tertiary industry should depend upon deepening reform and further opening up. Reforms and trials in different forms should be conducted actively. Overseas funds, technologies and marketing channels should be utilized boldly. Multiple approaches and methods such as issue of stocks and bonds should be adopted to collect funds. The form of business groups should be promoted actively so that limits Of departmental, regional or trade ownership could be broken through and national and regional enterprise groups in the tertiary industry could be established to the benefit of accelerated development of the tertiary industry. All practices that are proved by reality to be effective should be spread as soon as possible. Those that do not bring forth obvious result should be tried continuously. Those practices that are proved really unsuccessful should be changed to other forms.

  11. A vital self-development mechanism oriented to industrialization should be established for the tertiary industry progress. Most of the tertiary industry organizations should be transformed to business entities or operated in business manner and try to be independent in operation and responsible for both wins and losses. Most of the present tertiary industry organizations which are charity like or public welfare or public undertaking like should be gradually transformed into business entities under corporate management.

  12. Where conditions permit, present information, consultancy institutions and internal service installments and transport vehicles attached to state organs or enterprises and public institutions should, to the direction of socialization, be open, in an active manner, to the society for paid services subject to confidential and safety requirements. Conditions should be created to make those institutions to be divorced from their original units, to be independent in operation and accounting. At the same time social service organizations should be encouraged to contract rear services, management of retired personnel and other routine work of state organs, enterprises and public institutions. The close self-service systems which are often “ big and complete” or “small but complete” should be broken. Above mentioned services should be socialized gradually.

  13. Enterprises of the tertiary industry should be encouraged to attempt trans departmental, transregional or conglomerate merger of other industrial enterprises that should be closed, suspended, merged or changed in line of production, and should be rendered preferential support in terms of assets transfer, liability settlement, credit and taxation. This should be an important measure for readjustment of industrial structure.

  14. Part of administrative personnel should be actively encouraged to be separated from administration and to enter trades of services. Those people that have been separated should be divorced from the administrations. Those trades that serve production and people's lives should be developed vigorously and should recruit as many personnel separated from administration as possible so that conditions could be created for smooth progressing of government organizational reform and staff reduction.

  15. To advance reform in labour and personnel system, the tertiary industry enterprises should be offered discretion with labour employment. The practice of discharge and resignation should be institutionalized gradually so as to realize mutual selection in employment. Those institutions that are operated in business manner and no longer need financial allocation should be given freedom in recruitment of personnel and independence in determination of staff size. Those institutions that only partially depend upon financial allocation should be given more freedom in expansion of staff size. Surplus labour with industrial enterprises, especially those skilled personnel, should be encouraged to move to the tertiary industry. Graduates from colleges and training schools and army men to be transferred to civilian work should be encouraged to work in units of the tertiary industry.

  16. Price system should be reformed according to the law of value so that the long standing problem of insufficient value compensation for the tertiary industry could be solved. Except for a few items for which it is really necessary for the state to set the prices and fee collection standards, most of the prices and service fee standards in the tertiary industry should be open, subject to floating prices, negotiated prices and self-quoted prices so that a reasonable price parity could be established.

  17. International business should be encouraged. Some large and medium sized state-run commercial and material sent reprises should be authorized with the power to import and export business. Where condition permits external business development should be promoted energetically and active efforts should be made to establish China-run enterprises overseas. Subject to approval, large and medium-sized state-run external enterprises can be authorized the right to enter domestic market so that business could be operated in a uniform manner within both domestic and global markets. Procedures regarding examination and approval of overseas business development should be further simplified.

  18. Banking, taxation and other economic measures should be adopted for development of the tertiary industry. Demand for loans by key trades should be satisfied through arrangements under credit planning. Banks and both city and township credit cooperatives can issue small loans, for maintenance of fixed assets and simple equipment, to those collective and private enterprises, individual industrial and commercial households who have good efficiency and repayable capacity. When it is really necessary, taxation upon newly established tertiary industry enterprises may, according to industrial policies, be delayed or deducted over certain period of time.

  19. Procedures regarding examination and approval should be simplified so as to alleviate business opening difficulties with establishments of the tertiary industry. Business autonomy of the tertiary industry enterprises should be set free. Such enterprises should be permitted to adopt more flexible operations and expand business scope while their administration and supervision should be strengthened effectively.

  20. Legal systems governing the tertiary industry should be strengthened. Relevant laws and regulations regarding corporate and market be havious should be formulate more speedily. Enterprises should operate according to law while administrative authorities and economic superintendent departments should exercise administration and supervision according to law so that the tertiary industry could enjoy healthy development in a legal approach.

  21. Planning and administration of the tertiary industry should be strengthened. Different regions have different economic structure and development level. Their tertiary industry development should also be different in development focus and speed. Development focus should be determined in the light of local circumstances and in accordance with state industrial policies. Investment, credit, employment and land use in the interest of the tertiary industry should be placed under the overall development planning and general arrangements of cities and townships. All regions and departments should formulate programmes for implementation of the present Decision and revise at the soonest possible time those policies or regulations that run counter to the present Decision.

  The Party Central Committee and the State Council call for close attention of the whole party and governments at different levels to the development of the tertiary industry. All party and government officials at different levels should unify ideology, renew conception, broaden thinking, give play to creativity and mobilize the cadres and the people to work strenuously for realization of the important strategic tasks of the tertiary industry development.

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